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>L  RESCAnCH  UBRARlEa 


THE  ANCIENT 

BRONZE  IMPLEMENTS, 

WEAPONS,  AND  ORNAMENTS, 

OP 

GEEAT  BEITAIN  AND  IRELAND. 


.\c.-.-.;^ 


THE  ANCIENT 


BRONZE  IMPLEMENTS, 


AYEAPONS,  AND  OENAMENTS, 


OF 


GREAT   BRITAIN 


AND 


IRELAND. 


BY 

JOHN  EVANS,  D.C.L.,  LL.D.,  F.E.S., 

F.S.A.,  F.G.S.,  Pres.  Num.  Soc,  &c 


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LONDON : 

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PKEFACE. 


The  work  which  is  now  presented  to  the  public  has  unfortunately 
been  many  years  in  progress,  as  owing  to  various  occupations,  both 
private  and  public,  the  leisure  at  my  command  has  been  but 
small,  and  it  has  been  only  from  time  to  time,  often  at  long 
interv^als,  that  I  have  been  able  to  devote  a  few  hours  to  its 
advancement.  During  this  slow  progress  the  literature  of  the 
subject,  especially  on  the  Continent,  has  increased  in  an  unprece- 
dent<>dly  rapid  manner,  and  I  have  had  great  difficulty  in  at  all 
keeping  pace  with  it. 

I  have,  however,  done  my  best,  both  by  reading  and  travel,  to 
keep  myself  acquainted  with  the  discoveries  that  were  being  made 
and  the  theories  that  were  being  broached  with  regard  to  bronze 
antiquities,  whether  abroad  or  at  home,  and  I  hope  that  so  far  as 
facts  are  concerned,  and  so  far  as  relates  to  the  present  state  of 
information  on  the  subject,  I  shall  not  be  found  materially 
wanting. 

Of  course  in  a  work  which  treats  more  especially  of  the  bronze 
antiquities  of  the  British  Islands,  I  have  not  felt  bound  to  enlarge 
more  than  was  necessary  for  the  sake  of  comparison  on  the  cor- 
responding antiquities  of  other  countries.  I  have,  however,  in  all 
cases  pointed  out  such  analogies  in  form  and  character  as  seemed 
to  me  of  importance  as  possibly  helping  to  throw  light  on  the 
source  whence  our  British  bronze  civilisation  was  derived. 

It  may  by  some  be  thought  that  a  vast  amount  of  useless 
trouble  has  been  bestowed  in  figuring  and  describing  so  many 
varieties  of  what  were  after  all  in  most  cases  the  ordinary  tools  of 
the  artificer,  or  the  common  arms  of  the  warrior  or  huntsman,  which 
differed  from  each  other  only  in  apparently  unimportant  particulars. 
But  as  in  biological  studies  minute  anatomy  often  affords  the 
most  trustworthy  evidence  as  to  the  descent  of  any  given  organism 


VI  PREFACE. 

from  some  earlier  form  of  life,  so  these  minor  details  in  the  form 
and  character  of  ordinary  implements,  which  to  the  cursory 
observer  appear  devoid  of  meaning,  may,  to  a  skilful  archaeologist, 
afford  valuable  clues  by  which  the  march  of  the  bronze  civilisation 
over  Europe  may  be  traced  to  its  original  starting-place. 

I  am  far  from  saying  that  this  has  as  yet  been  satisfactorily 
accomplished,  and  to  my  mind  it  will  only  be  by  accimiulating  a 
far  larger  mass  of  facts  than  we  at  present  possess  that  compara- 
tive archaeology  will  be  able  to  triumph  over  the  difficulties  with 
which  its  path  is  still  beset. 

Much  is,  however,  being  done,  and  I  trust  that  so  far  as  the 
British  Isles  are  concerned,  the  facts  which  I  have  here  collected 
and  the  figures  which  I  have  caused  to  be  engraved  will  at  all 
events  form  a  solid  foundation  on  which  others  may  be  able  to 
build. 

So  long  ago  as  1876  I  was  able  to  present  to  the  foreign 
archaeologists  assembled  at  Buda-Pest  for  the  International  Con- 
gress of  Prehistoric  Archaeology  and  Anthropology,  a  short  abstract 
of  this  work  in  the  shape  of  my  Petit  Album  de  Vdge  du  Brc/iize 
de  la  Orande  Bretagne,  which  I  have  reason  to  believe  has  been 
found  of  some  service.  At  that  time  my  friend  the  late  Sir 
William  Wilde  was  still  alive,  and  as  the  bronze  antiquities  of 
Ireland  appeared  to  be  especially  under  his  charge,  I  had  not  regarded 
them  as  falling  within  the  scope  of  my  book.  After  his  lamented 
death  there  was,  however,  no  possibility  of  interfering  with  his 
labours,  by  my  including  the  bronze  antiquities  of  the  sister  country 
with  those  of  England,  Wales,  and  Scotland  in  the  present  work, 
and  I  accordingly  enlarged  my  original  plan. 

In  carrying  out  my  undertaking  I  have  followed  the  same 
method  as  in  my  work  on  the  "  Ancient  Stone  Implements,  &c.,  of 
Great  Britain  ; "  and  it  will  be  found  that  what  I  may  term  the 
dictionary  and  index  of  bronze  antiquities  is  printed  in  smaller 
type  than  the  more  general  descriptive  and  historical  part  of  the 
book.  I  have  in  fact  offered  those  who  take  an  ordinary  interest 
in  archaeological  inquiry  without  wishing  to  be  burdened  with 
minute  details  a  broad  hint  as  to  what  they  may  advantageously 
skip.  To  the  specialist  and  the  local  antiquary  the  portion 
printed  in  smaller  type  will  be  found  of  use,  if  only  as  giving 
references  to  other  works  in  which  the  more  detailed  accounts  of 
local  discoveries  are  given.  These  references,  thanks  to  members 
of  my  own  family,  have  been  carefully  checked,  and  the  accuracy 


PREFACE  Vll 

of  all  the  original  figures  for  this  work,  engraved  for  me  with 
conscientious  care  by  Mr.  Swain,  of  Bouverie  Street,  may,  I  think, 
be  relied  on. 

To  the  councils  of  several  of  our  learned  societies,  and  especially 
to  those  of  the  Societies  of  Antiquaries  of  London  and  Edinburgh, 
the  Royal  Irish  Academy,  the  Royal  Archaeological  Institute,  and 
the  Royal  Historical  and  Archseological  Association  of  Ireland,  I 
am  much  indebted  for  the  loan  of  woodcuts  and  for  other  assist- 
ance. I  have  also  to  thank  the  trustees  and  curators  of  many 
local  museums,  as  well  as  the  owners  of  various  private  collections, 
for  allowing  me  to  figure  specimens,  and  for  valuable  information 
supplie^L 

My  warmest  thanks  are,  however,  due  to  Mr.  Augustus  W. 
Franks,  RRS.,  and  Canon  Green  well,  F.R.S.,  not  only  for  assist- 
ance in  the  matter  of  illustrations,  but  for  most  kindly  under- 
taking the  task  of  reading  my  proofs.  I  must  also  thank  Mr. 
Joseph  Anderson,  the  accomplished  keeper  of  the  Antiquarian 
Museum  at  Edinburgh,  and  Mr.  Robert  Day,  F.S.A.,  of  Cork,  for 
having  revised  those  portions  of  the  work  which  relate  to  Scotland 
and  Ireland. 

The  Index  has  been  carefully  compiled  by  my  sister,  Mrs. 
Hubbard.  As  was  the  case  with  those  of  my  "  Ancient  Stone  Im- 
plements," and  "Ancient  British  Coins,"  it  is  divided  into  two  parts ; 
the  one  referring  generally  to  the  subject  matter  of  the  book,  and 
the  other  purely  topographical.  The  advantages  of  such  a  division 
in  a  book  of  this  character  are  obvious. 

In  conclusion,  I  venture  to  prefer  the  request  that  any  dis- 
coveries of  new  types  of  instruments  or  of  deposits  of  bronze 
antiquities  may  be  communicated  to  me. 

John  Evans. 

Nask  Mills,  Hbmsl  Hsmfstid, 
Mureh,  1881. 


CONTENTS. 


CHAPTER  I. 

INTRODUCTORY. 

PAOK 

The  Snccession  of  tho  Stone,  Bronze,  and  Iron  Ages — A  Copper  Age  in  ^Vmerica — 
Soiptural  Noticoa  of  Bronze — Bronze  preceded  Iron  in  ancient  Egypt — Bronze 
in  ancient  Greece — The  Metals  mentioned  by  Homer — Iron  in  ancient  Greece 
— Bronzes  among  other  ancient  Nations — Use  of  Iron  in  Gaul  and  Italy — 
Disputes  as  to  the  three  Periods — The  Succession  of  Iron  to  Bronze — The  Pre- 
ser^-ation  of  ancient  Iron 1 

CHAPTER  II. 

CELTS. 

Origin  of  the  word  Celt — ^Views  of  early  Antiquaries — Conjectures  as  to  the  Use  of 
Celts — Opinions  of  modem  Writers 27 

CHAPTER  in. 

FLAT  AND  FLANGED  CELTS. 

Flat  Celts  from  Cyprus  and  Hissarlik — Discoveries  of  Flat  Celts  in  Barrows — ^Thoso 
ornamented  on  the  Faces — Flanged  Celts — Those  from  Arreton  Down — And 
from  Barrows — Decorated  Flanged  Celts — Flat  Celts  found  in  Scotland — Deco- 
rated Scottish  Specimens — Flat  Celts  found  in  Ireland — Decorated  Irish  Speci- 
mens— Character  of  their  Decorations — Flat  Celts  with  Lateral  Stops      .        .     39 

CHAPTER  IT. 

WINGED  CELTS  AND  PALSTAVES. 

Origin  of  the  term  Palstave — Celts  with  a  Stop-ridge — Varieties  of  Winged  Celts 
— ^Transitional  Forms — Palstaves  with  Ornaments  on  Face — ^With  Central  Rib 
on  the  Blade — Shortened  by  Wear — With  a  Transverse  Edge — Looped  Pal- 
staves—With Ribs  on  Blade— With  Shield-like  Ornaments— With  Vertical 
Ribs  on  Blade — With  semi-circular  Side- wings  hammered  over — Iron  Palstaves 
imitated  from  Bronze — Palstaves  with  two  Loops — Scottish  Palstaves — Irish 
Palstaves — Looped  Irish  Palstaves — Irish  Palstaves  with  Transverse  Edge— 
Comparison  wita  Continental  Forms 70 

CHAPTER  V. 

SOCKETED  CELTS. 

Terms, '^ the  Recipient"  and  "the  Received'* — Evolution  from  Palstaves — ^With 
^'Flanches,"  or  curved  lines,  on  the  Faces — Plain,  with  a  Beading  round  the 


CONTENTS. 

PAOK 

Mouth— Of  a  Gaulish  typo— With  vertical  Riba  on  the  Paces— With  Bibs  end- 
ing in  Pelleta — ^With  Ribs  and  Pellets  on  the  Faces— With  Ribs  and  Ring 
Ornaments— Variously  ornamented — Of  octagonal  Section — ^With  the  Loop  on 
one  Face — ^Without  Loops — Of  diminutive  Size — Found  in  Scotland — Found 
in  Ireland — Comparison  with  Foreign  Forms — Mainly  of  Native  Manufacture 
in  Britain — ^Those  formed  of  Iron 107 


CHAPTER  VI.  " 

METHODS  OP  HAFTINQ  CELTS. 

The  perforated  Axes  of  Bronze — Celts  in  Club-like  Handles — Their  Hafts,  as  seen 
m  Barrows — Hafting  after  the  manner  of  Axes — Socketed  Celts  used  as 
Hatchets — Hafted  Celt  found  at  Chiusi— Hafts,  as  seen  at  Hidlstatt — Celts  in 
some  instances  mounted  as  Adzes — No  perforated  Axe-heads  in  Britain — 
Hafting  Celts  as  Chisels 146 

CHAPTER  VII. 

CHISELS,   GOUGES,  HAMMERS,  AND  OTHER  TOOLS. 

Simple  form  of  Chisel  rare — Tanged  Chisels — Chisels  with  Lugs  at  sides — Socketed 
Chisels- Tanged  Gouges — Socketed  Gouges— Socketed  Hammers — Irish  Hajn- 
mers — Method  of  Halting  Hammers — French  Anvils— Saws  and  Files  almost 
unknown  in  Britain — ^Ton^  and  Punches — The  latter  used  in  Orna- 
menting— Awls,  Drills,  or  Pnckers  frequently  found  in  Barrows — ^Awls  used 
in  Sewing — ^Tweezers — Needles — Fish-hooks 165 


CHAPTER  Vm. 
SICKLES. 

Method  of  Hafting— Sickles  with  Projecting  Knobs— With  Sockets— Sickles  found 
in  Scotland  and  Ireland — Found  on  the  Continent 1 94 

CHAPTER  IX. 

KNIVES,  RAZORS,  ETC. 

The  Socketed  Form — Scottish  and  Irish  Knives— Curved  Knives — Knives  with 
broad  Tangs — With  Lanceolate  Blades — Of  peculiar  Types— Double-edged 
Razors — Scottish  and  Irish  Razors— Continental  Forms 204 

CHAPTER  X. 

DAGGERS  AND  THEIR  HILTS. — RAPIER-SHAPED  BLADES. 

Tanged  Knives  or  Daggers— Knife-Daggers  with  three  Rivets — Method  of  Hafting 
Daggers — Bone  Pommels— Amber  Hilt  inlaid  with  Gold — Hilts  with  numerous 
Rivets — Inlaid  and  Ivory  Hilts— Hilts  of  Bronze— Knife-Daggers  with  five  or 
six  Rivets — Knife-D^gers  from  Scotland — From  Ireland— Daggers  with 
Ornamented  Blades — "With  Mid-ribs — With  Ogival  Outline— Rapier-shaped 
Blades — Rapiers  with  Notches  at  the  Base— With  Ribs  on  the  Faces — ^Rapiers 
with  Oz-hom  and  Bronze  Hilts — Bayonet-like  Blades 222 

CHAPTER  XI. 
TANGED  AND  SOCKETED  DAGGERS  OR  SPEAR-HEADS,  HALBERDS,  AND  MACES. 

Arreton  Down  type  of  Spear-heads — ^With  Tangs  and  with  Socket — Scandinavian 
and  German  Halberds— The  Chinese  Form — Irish  Halberds — Copper  Blades 
less  brittle  than  Bronze — Broad  Irish  Form — Scottish  Halberds— ^glish  and 
Welsh  Halberds— The  Form  known  in  Spain — Maces,  probably  Mediteval       .  257 


CONTENTS.  XI 

CHAPTER  XII. 
LEAF-SHAPED   SWORDS. 

PAOB 

Thdr  Occurrence  in  British  Barrows  not  authenticated — Occur  with  Interments  in 
Scandinavia — The  Roman  Sword — British  Swords — Disputes  as  to  their  Age — 
Hilts  proportional  to  Blades — Swords  with  C^itral  Slots  in  Hilt-plato — With 
many  Kivet-holes — With  Central  Rib  on  Blade — Representation  of  Sword  on 
Italian  Coin — Those  with  Hilts  of  Bronze — Localities  where  found — Comparison 
with  Continental  Types — Swords  found  in  Scotland — ^In  Ireland — In  f^ra^ce — 
Swords  with  Hilts  of  Bone — Decorated  with  Gold— Continental  Tyi)es— Early 
Iron  Swords 273 

CHAPTER  Xni. 

SCABBABDS  AND  CHAFES. 

Shaaths  with  Bronze  Ends — Wooden  Sheaths — Bronze  Sheaths — Ends  of  Sword- 
Sheaths  or  Scabbard  Endft— Chapes  from  England  and  Ireland — Spiked 
Chapes — Mouth-pieces  for  Sheaths — Ferrules  on  S word-Hilts  .        .        .        .301 

CHAPTER  XIV. 

SPEAR-HEADS,  LANCE-HEADS,  ETC. 

Different  l^pcs— Leaf-shaped — With  a  Fillet  along  the  Midrib — Ornamented  on 
the  Sockets^With  Loops  at  the  Sides — From  Ireland— Decorated  on  the 
Blade — ^With  Loops  at  the  Base  of  the  Blade — Of  Cruciform  Section  near  the 
Point — ^With  Openings  in  the  Blade — ^With  Flanges  at  the  Side  of  the  Openings 
— With  Lunate  Op^ings  in  the  Blade — Barbed  at  the  Base — Ferrules  for 
Spear-shafts — ^African  Spear  Ferrules — Continental  Types — Early  Iron  Spear- 
heads        310 

CHAPTER  XT. 

SHIELDS,  BUCKLERS,  AND  HELMETS. 

Shields  with  numerous  raised  Bosses — ^With  Concentric  Ribs — ^With  Concentric 
Rings  of  Knobs— Shields  found  in  Scotland — In  England  and  Wales — Wooden 
Bucklers^The  Date  of  Circular  Bucklers — Bronze  Helmets — ^Their  Date        .  343 

CHAPTER  XVI. 

TRUMPETS  AND  BELLS. 

Trumpets  found  in  Ireland — ^Trumpets  with  Lateral  Openings — ^The  Downs  Hoard 
— Itiveted  Trumpets— The  Caprington  Horn — ^Trumpets  found  in  England — 
Bells  found  in  Ii^land Zo7 

CHAPTER  XVII. 

PINS. 

Pins  with  Flat  Heads— With  Crutched  Heads— With  Annular  Heads— Those  of 
large  Size — With  Spheroidal  Heads — With  Ornamental  Expanded  Heads — 
Fran  Scotland — From  Denmark — Their  Date  difficult  to  detennino         .        .  365 

CHAPTER  XVni. 
TORQUES,  BRACELETS,  RINGS,  EAR-RINQS,  AND  PERSONAL  ORNAMENTS. 

The  Gaulish  Torque — Gold  Torques — ^Funicular  Torques — Ribbon  Torques— Those 
of  the  Late  Celtic  Period — Penannular  Torques  and  Bracelets — Bracelets  en- 
graved with  Patterns— Beaded  and  Fluted — Looped,  with  Cup-shaped  Ends — 
Late  Celtic  Bracelets — Rings — Rings  with  others  cast  on  them — Coiled  Rin^ 
found  with  Torques— Finger-rings — Ear-rings — ^Those  of  Gk)ld — Beads  of  Tin 
—Of  Glass — Rarity  of  Personal  Ornaments  in  Britain  ....  374 


Xll  CONTENl«. 

CHAPTER  XIX. 
CLASPS,  BUTTONS,   BUCKLES,  AND  MISCELLANEOUS  OBJECTS. 

PAOB 

Difficulty  in  Determining  the  Use  of  some  Objects — Looped  Sockets  and  Tubes — 
Possibly  Clasps — Pmoiated  Rings  forming  a  kind  of  Brooch — Rings  used  in 
HArness — Brooches — Late  Celtic — Buttons — Circular  Plates  and  Broad  Hoops — 
Perforated  Discs — Slides  for  Straps — Jingling  Ornaments — Objects  of  Uncertain 
Dse — Rod,  with  Fig^ures  of  Birds  upon  it — ^figures  of  Animals        .        .        .  396 

CHAPTER  XX. 

VESSELS,  CALDRONS,  ETC. 

Fictile  Vessels — Gold  Cup — Bronze  Vessels  not  found  in  Barrows — Caldrons  found 
in  Scotland— In  Ireland — Some  of  an  Etruscan  Form — The  Skill  exhibited  in 
their  Manufacture 407 

CHAPTER  XXI. 

METAL,  MOULDS,  AND  THE  METHOD  OP  MANUFACTURE. 

Composition  of  Bronze — Lead  absent  in  early  Bronze — Sources  of  Tin  and  Copper 
— Analyses  of  Bronze  Antiquities — Cakes  of  Copper  and  Lumps  of  Metal — Tin 
discovered  in  Hoards  of  Bronze— Ingots  of  Tin — Methods  of  Casting — Moulds 
of  Stone  for  Celts,  Palstaves,  Daggers,  Swords,  and  Spear-heads — Moulds  of 
Bronze  for  Palstaves  and  Celte — 'Die  Harty  Hoard — Bronze  Mould  for  Gouges 
— Moulds  found  in  other  Countries — Moulds  formed  of  Burnt  Clay — Jets  or 
Runners — The  Processes  for  Preparing  Bronze  Instruments  for  Use — Rubbers 
and  Whetstones — Decoration — Hammering  out  and  Sharpening  the  Edges      .  415 

CHAPTER  XXII. 

CHRONOLOGY  AND  ORIGIN  OP  BRONZE. 

Inferences  from  number  of  Types — Division  of  Period  into  Stages— The  Evidence 
of  Hoards — Their  different  Kinds — Personal,  Merchants',  and  Founders* — 
lists  of  Principal  Hoards — Inferences  from  them — The  Transition  from  Bronze 
to  Iron — Its  probable  Date— Duration  of  Bronze  Age — Burial  Customs  of  the 
Period — Different  Views  as  to  the  Sources  of  Bi-onze  Civilisation — Suggested 
Provinces  of  Bronze— The  Britannic  Province — Comparison  of  British  and 
Continental  Types— Foreign  Influences  in  Britain — Its  Commercial  Relations 
— Imported  Ornaments — Condition  of  Britain  during  the  Bronze  Age — General 
Summary 455 


WOODCUT  ILLUSTRATIONS. 


The  references  are  to  the  origiiial  sources  of  such  cuts  as  have  not  been  engraved 
expressly  for  this  book. 


CHAPTER  ni. 

FLAT  AND  FLANGED  CELTS. 

IM.  PAOB 

\.  Cyprus 40 

2.  Butterwick 41 

I.  Moot  Low 44 

Uew.  Jewitt,  F.S.A.,  "Grave  Mounds," 

fig.  187. 

4.  Yorkshire 45 

5.  Weymouth 46 

6.  Bead 47 

7.  Suflfolk 48 

8.  Arreton  Down 49 

Archaologia^  vol.  xxxvi.  p.  329. 

9.  Plymstock 50 

10.        „           60 

Arch.  Joum.,  vol.  xxvi.  p.  346. 

II.  Thames 52 

12.  Xorfolk 52 

13.  DorseUhiro 53 

14.  Lewes 53 

Arch,  Journ.,  vol.  xviii.  p.  167. 

15.  By 53 

15-  Baarow 54 

^'-  Lias 64 

lo'  Hhosnesncy 55 

1^«  Drumlanrig 56 

^'  Lawhead 57 

iVof.  Soc.  Ant.  Scot. J  vol.  vii.  p.  105. 

21-  Nairn 58 

iW.  Soc.  Ant.  Scot.,  vol.  ii.  N.S. 

22.  Falkland 69 

2««  Oieenlees 69 

^ro€.  Soc.  Ant.  Scot.,  vol.  xii.  p.  601. 

?*•  Perth 60 

2*  Applegarth 60 

**•  Dams 61 

Proc.  Soc.  Ant,  Scot.,  vol.  xiii.  p.  120. 

*7.  Ballinamallard 61 

^-  Korth  of  Ireland 62 

29.  Ireland 62 

^^'  Xipperary 62 

Arch.  Journ.,  vol.  vi.  p.  410. 

^1-  Ireland 63 


no.  PAOB 

32.  Connor 64 

33.  aontarf 65 

34.  Ireland 65 

WUde,  "Catal.  Mus.  R.  I.  A.,"  fig.  248. 

36.  Ireland 66 

36.  Trim 66 

37.  Ireland 66 


38. 


»» 


66 


39.  Punched  patterns 67 

67 

67 

67 

67 


»» 


ft 
»» 
»» 
»» 


40. 
41. 
42. 
43. 

Wilde,  "  Catal.  Mus.  R.  I.  A.,"  figs.  286 

to  290. 

44.  Annoy 68 

46.  Ireland 68 

46.        „         69 

47 69 


>» 


48. 
49. 

50. 
51. 
52. 
53. 
54. 
55. 
56. 
67. 
58. 
59. 
60. 
61. 
62. 
63. 
64. 
65. 
66. 
67. 


CHAPTER  IV. 
WINGED  CELTS  AND  PALSTAVES. 
Icelandic  Palstave      .     .    .  -,    . 


»» 


>» 


71 

Arch.  Journ.,  vol.  vii.  p.  74. 

Wigton 73 

Chollerf  ord  Bridge 74 

Chatham 74 

Burwell  Fen 75 

Bucknell 75 

Culham 75 

Reeth 76 

Dorchester 76 

Colwick 77 

Barring^n 78 

Harston 78 

Shippey 79 

Severn 80 

Sunningwell 80 

Weymouth 82 

Burwell  Fen 82 

East  Hamham 83 

Burwell  Fen 83 


XIV 


WOODCUT  ILLUSTBATIOKS. 


no.  PAGE 

68.  Thames 84 

69.  SUbbard 84 

70.  Irthixigton 85 

71.  North  Owereby 85 

72.  Bonn 85 

73.  Dorchester 87 

74.  Wallingford 88 

75.  Stanton  Harcourt 88 

76.  Brasaington 80 

77.  Bath 89 

78.  Oldbury  HiU 90 

79.  Ross 91 

80.  Honington 91 

81.  Ely 92 

82.  Bottisham 92 

83.  Nettleham 93 

Arch.  Joum.t  vol.  xviii.  p.  160. 

84.  Cambridge 93 

85.  Carlton  Rode 94 

86.  Penvores 96 

87.  West  Buckland 96 

Arch.  Joum.f  vol.  xzzvii.  p.  107. 

88.  Bryn  Crilg 96 

89.  Andalusia  ........  97 

Arch.  Joum.f  vol.  vi.  p.  69. 

90.  Burreldalo  Moss 98 

91.  Balcarry 98 

92.  Pettycur 99 

Arch,  Joum.f  vol.  vi.  p.  377. 

93.  Ireland IOC 

94.  „ 100 

95.  , 101 

96.  North  of  Ireland 101 

97.  Lanesborough 101 

98.  Trillick 102 

99.  Ireland 102 

100.        „ 102 

101 102 

102.  „ 103 

103.  „        103 

104.  „ 103 

105.  Miltown 104 

106.  Ireland 105 

107.  , 105 

108.  , 105 

109.  Ballymena 105 


CHAPTER  V. 

SOCKETED  CELTS. 

110.  High  Roding 109 

111.  Dorchester,  Oxon 109 

112.  Wilts 110 

113.  Harty 110 

114.  „        Ill 

116.  Dorchester,  Oxon Ill 

116.  Reach  Fen 112 

117.  ,.         „        112 

118.  Canterbury 114 

119.  Usk 114 

120.  Alfriston 115 


no.  PAOB 

21.  Cambridge  Fens 116 

22.  High  Roding 116 

23.  Chrishall 117 

24.  Reach  Fen 117 

25.  Barrington 117 

26.  Mynydd-y-Glas 119 

27.  Stogursey 120 

•28.  Guildford 120 

29.  Frettenham 120 

ao.  Ely 121 

31.  Caston 121 

32.  Carlton  Rode 122 

33.  Fomham 123 

34.  FenDitton 128 

35.  Bottisham 123 

36.  Winwick 128 

37.  Kingston 124 

38.  Cayton  Carr 124 

39.  Lakenheath 125 

40.  Thames 125 

41.  Kingston 125 

42.  „  126 

43.  Thames 127 

44.  Givendale 127 

45.  Cambridge 127 

46.  Blandford 127 

47.  Ireland  (?) 128 

48.  Barrington 128 

49.  Houndfow 128 

50.  Wallingford 128 

51.  Newham 129 

52.  Westow 180 

53.  Wandsworth 130 

Arch.  Joum.f  vol.  vi.  p.  378. 

54.  Whittlesea 130 

55.  Nettleham 132 

Arch.  Journ.f  vol.  xviii.  p.  160. 

56.  Croker  Collection 182 

57.  Nettleham 132 

Arch.  Joum.  vol.  xviii.  p.  160. 

58.  UUeskelf 132 

59.  Reach  Fen 138 

60.  Carlton  Rode 183 

61.  Arras 134 

62.  Bell's  MUls 18^ 

"  Catal.  Ant.  Mus.  Ed." 

63.  North  Knapdale 136 

64.  Bell's  Mills 186 

65.  „        „        186 

"  Catal.  Ant.  Mus.  Ed." 

66.  Leswalt 187 

Af/r  and  Wigton  CoU.^  vol.  ii.  p.  11. 

67.  Ireland 188 

68.  „  138 

69.  Belfast 189 

70.  Ireland 139 

71  .  139 

wildo,  '*'  Catal.'Mu8.'R.'l.  A.,'"  fig.  280. 

72.  Athboy 140 

73.  Meath 140 

74.  Ireland 140 

75.  Newtown  Crommolin   ....  141 

76.  North  of  Ireland 141 


WOODCUT  ILLUSTRATIONS. 


XV 


PAOB 

177.  Inland Ul 

178. 142 

Wilde, "  Catol.  Mus.  R.  I.  A.,"  fig.  276. 

179.  Keitch 142 

Arch.  Jouni,,  vol.  xiv.  p.  91. 

CHAPTER  VI. 
SOTHODS  OF  HAFTING  CELTS. 

180.  Stone  Axe  of  Montezuma  II.     .  148 

181.  kjman,  Stone  Hatchet     .    .     .  148 

182.  Modem  African  Axe  of  Iron      .  149 

183.  Stone  Axe,  Robenhausen  .     .    .  150 

184.  Bronze  Axe,  Hallein    ....   152 

185.  Baron,  Briguo 154 

186.  Edenderry 155 

Wilde.  •*Catal.  Mus.  R.  L  A.,"  fig.  257. 

187.  Chiuai 156 

188.  Winwick 158 

189.  Everlejr 163 

CHAPTER  VII. 

CHISELS,  GOUGES,  AND  OTHER  TOOLS. 

190.  Plyxnstock      .......  166 

Areh.  Joum.,  vol.  xxvi.  p.  346. 

191.  Heathery  Bom 166 

192.  Glenluce 166 

192*  Carlton  Rode 167 

193.  WaUingford 168 

194.  Reach  Fen 168 

195.  Thixendalo 168 

196.  Yattendon 169 

197.  Broxton 169 

198.  Scotland 170 

iVw.  Soc.  Ant,  Scot.,  vol.  xii.  p.  613. 

199.  Ireland 170 

200.  Carlton  Rode 171 

201.  We«tow 172 

202.  Heathery  Bum  Cave    .     .     .     .172 

203.  Carlton  Rode 173 

204.  Thomdon 174 

205.  Harty 174 

206.  Undley 175 

207.  Carlton  Rode 175 

208.  Tay 175 

iVoe.  Soe.  Ant,  Scot.,  vol.  v.  p.  127. 

209.  Ireland 176 

210.  Thomdon 178 

211.  Harty 178 

212.  „  178 

213.  Carlton  Rode 178 

214.  Tannton 178 

215.  Ireland 179 

Froc.  Soc.  Ant.,  2nd  S.,  vol.  iii.  p.  66. 

216.  Dowria 179 

Froe.  Soc.  Ant.,  2nd  S.,  vol.  iii.  p.  65. 

217.  Fresne  la  Mere 182 

218.  „  „       182 

219.  Heathery  Bum  Cave    ...     .185 


no.  PAOK 

220.  Harty 186 

221.  Reach  Fen 186 

222.  Ebnall 186 

Froc.  Soc.  Ant.,  2nd  8.,  vol.  iii.  p.  66. 

223.  Upton  Lovel 189 

Archaologia^  vol.  xliii.  p.  466. 

224.  Thomdon 189 

225.  Butterwick 189 

226.  Bulford 190 

Archaologia,  vol.  xliii.  p.  465. 

227.  Winterboum  Stoke      .     .     .     .190 

228.  Wiltshire 191 

Archcdologia,  vol.  xliii.  p.  467. 

229.  Uangwyllog 192 

230.  Ireland 192 

Wilde,  "  Catal.  Mus.  R.  I.  A.,"  fig,  403. 

CHAPTER  VIII. 

SICKLES. 

231.  Moerigen 196 

Arch,  Joum,,  vol.  xxx.  p.  192. 

232.  Edington  Burtlo 197 

233.  „  , 197 

234.  Thames 198 

285.  Near  Bray 199 

236.  Near  Errol,  Perthshire     .     .    .200 
Froc,  Soc.  Ant,  Scot,,  vol.  vii.  p.  378. 

237.  Garvagh,  Dorry 200 

238.  Athlone 201 


CHAPTER  IX. 

KNIVES,   R/LZORS,  ETC. 

239.  Wicken  Fen 204 

240.  Thomdon 205 

241.  Reach  Fen 205 

242.  Heathery  Bum  Cave    ....  206 
Froc,  Soc.  Ant.,  2nd  S.,  vol.  ii.  p.  132. 

243.  Kilgraston,  Perthshire.     .     .     .206 

244.  Kells 207 

245.  Ireland 208 

246.  Moira 209 

247.  Fresn61aMdre 209 

248.  Skye 209 

Wilson's  **  Preh.  Ann.  of  Scot.,"  vol.  i. 

p.  400. 

249.  Wester  Ord 209 

Froc.  Soc.  Ant.  Scot.,  vol.  viii.  p.  310. 

250.  Reach  Fen 210 

251.  „         „ 210 

252.  Heathery  Bum  Cave   ....  212 

253.  Harty 212 

254.  Ireland 212 

255.  Ballyclaro 213 

256.  Reach  Fen 213 

257.  Ballycastlo 213 

2.58.  Ireland 213 

269.  Wigginton 214 

260.  Isle  of  Harty 214 


WOODCUT    ILl.USTKATIOKS. 


■Xt.  AlUutUowt,  Uoo '214 

362.  Conle 315 

flv.  Sor.  Ant.,  'ind  S.,  vol.  ii.  p.  301. 

HX  KcMhFcn SIG 

S«.  Udv  Low 216 

SM.  Unnteralow 216 

a<«.  Priddr 316 

ST.  BalbUii 217 

Prmr.  Sw,  J«.'.  *ti.'.,  ToL  Tli.  p.  *76. 

MS.  Bd^ul '217 

iVv.  .W.  .(■.'.  Sm„  ToL  I.  p.  431. 

S».  WiianrforJ 218 

X*.  HMibtrr  Bun  Ckre   .     ■ 
KI.  DeeIm.' 


CHAFEEB  X. 


SM.  HsDnncMoD  Horn 


a*,  toit  Dpirn 233 

2H.  Inaano -3S 

■ae,  Bellwi 235 

Jmn..  i,  J.  mi?  -*.  Jm".  '■flTt!a»i. 
SiL  S..  roL  ii-  j..  IM. 

au;.  1t"J«iiC 235 

a^i.  TTiiuOTUlef 236 

an..  Idnisftctti    - -S" 

2V7.  !(■■»  1k~ -"^ 


3W.    lljiiMiii. 
».    J'.>-iiar.'.v 


303.  Magheiafelt 

Joam.  S.  E.  and  A.  Aitor.  af  Irtla 
2nd  S.,  vol.  i.  p.  286. 

306.  Arreton  Down 

307.  Kinghom 

SOS.  CoUoony 

309.  Ireland 

Wilde'a  "  C«t«l.  Mn«.  B.  I.  A."  fig.  : 
311).  Kilroi 

311.  ThaiaeB 

312.  Thstcham 

313.  CoTeney 

314.  Thamea 

315.  Chattem 

316.  Thetford 

317.  Londonderry 

31S.  tJEsane 

Wilde>  "  OitaL  Moa.  R.  I.  A.,"  fig. ; 

319.  GalUiUy 

Jaum.  R.  M.  and  A.  Attof.  of  Ir^i 

4th  S.,  vol.  iL  p.  I9T, 

320.  Tippetarr 

321.  Bv 

322.  North  of  IlGland 

323.  Ibtphoe 

CHAPTEB  SI. 

TAXUED      VNEi    >'XK)r7i.!>    DAGfiKBS, 
SPEAB- HEADS,  HALBEHIW  ASD  UAl 

324.  Amrton  Down 

32j.  Stratford  Ic  Bow 

326.  Matlock 

327.  Plvmrtock 

Areh.  Jomm.,  voL  xm.  p.  349. 

328.  AmtoD  Down 

329.  A-mp 

Slontdioa,  -SvCT.  Ftmitid."'  fig.  13 

330.  China 

3S1.  Ireland 

332.  Cavan 

333.  Newtown  limaT^dy     .... 

331.  Ballvgawlev 

33j.  Falkland    .' 

336.  Stnimer 

Fr,^.  .lot.  Jut.  Stnr^  vd  vi.  p.  41 

337.  Harbynuiae 

3311.  Shtopahiif 

'      .,  "    *,Tol.Vi."p.'l8i.   * 

340.  (.-;-..:  1-  >> 

TCJ.  vi.  p.  411, 

341.  Ireland  ......... 

WUde,  --Catal.  Mo*.  E.  I.  A.,"  £{:.  1 

CHAPTEB   Xn. 

I  or-amrETt  SWOKTIS. 

342.  BaUeraea   ....  ... 

343.  Barrow ■    ■ 

344.  Kcwcasile 


WOODCUT  ILLUSTRATIONS. 


XVll 


rw.  VXQK 

345.  Wcthermgsett 283 

M6.  Tiverton 284 

347.  Kingston 284 

348.  Ely 286 

349.  River  Chorwell 286 

350.  lincoln 287 

Proe,  Sor.  Ant.^  voL  ii.  p.  199. 

351.  >\Tiittinpham 288 

352.  Brechin 288 

35S.  Edinburgh 290 

354.  Newtown  Limavndv     .     .     .     .292 

355.  Lrland .     .     .     .    ' 292 

356 292 


357. 


»» 


292 


Vii  Mnckno 294 

359.  „  294 

JoHrn.  R.II.  %  A.  Assoc,  of  Ireland, 

3rd  8.,  vol  i.  p.  23. 

360.  Muckno 295 

.361.  Mully lagan 295 

Journ.  J?.  H.  ^  A.  Assoc,  of  Ireland, 
4th  S.,  vol.  ii.  p.  2.'>7. 

361  Mullylagan 295 

363.  Ireland 296 

TOdc  '^Catal.  ]\Iu8.  K.  I.  A.,"  fifr-  'i22. 


CHAPTEU  XIII. 
SCABBARDS   AND  CHAPES. 

^4.  Isleworth 302 

365.  Guilafield 303 

366.  River  Iris,  near  Dorchcfltcr  .     .  303 

367.  Ireland 303 

Wilde,  "Catal.  Mus.  U.  I.  A.,"  fig.  335. 

368.  Stogwrscy,  Somcisot     .     .     .     .304 

369.  Brechin 304 

P,-ur.  iVbr.  Attt.  Srot.,  vol.  i.  p.  81. 

•iro.  Pant-v-Macn 304 

371.  Reach  Fen 305 

372.  Cloonmorc 305 

Wild.'.  ♦•  Catal.  MuH.  R.  I.  A.,"  fig.  ;J36. 

373.  Stoke  Ferry 305 

374.  Kwlogue  Ford,  Troland    .     .     .306 

375.  Mildenhall 306 

376.  Thames 307 

•^77.  Isle  of  Hnrtv 308 


CHArj'p:K  XIV. 

'^I'KAR-HEAD.S,    LANCK-HEADS,   KTC. 

''!?■  piames,  London 312 

.  '„   ^*"ph  Gut 312 

•*3v-      „  3J2 

-!5i"  5^'«^Ji<^ry  Bum  Cave    .*     .'     !     .*  312 
•*^2.  Ncttlcham 314 

•lii   '^^^^'  "^o"''"-*  ^*<>1-  xviii.  p.  Ml). 

■**'^- Achtertyre 315 

"jo/'Jf-  ^^'  ^"l-  Scot.,  vol.  ix.  p.  435. 

f  I-  ^orth  of  Irrland 316 

•'^•^-  Nruark 317 


/> 


FIO.  VAtiZ 

386.  Reach  Fen 317 

387.  Ireland 317 

Wilde,  "Catal.  Mua.  R.  I.  A.,"  fig.  367. 

388.  North  of  Ireland 319 

389.  Ireland 319 

Wilde,  "Catal.  Mus.  R.  I.  A.,"  fig.  368. 

390.  Reach  Fen 319 

391.  Thomdon 319 

392.  Culham 320 

393.  Athenry 320 

Wilde,  "Catal.  Mus.  R.I.  A.,"  fig.  382. 

394.  ITietford 321 

395.  Ijakenhoath 323 

396.  Near  Cambridge 323 

397.  North  of  Ireland 323 

398.  Ireland 324 

399.  Thames 324 

400.  Ireland 324 

401.  Near  Ballymena 326 

402.  Ireland 326 

403.  „ 326 

404.  „ 326 

Wilde,  "  Catal.  Mus.  R.  I.  A.,"  figs. 

385,  386,  378. 

405.  Elford 327 

406.  Isleham  Fen 328 

407.  Stibbard 329 

408.  Ireland 329 

409.  Lakenhcath  Fon 329 

410.  Nettleham.     . 380 

Arch.  Jouni.,  vol.  xviii.  p.  160. 

411.  Enockans 331 

412.  Lurgan 332 

Proc,  &'oc.  Ant.,  2nd  S.,  vol.  ii.  p.  65. 

413.  Ireland 332 

414.  Antrim 332 

415.  'ITiamcs 333 

416.  Naworth  Castle 333 

417.  Blakehopc 334 

418.  Whittingham 334 

419.  Winmarleigh 335 

420.  Burwell  Fen 336 

421.  Dcnhead 337 

"  Catal.  Ant.  Mus.  Ed.,"  p.  98. 

422.  Specn 337 

123.  Nettleham 339 

Arch.  Joum.,  vol.  xviii.  p.  160. 

424.  Guilsfield 339 

425.  Glancych 341 

426.  Fulboum 341 

427.  Hereford 341 

CHAPTER  XV. 

STUELDS,   BUCKLERS,  AND   HKLMETS. 

428.  Little  Wittenham 344 

Mes8i*8.  Jumes  Parker  &  d'o. 

429.  Harlech 345 

430.  Covcn<\' 345 

431.  „  347 

432.  Bcith 347 

■*"^3-       J 348 


XVlll 


WOODCUT  ILLUSTRATIONS. 


no.  PAQB 

434.  Beith 349 

Af/r  and  Wigton  ColLy  vol.  i.  p.  06. 

435.  Yetholm 350 

436.  „  350 

437.  , 350 

Proe,  8oe.  Ant.  Scot.,  vol.  v.  p.  165. 

CHAPTER  XVI. 

TRUMPETS  AND  BELLS. 

438.  Limerick 357 

WUdc,  "Catal.  Mus.  R.I.  A.,"  fig.  360. 

439.  Tralee 358 

440.  „        359 

441.  „        359 

Joum.  R.  H.  and  A.  Assoc,  of  Ireland^ 

4th  S.,  vol.  iii.  p.  422. 

442.  Africa 359 

443.  Dcirynane 360 

Wilde,  "  Catal.  Mus.  R.  I.  A.,'*  fig.  529. 

444.  Fortglenono 861 

Journ.R.  H.  and  A.  Assoc,  of  Ireland^ 

4th  S.,  vol.  iii.  p.  422. 

445.  The  Caprington  Horn  ....  362 
Ayr  and  Wigton  Coll.,  vol.  i.  p.  74. 

446.  Dowris 364 

WUde,  "  Catal.  Mus.  R.  I.  A.,"  fig.  523. 

CHAPTER  XVII. 

PINS. 

447.  Heathery  Bum  Cave    ....  366 
Proe.  Soc.  Ant.,  2nd  S.,  vol.  ii.  p.  130. 

448.  Brigmilston 366 

449.  Everloy 366 

450.  Bryn  Criig 367 

Arch.  Journ.,  vol.  xxv.  p.  246. 

461.  Taunton 367 

462.  Chilton  Bustle     ......  367 

Arch.  Joum.,  vol.  ix.  p.  106. 

453.  Ireland 368 

Wilde,  "Catal.  Mus.  R.  I.  A.,"  fig.  452. 
464.  River  Wandle      ......  368 

Arch.  Joum.,  vol.  ix.  p.  8. 

466.  Scratchbur}^ 369 

466.  Camcrton 369 

Both  from  Archaologia,  vol.  xliii.  p.  468. 
457.  Ireland 370 


458. 


tt 


370 


469.  Cambridge 370 

460.  Ireland 370 

Wilde,  "  Catal.  Mus.  R.  I.  A.,"  fig.  447. 

461.  North  of  Ireland 370 

462.  Keelogue  Ford 371 

Wilde,  "  Catal.  Mus.  R.  I.  A.,"  fig.  449. 

463.  Ireland 371 

Wilde,  "Catal.  Mus.  R.  I.  A."  fig.  448. 

464.  Edinburgh 372 

Proc.  Soc.  Ant.  Scot.,  New  S.,  vol.  i. 

p.  322. 

466.  Ireland 372 

Wilde,  "Catal.  Mus.  R.  I.  A.,"  fig.  450. 


CHAPTER  XVni. 

TORQUES,  BRACELETS,  RINGS,  EAR-RI! 

AND  PERSONAL  ORNAICENTS. 
wio, 

466.  Wedmore 

467.  „  

468.  West  Buckland 

Arch.  Joum.,  vol.  xxxvii.  p.  107. 

469.  Wedmore 

470.  Yamton 

471.  Montgomeryshire 

Proc.  Soe.  Ant.,  2nd  S.,  vol.  iv.  p.  H 

472.  Achtertyre 

Proc.  Soc.  Ant.  Scot.,  vol.  ix.  p.  4Zl 

473.  RedhiU 

Proc.  Soe.  Ant.  Scot.,  vol.  i.  p.  138. 

474.  Scilly 

475.  Lisa 

476.  Stoke  Prior 

Arch.  Joum.,  vol.  xx.  p.  200. 

477.  Stobo  Castle 

Proc.  Soc.  Ant,  Scot.,  vol.  ii.  p.  277 

478.  Guernsey 

Arch.  Assoc.  Joum.,  vol.  iii.  p.  344 

479.  Cornwall 

480.  Normanton 

Archaohgia,  vol.  xliii.  p.  469. 

481.  West  Buckland  ...... 

Arch.  Journ.,  vol.  xxxvii.  p.  107. 

482.  Ham  Cross 

483.  Heathery  Bum  Cave    .... 
Proc.  Soc.  Ant.,  2nd  S.,  vol.  ii.  p.  13 

484.  County  Cavan 

485.  Cowhuin 

486.  „  

487.  Ireland 

Wilde,  "Catal.  Mus.  R.  I.  A.,**  fig.  4 

488.  Woolmer  Forest 

Proc.  Soc.  Ant.,  vol.  ii.  p.  83. 

489.  Dumbarton 

Proc.  Soc.  Ant.  Scot.,  vol.  iii.  p.  24. 

490.  Cowlam 

491.  Goodmanham 

Greenwell's  "  British  Barrows,"  p.  3 

492.  Orton 

Proc.  Soe.  Ant,  Seot.,  vol.  viii.  p.  3( 

CHAPTER  XIX. 

CLASPS,  BUTTONS,  BUCKLES,   ANI 
MISCELLANEOUS  OBJECTS. 

493.  Reach  Fen 

494.  „         „         

496.  Broadward 

Arch.  Camb.,  4th  S.,  vol.  iii.  p.  364 

496.  Trillick 

Journ.  R.  H.  and  A.  Assoc,  of  Irelan 

3rd  S.,  vol.  i.  p.  164. 

497.  Ireland 

Wilde,  "Catal.  Mus.  R.  I.  A.,"  fig.  4 

498.  Cowlam 

499.  Reach  Fen 


WOODCUT   ILLUSTRATIONS. 


XIX 


no.  PAQR 

500.  Edinburgh 401 

hoc.  Soc.  Ant,  Seot.^  New  S.,  vol.  i. 
p.  322. 
301.  Heathery  Bum  Cave    ....  402 

502.  „  „  ....  402 
Both  from  Proc.  Soe.  Ant.,  2nd  S., 

vol,  iii.  p.  236. 

503.  Eutj 403 

504.  Dreml,  Amiens 404 

505.  Abergele 404 

506.  , 404 

507.  „  404 

508.  Dreoil,  Amiens 405 

CHAPTER  XX. 

VESSELS,   CALDRONS,  ETC. 

509.  Golden  Cop,  Rillaton   ....  408 
Areh.  Joum.,  vol.  xxiv.  p.  189. 

510.  Kincardine  Moss 410 

Wilwn,  "Preh.  Ann.  of  Scot.,'*  vol.  i. 

p.  409. 

511.  Ireland 411 

WUde,  "Catal.  Mus.  R.  I.  A./'  fig.  407. 

512.  Ireland 412 

Wflde,  •' Catal.  Mus.  R.  L  A.,"  fig.  409. 

513.  Gapecastlo  Bog 413 

CHAPTER  XXI. 

MKTAL,  MOULDS,  AND  THE  METHOD  OF 
MANUFACTURE. 

514.  Fahnouth 420 

Arch.  Journ.,  vol.  xvi.  p.  39. 


no,  PAQK 

516.  Ballymena 429 

516.  Ireland 431 

517.  „  431 

518.  Ballymonoy 433 

519.  Broughshano 433 

520.  Knighton 434 

521.  „         434 

522.  Maghera,  Co.  Derry    ....  435 

523.  Lough  Gut 436 

Arch.  Joum.y  vol.  xx.  p.  170. 

524.  Campbelton 437 

525.  „  437 

526.  „  437 

Proc.  Soe.  Ant.  Scot.,  vol.  vi.  p.  48. 

527.  HothamCarr 439 

528.  Wiltshire 440 

529.  „        440 

Proc,  Soc.  Ant.y  vol.  iii.  p.  158. 

530.  Harty        441 

531.  „  442 

532.  „  446 

533.  Heathery  Bum  Cave  .     .     .     .448 

Froc.  Soc.  Ant.f  2nd  S.,  vol.  ii. 
p.  132. 

534.  Stogursey 450 

536.  „         460 

536.  „         460 

537.  Heathery  Bum  Cave   .     .     .     .451 
Proc.  Soc.  Ant.f  2nd  S.,  vol.  ii.  p.  132. 

638.  Kirby  Moorside 452 

539.  Hove 452 

Sussex  Arch.  Coll.,  vol.  ix.  p.  120. 

540.  Harty 463 


ERRATA. 

Page  117,  under  fig.  123,  >r  "  Crishall  "  read  **  ChrishaU." 
143,  line  16, /or  "  Spain  *'  read  «  Portugal." 
207,    .,    34, /or  *'St.  Genoulph"  read  "St.  Genouph.'* 
215,    „    16,/or  "St.  JuHen  ChateuU"  read  "St.  Jullien,  Chapieuil.' 
314,    „     3  from  bottom, /or  "  Staffordshire  "  read  "  Shropshire." 
322,    „      4, /or  "  Suffolk  "  read  "  Sussex." 
336,    ,.    20,/or  "  Staffordshire "  read  "  Shropshire." 
452,     „     4  from  bottom,  for  "  Staffordshire  "  read  "  Shropshire." 


CHAPTER  I. 

INTRODUCTORY. 

Having  already  in  a  former  work  attempted  the  arrangement  and 
description  of  the  Ancient  Stone  Implements  and  Ornaments  of 
Great  Britain,  I  am  induced  to  undertake  a  similar  task  in  con- 
nection with  those  Bronze  Antiquities  which  belong  to  the  period 
when  Stone  was  gradually  fidling  into  disuse  for  cutting  purposes, 
and  Iron  was  either  practically  unknown  in  this  country,  or  had 
been  but  partially  adopted  for  tools  and  weapons. 

The  duration  and  chronological  position  of  this  bronze-using 
period  will  have  to  be  discussed  hereafter,  but  I  must  at  the  outset 
reiterate  what  I  said  some  eight  or  ten  years  ago,  that  in  this 
coantr}'',  at  aU  events,  it  is  impossible  to  fix  any  hard  and  fiast 
limits  for  the  close  of  the  Stone  Period,  or  for  the  beginning  or 
end  of  the  Bronze  Period,  or  for  the  commencement  of  that  of 
Iron.  Though  the  succession  of  these  three  stages  of  civilisation 
may  here  be  regarded  as  certain,  the  transition  jfrom  one  to  the 
other  in  a  country  of  such  an  extent  as  Britain— occupied,  more- 
over, as  it  probably  was,  by  several  tribes  of  different  descent, 
flianners,  and  customs — must  have  required  a  long  course  of  years 
to  become  general ;  and  even  in  any  particular  district  the  change 
cannot  have  been  sudden. 

There  must  of  necessity  have  been  a  time  when  in  each  district 
the  new  phase  of  civilisation  was  being  introduced,  and  the  old 
conditions  had  not  been  entirely  changed.  So  that,  as  I  have  else- 
where pointed  out,  the  three  stages  of  progress  represented  by  the 
Stone,  Bronze,  and  Iron  Periods,  like  the  three  principal  colours  of 
the  rainbow,  overlap,  intermingle,  and  shade  off  the  one  into  the 
other,  though  their  succession,  so  far  as  Britain  and  Western 
Europe  are  concerned,  appears  to  be  equally  well  defined  with  that 
of  the  prismatic  colours. 

B 


>'/ 


2  urrBODucroRY.  [chap.  !• 

In  thus  speaking  of  a  bronze-using  period  I  by  no  means  wish 
to  exclude  the  possible  use  of  copper  unalloyed  with  tin.  There 
is  indeed  every  ground  for  believing  that  in  some  parts  of  the  world 
the  use  of  native  copper  must  have  continued  for  a  lengthened 
period  before  it  was  discovered  that  the  addition  of  a  small  pro- 
portion of  tin  not  only  rendered  it  more  readily  fusible,  but  added 
to  its  elasticity  and  hardness,  and  thus  made  it  more  serviceable 
for  tools  and  weapons.  Even  after  the  advantages  of  the  alloy 
over  the  purer  metal  were  known,  the  local  scarcity  of  tin  may  at 
times  have  caused  so  small  a  quantity  of  that  metal  to  be  employed, 
that  the  resulting  mixture  can  hardly  be  regarded  as  bronze ;  or 
at  times  this  dearth  may  have  necessitated  the  use  of  copper  alone, 
either  native  or  as  smelted  from  the  ore. 

Of  this  Copi^er  Age,  however,  there  are  in  Europe  but  extremely 
feeble  traces,  if  indeed  any  can  be  said  to  exist.  It  appears  not 
unlikely  that  the  views  which  are  held  by  many  archaeologists  as 
to  the  Asiatic  origin  of  bronze  may  prove  to  be  well  foimded,  and 
that  when  the  use  of  copper  was  introduced  into  Europe,  the  dis- 
covery had  already  long  been  made  that  it  was  more  serviceable 
when  alloyed  with  tin  than  when  pure.  In  connection  with  this 
it  may  be  observed  that  the  most  important  discovery  of  instru- 
'inents  of  copper  as  yet  recorded  in  the  Old  World  is  that  which  was 
made  at  Gungeria  in  Central  India.*  They  consisted  of  flat  celts  of 
what  has  been  regarded  as  the  most  primitive  type;  but  with  them 
were  found  some  ornaments  of  silver,  a  circumstance  which  seems 
to  miUtate  against  their  extreme  antiquity,  as  the  production 
silver  involves  a  considerable  amount  of  metallm-gical  skill,  and 
probably  an  acquaintance  with  lead  and  other  metals.  However 
this  may  be,  there  are  reasons  for  supposing  that  if  a  Copper  Age 
existed  in  the  Old  World  its  home  was  in  Asia  or  the  most 
eastern  part  of  Europe,  and  not  in  any  western  country. 

The  most  instructive  instance  of  a  Copper  Age,  as  distinct  from 
one  of  Bronze,  is  that  afforded  by  certain  districts  of  North 
America,  in  which  we  find  good  evidence  of  a  period  when,  in 
addition  to  stone  as  a  material  from  which  tools  and  weapons  were 
made,  copper  also  was  employed,  and  used  in  its  pure  native  con- 
dition Avithout  the  addition  of  any  alloy. 

The  State  of  Wisconsint  alone  has  furnished  upwards  of  a 
hundred  axes,  spear-heads,  and  knives  formed  of  copper ;  and,  to 
judge  from  some  extracts  from  the  writings  of  the  early  travellers 

♦  iioQ  posted,  !>.  40.  f  Lutlcr,  **rroliibt.  AViscousiu." 


A   COPPER   AGE    IN    AMERICA.  3 

giTcn  by  the  Kev.  E.  F.  Slafter,*  that  part  of  America  would  seem 

to  have  entered  on  its  Copper  Age  long  before  it  was  first  brought 

into  contact  vdih  European  civiUsation,  towards  the  middle  of  the 

siiteenth    century.      It  has  been  thought  by  several  American 

antiquaries  that  some  at  least  of  these  tools  and  weapons  were 

produced  by  the  process  of  casting,  though  the  preponderance  of 

opinion  seems  to  be  in  favour  of  all  of  them  being  shaped  by  the 

luunmer  and  not  cast,     Among  others  I  may  mention  my  friend 

the  Hon.  Colonel  C.  C.  Jones,  who  has  examined  this  question  for 

me,  and  has  been  unable  to  discover  any  instance  of  one  of  these 

copper  tools  or  weapons  having  been  indisputably  cast. 

That  they  were  originally  wrought,  and  not  cast,  is  a  i^rioA  in 
the  highest  degree  probable.  On  some  parts  of  the  shores  of 
Lake  Superior  native  copper  occurs  in  great  abundance,  and 
would  no  doubt  attract  the  attention  of  the  early  occupants  of 
the  country.  Accustomed  to  the  use  of  stone,  they  would  at  first 
regard  the  metal  as  merely  a  stone  of  peculiarly  heavy  nature, 
and  on  attempting  to  chip  it  or  work  it  into  shape  would  at  once 
discover  that  it  jdelded  to  a  blow  instead  of  breakiog,  and  that  in 
feet  it  was  a  malleable  stone.  Of  this  ductile  property  the 
North  American  savage  availed  himself  largely,  and  was  able  to 
produce  spear-heads  with  sockets  adapted  for  the  reception  of  their 
shafts  by  merely  hammering  out  the  base  of  the  spear-head  and 
turning  it  over  to  form  the  socket,  in  the  same  manner  as  is  so 
often  employed  in  the  making  of  iron  tools.  But  though  the 
great  majority  of  the  instruments  hitherto  found,  if  not  all,  have 
been  hammered  and  not  cast,  it  would  appear  that  the  process  of 
melting  copper  was  not  entirely  unknown.  Squier  and  Davis 
have  observed,!  "  that  the  metal  appears  to  have  been  worked  in 
all  cases  in  a  cold  state.  This  is  somewhat  remarkable,  as  the  fires 
Ti|)on  the  altars  were  sufiiciently  strong  in  some  instances  to  melt 
down  the  coj^per  implements  and  ornaments  deposited  upon  them, 
and  the  feet  that  the  metal  is  fusible  could  hardly  have  escaped 
notice."  That  it  did  not  altogether  escape  observation  is  shown  by 
the  evidence  of  De  Champlain,+  the  founder  of  the  city  of  Quebec. 
In  1610  he  was  joining  a  party  of  Algonquins,  one  of  whom  met 
him  on  his  barque,  and  after  conversation  "  tira  d'un  sac  une 
piece  de  cuivre  de  la  longueur  d'un  pied  qu'il  me  donna,  le  quel 

•  "Preli.  Copper  Impl,"  Boston,  1879. 

t  *•  Anc.  Men.  of  the  Mississ.  Valley,"  p.  202. 

t  •*  Les  Voyages  du  Sieur  dc  Champlain,"  Paris,  1613,  pp.  246— 7,  cited  by  JShiftcr, 
op.  rt/.,  p.  13. 

I>.  •> 


4  INTBODUCrORY.  [CHAP.  I. 

estoit  fort  beau  et  bien  franc,  me  donnant  a  entendre  qu'il  en  avoit 
en  quantity  li  ou  il  Tavoit  pris,  qui  estoit  sur  le  bort  d'une  rivifere 
proche  d'un  grand  lac  et  qu'ils  le  prenoient  par  morceaux,  et  le 
faisant  fondre  le  mettoient  en  lames,  et  avec  des  pierres  le  ren- 
doient  uny." 

We  have  here,  then,  evidence  of  a  Copper  Age,*  in  comparatively 
modem  times,  during  most  of  which  period  the  process  of  fusing 
the  metal  was  imknown.  In  course  of  time,  however,  this  art  was 
discovered,  and  had  not  European  influences  been  brought  to  bear 
upon  the  country  this  discovery  might,  as  in  other  parts  of  the 
world,  have  led  to  the  knowledge  of  other  fusible  metals,  and 
eventually  to  the  art  of  manufacturing  bronze — an  alloy  already 
known  in  Mexico  and  Peru.t 

So  far  as  regards  the  Old  World  there  are  some  who  have  sup- 
posed that,  owing  to  iron  being  a  simple  and  not  a  compound 
metal  like  bronze,  and  owing  to  the  readiness  with  which  it  may 
be  produced  in  the  metallic  condition  from  some  of  its  ores,  iron 
must  have  been  in  use  before  copper.  Without  denying  the 
abstract  possibility  of  this  having  been  the  case  in  some  part  of  our 
globe,  I  think  it  will  be  found  that  among  the  nations  occupying 
the  shores  of  the  eastern  half  of  the  Mediterranean — a  part  of  the 
world  which  may  be  regarded  as  the  cradle  of  European  civilisation 
— ^not  only  are  all  archaeological  discoveries  in  favour  of  the  suc- 
cession of  iron  to  bronze,  but  even  historical  evidence  supports 
their  testimony. 

In  the  Introductory  Chapter  of  my  book  on  Ancient  Stone 
Implements  I  have  already  touched  upon  this  question,  on  which, 
however,  it  will  here  be  desirable  farther  to  enlarge. 

The  light  throA\Ti  upon  the  subject  by  the  Hebrew  Scriptures  is 
but  small  There  is,  however,  in  them  frequent  mention  of  most 
of  the  metals  now  in  ordinary  use.  But  the  word  nipn?,  which  in 
our  version  is  translated  brass — a  compound  of  copper  and  zinc — 
would  be  more  properly  translated  copper,  as  indeed  it  is  in  one 
instance,  though  there  it  would  seem  erroneously,  when  two  vessels 
of  fine  copper,  precious  as  gold,  are  mentioned.  J  In  some  passages, 
however,  it  would  appear  as  if  the  word  would  be  more  correctly 

♦  For  notices  of  American  copper  instruments  see,  in  addition  to  the  works  already 
quoted,  Wilson,  "Prohist.  Man,"  vol.  i.  p.  206,  &c. ;  Lubbock,  "  Preh.  Times,"  p.  268, 
&c.  See  also  an  interesting  article  by  Dr.  Emil  Schmidt,  in  Anhiv.fiir  Anth.y  vol.  xi. 
p.  66. 

t  A  Peruvian  chisel  analyzed  by  Vauquolin  gave  '94  of  copper  and  "06  of  tin  (Moore's 
•*  Anc.  Mineralogy,"  p.  42). 

X  Ezra,  ch.  inii.  v.  27. 


SCRIPTITRAL  NOTICES  OP   BRONZR. 


rendered  bronze  than  copper,  as,  for  instance,  where  Moses*  is 
commanded  to  cast  five  sockets  of  brass  for  the  pillars  to  carry  the 
hangings  at  the  door  of  the  tabernacle,  which  could  hardly  have  been 
done  firom  a  metal  so  diflScult  to  cast  as  unalloyed  copper.  Indeed 
if  tin  were  known,  and  there  appears  little  doubt  that  the  word 
Vt$  represents  that  metal,  its  use  as  an  alloy  for  copper  can  hardly 
have  been  unknown.  It  may,  then,  be  regarded  as  an  accepted 
fiict  that  at  the  time  when  the  earliest  books  of  the  Hebrew  Scrip- 
tures were  reduced  to  writing,  gold,t  silver,  iron,  tin,  lead,  and  brass, 
or  more  probably  bronze,  were  known.  To  what  date  this  reduc- 
tion to  writing  is  to  be  assigned  is  a  question  into  which  it  would 
be  somewhat  out  of  place  here  to  enter.  The  results,  however,  of 
modem  criticism  tend  to  prove  that  it  can  hardly  be  so  remote  as 
the  fourteenth  century  before  our  era. 

In  the  Book  of  Job,  as  to  the  date  of  which  also  there  is  some 
diversity  of  opinion,  we  find  evidence  of  a  considerable  acquaint- 
ance with  the  metals  :  *'  Surely  there  is  a  vein  for  the  silver,  and 
a  place  for  gold  where  they  fine  it.  Iron  is  taken  out  of  the 
earth,  and  brass  is  molten  out  of  the  stone."  J  Lead  is  also  men- 
tioned, but  not  tin. 

Before  quitting  this  part  of  the  subject  I  ought  perliaps  to 
allude  to  the  passage  respecting  Tubal-Cain,  §  the  seventh  in  descent 
from  Adam,  who  is  mentioned  as  "  an  instructer  of  every  artificer  in 
brass  and  iron,"  or  a  furbisherll  of  every  cutting  instrument  in  those 
metals.  This  must,  however,  be  regarded  as  a  tradition  incor- 
porated in  the  narrative  at  the  time  it  was  wTitten,  and  probably 
with  some  accessory  colouring  in  connection  with  the  name  which 
Gesenius  has  suggested  may  mean  scoriaritm  faber,  a  maker  of 
dross,  and  which  others  have  connected  with  that  of  Vulcan. 
Sir  Gardner  WilkinsonlT  has  remarked  on  this  subject  that  what- 
ever may  have  been  the  case  in  earlier  times,  "  no  direct  mention 
is  made  of  iron  arms  or  tools  till  after  the  Exodus,"  and  that 
"  some  are  even  inclined  to  doubt  the  barzel  (bna),  of  the  Hebrews 
being  really  that  metal,"  iron. 

Movers**  has  observed  that  in  the  whole  Pentateuch  iron  is 
mentioned  only  thirteen  times,  while  bronze  appears  no  less  than 
forty-four,  which  he  considers  to  be  in  favour  of  the  later  intro- 
duction   of  iron ;    as  also   the   fact  that  bronze,  and  not  iron. 


•  EzocL,  ch.  xxvi.  v.  37. 

J  Ch.  xxviii.  ▼.  1,  2. 

I  Smith's  "  Diet  of  the  Bible,"  «.  v, 

•♦•«Ph6mcier,"iL3. 


t  Numbers,  ch.  xxxi.  v.  22. 
GeneeiB,  ch.  iv.  y.  22. 
**  Anc.  Egyptians,"  vol.  iii.  p. 


4 


6  INTKODUCTORY.  [CHAP.  I. 

was    associated    with   gold   and   silver   in   the   fittings   for   the 
Tabernacle. 

For  other  passages  in  Scripture  relative  to  the  employment  of 
brass  or  bronze,  and  iron,  among  the  Jews,  the  reader  may  consult 
an  excellent  article  by  the  Rev.  John  Hodgson  in  the  first  volume 
of  the  ArcJiceologm  jEliana  (1816),  "An  Inquiry  into  the  Era 
when  Brass  was  used  in  purposes  to  which  Iron  is  now  applied." 
From  this  paper  I  have  largely  borrowed  in  subsequent  pages. 

As  to  the  succession  of  the  two  metals,  bronze  and  iron,  among 
the  ancient  Egyptians,  there  is  a  considerable  diversity  of  opinion 
among  those  who  have  studied  the  subject.  Sir  Gardner  Wilkin- 
son,* judging  mainly  from  pictorial  representations,  thinks  that  the 
Egyptians  of  an  early  Pharaonic  age  were  acquainted  with  the  use 
of  iron,  and  accounts  for  the  extreme  rarity  of  actual  examples  by 
the  rapid  decomposition  of  the  metal  in  the  nitrous  soil  of  Egypt 
M.  Chabas,t  the  author  of  a  valuable  and  interesting  work  upon 
primitive  history,  mainly  as  exhibited  by  Egyptian  monuments, 
believes  that  the  people  of  Egypt  were  acquainted  with  the  use  of 
iron  from  the  da\\Ti  of  their  historic  period,  and  upwards  of  3000 
years  b.c.  made  use  of  it  for  all  the  purposes  to  which  we  now 
Apply  it,  and  even  prescribed  its  oxide  as  a  medicinal  preparation. 
M.  Mariette,?  on  the  contrary,  whose  personal  explorations  entitle 
his  opinion  to  great  weight,  is  of  opinion  that  the  early  Egyptians 
never  really  made  use  of  iron,  and  seems  to  think  that  from  some 
mythological  cause  that  metal  was  regarded  as  the  bones  of  Typhon, 
and  was  the  object  of  a  certain  repugnance.  M.  Chabas  himself  is, 
indeed,  of  opinion  that  iron  was  used  with  extreme  reserve,  and,  so 
to  speak,  only  in  exceptional  cases.  This  he  considers  to  have  been 
partly  due  to  religious  motives,  and  ])artly  to  the  greater  abundance 
of  bronze,  which  the  Egyptians  well  knew  how  to  mix  so  as  to 
give  it  a  fine  temper.  From  whatever  cause,  the  discovery  of  iron 
or  steel  instruments  among  Egyptian  antiquities  is  of  extremely 
rare  occurrence  ;  and  there  are  hardly  any  to  which  a  date  can  be 
assigned  with  any  approach  to  certainty.  The  most  ancient 
appears  to  be  a  curved  scimitar-like  blade  discovered  by  Belzoni 
beneath  one  of  the  Sphinxes  of  Kai-nak,  and  now  in  the  British 

♦  **  Anc.  Eg>T)tiaiiP,"  vol.  Hi.  pp.  246,  247.  See  also  "  The  Egyptians  in  the  Timo  of 
the  Pharaohs,"  x>.  99. 

t  **  Etudes  sur  TAntiqiiite  Historiquo  d'apres  los  pourccs  Ep^ypticnncs,'*  &c.,  1872, 
p.  G9. 

{"Catalogue  do  Boulaq,'*  pj).  247,  248;  Chabaa.  p.  54.  See  also  Emil  Soldi, 
"  L'Art  Egypticn,"  1879,  p.  41. 


BRONZE    IN  ANCTENT  EGYPT.  7 

Museum.*  Its  date  is  stated  to  be  about  600  B.c.t  A  wedge  of 
iron  appears,  however,  to  have  been  found  in  a  joint  between  the 
stones  of  the  Great  Pyramid  { 

Without  in  any  way  disputing  the  occasional  use  of  iron  among 
the  ancient  £^3rptians,  nor  the  interpretation  of  the  colours  red 
and  blue  on  the  tomb  of  Rameses  III.  as  being  intended  to  repre- 
sent blades  of  bronze  and  iron  or  steel  respectively,  I  may  venture 
to  suggest  that  the  round  blue  bar,§  against  which  butchers  are 
represented  as  sharpening  their  knives  in  some  of  the  pictures  in  the 
sepulchres  of  Thebes,  may  have  been  too  hastily  regarded  as  a  steel 
instead  of  as  a  whetstone  of  a  blue  colour.  The  existence  of  a 
gUd  for  the  purpose  of  sharpening  seems  to  imply  not  only  the 
knowledge  of  the  preparation  of  the  metal  and  its  subsequent 
hardening,  but  also  of  files  or  of  other  tools  to  produce  the  peculiar 
striated  surface  to  which  the  sharpening  property  of  a  steel  is  due. 
Had  such  tools  been  known,  it  seems  almost  impossible  that  no 
trace  of  them  should  have  come  down  to  our  times.  Moreover,  if 
used  for  sharpening  bronze  knives,  a  steel  such  as  at  present 
used  would  sooner  become  clogged  and  unfit  for  use  than  if  em- 
ployed for  sharpening  steel  knives. 

Lepsius  II  has  observed  that  the  pictures  of  the  old  Empire  do 
not  afford  an  example  of  arms  painted  in  blue,  the  metal  of 
weapons  being  always  painted  in  red  or  bright  brown.  Iron  was 
but  little  used  under  the  old  Empire  ;  copper  was  employed  in  its 
stead  where  the  hardness  of  iron  was  not  indispensable. 

However  this  may  be,  it  seems  admitted  on  all  hands  that  the 
use  of  iron  in  Egypt  in  early  times  was  much  restricted,  probably 
from  some  religious  motive.  May  not  this  have  arisen  from  the 
first  iron  there  known  having  been,  as  it  appears  to  have  been  in 
some  other  countries,  of  meteoric  origin  ?  The  Coptic  name  for 
iron,  B€Nin€>  which  has  been  interpreted  by  Professor  LauthlT  as 
"the  Stone  of  Heaven,"  strongly  favours  such  a  view.  The 
resemblance  of  this  term  to  BAA-N-FIC)  the  baa  of  heaven,  or  1 
celestial  iron,  has  also  been  pointed  out  by  M.  Chabas,**  who,  how 
ever,  is  inclined  to  consider  that  steel  was  so  called  on  account  of 
its  reflecting  the  colour  of  the  sky.     If  the  iron  in  use  among  the 

•  Catal.,  No.  5410.  t  Day,  "  Proh.  Usg  of  Iron  and  Steel,"  page  14. 

X  Day,  op.  eit,  p.  32.  §  Wilkinson,  op.  eit.,  vol.  iii.  p.  247. 

II  "  Lea  M6taux  dans  les  Inscrip.  Egypt./'  1877,  p.  67. 

f  «*Zeit8ch.  f.  ^gypt.  Sprache,"  &c.*,  1870,  p.  114. 

••  Op.  cii.j  p.  67.  Dr.  Birch  translates  ba  en  pe  "  heavenly  wood  "  or  "  stone  "  {Arch.^ 
vol  xxxviii.  p.  377 ;  Hierag.  Diet.).  See  also  a  pai)er  by  the  Rev.  Basil  Cooper  in 
fraw*.  7)tTo».  Aitoe.,  vol.  ii.  p.  386,  and  Day,  "Preh.  Use  of  Iron  and  Steel,"  p.  41. 


8  INTRODUCTORY.  [CHAP.  I. 

early  Egyptians  were  meteoric,  and  its  celestial  origin  acknow- 
ledged, both  its  rarity  and  its  restricted  use  would  be  accounted 
for.  The  term  "  bone  of  Typhon/'  as  applied  to  iron,  is  given  by 
Plutarch  on  the  authority  of  Manetho,  who  wrote  in  the  days  of 
the  first  Rolemy.  It  appears  to  be  used  only  in  contrast  to  the 
name  "  bone  of  Horus,"  which,  according  to  the  same  author,  was 
appUed  to  the  loadstone,  and  it  seems  difficult  to  admit  any  great 
antiquity  for  the  appellation,  or  to  connect  it  with  a  period  when 
iron  was  at  all  rare,  or  its  use  restricted. 

Although  the  use  of  iron  in  Egypt  was  at  an  early  period  com- 
paratively unknown,  that  of  bronze  was  most  extensive.  The 
weapons  of  war,*  the  tools  for  various  trades,  including  those  of  the 
engraver  and  sculptor,  were  all  made  of  that  metal,  which  in  its 
crude  form  served  also  as  a  kind  of  circulating  medium.  It 
appears  to  have  been  mainly  imported  from  Asia,  some  of  the 
principal  sources  of  copper  being  in  the  peninsula  of  Sinai.  One 
of  the  chief  mines  was  situated  at  Sarbout-el-Khadem,  where 
both  turquoises  and  copper  ore  were  extracted,  and  the  latter 
smelted  at  Wady-Nash.  The  copper  mines  of  Wady-Magarah  are 
thought  to  have  been  workeil  as  early  as  the  second  dynasty, 
upwards  of  3000  years  rc.  ;  and  in  connection  with  ancient 
Egj'ptian  mining,  it  is  worth  while  again  to  cite  Agatharchides,t 
whose  testimony  I  have  alreatly  adduced  in  my  "  Ancient  Stone 
Implements,"  and  who  relates  that  in  his  time,  cit\;a  b.c.  100, 
there  were  found  buried  in  some  ancient  gold-mines  in  Upper 
Egypt  the  bronze  chisels  or  wedges  (Xaroiiif^^  -xpX'^^O  ^f  ^he  old 
miners,  and  who  accounts  for  their  being  of  that  metal  by  the  fact 
that  when  those  mines  were  wrought,  men  were  in  no  way  acquainted 
with  the  use  of  iron. 

In  the  seventh  centiur}-  B.C.,  however,  iron  must  have  been  in 
jfenoral  use  in  Egj-pt,  for  on  the  landing  of  the  Carians  and  lonians,^ 
who  were  armed  with  bronze,  an  Eg}'ptian,  who  had  never  before 
seen  men  armed  with  that  metal,  ran  to  Psammetiohus  to  inform 
him  that  bnizen  men  had  risen  from  the  sea  and  were  wastinsr  the 
country.  As  Psammotiohus  himself  is  described  as  wearing  a 
l»n\zon  helmet,  the  arms  niontioiuHl  would  seem  to  have  been 
oftt»nsivo  rather  than  defensive. 

The  souive  whence  the  tin.  whioh  formed  a  constituent  part  of 

♦  nmlmii, «»;».  riV.,  p.  47.     Ia^jwuj*,  op.  cit.,  p.  57. 
t  '•  rhotii  lUbliotluvn/'  «vl.  lOoa,  ool.  134^. 
:  "  UorvHl.r  lib,  ii.  0.  IVJ. 


h 


BRONZE    PRECEDED   IRON   IN   EGYPT.  9 

the  bronze,  was  derived,  is  much  more  uncertain.  Indeed,  to  judge 
from  M.  Chabas'  silence,  its  name  and  hieroglyphic  are  unknown, 
though  from  some  of  the  uses  to  which  the  metal  designated  by 
^  ^^  was  appUed,  it  seems  possible  that  it  may  have  been  tin. 

On  the  whole,  to  judge  from  documentary  evidence  alone, 
the  question  as  to  the  successive  use  of  the  different  metals 
in  Egypt  seems  to  be  excessively  obscure,  some  of  them  being 
ahnost  impossible  to  identify  by  name  or  representative  sign. 
If,  however,  we  turn  to  the  actual  relics  of  the  past,  we  find 
bronze  tools  and  weapons  in  abundance,  while  those  of  iron  are 
extremely  scarce,  and  are  either  of  late  date  or  at  best  of  uncer- 
tain age.  So  strong,  in4eed,  is  the  material  evidence,  that  the 
late  Mr.  Crawfurd,*  while  disputing  any  general  and  universal 
sequence  of  iron  to  bronze,  confesses  that  Ancient  Egypt  seems  to 
offer  a  case  in  which  a  Bronze  Age  clearly  preceded  an  Iron  one, 
or  at  least  in  which  cutting  instruments  of  bronze  preceded  those 
of  iron. 

Among  the  Assyrians  iron  seems  to  have  been  in  considerable 
use  at  an  early  date,  and  to  have  been  exported  from  that  country 
to  Egypt,  but  knives  and  long  chisels  or  hatchets  of  bronze  were 
among  the  objects  found  at  Tel  Sifr,  in  Southern  Babylonia.  The 
earliest  bronze  image  to  which  a  date  can  be  assigned  appears  to 
be  that  on  which  M.  Oppert  has  read  the  name  of  Koudourmapouk, 
King  of  the  Soumirs  and  Accads,t  who,  according  to  M.  Lenormant, 
lived  about  2100  B.C.  Dr.  S.  Birch  reads  the  name  as  Kudur- 
mabug  (about  2200  B.C.).  Others  in  the  British  Museum  are 
referred  to  Gudea,  who  reigned  about  1700  B.C. 

The  mythology  and  literature  of  ancient  Greece  and  Rome  are  .so 
intimately  connected,  that  in  discussing  the  evidence  afforded  by 
classical  writers  it  will  be  needless  to  separate  them,  but  the 
testimony  of  both  Greek  and  Latin  authors  may  be  taken  indis- 
criminately, though,  of  course,  the  former  afford  the  more  ancient 
evidence.  I  have  already  cited  much  of  this  evidence  in  the 
Introductory  Chapter  of  my  book  on  Ancient  Stone  Implements, 
mainly  with  the  view  of  showing  the  succession  of  bronze  to  stone; 
on  the  present  occasion  I  have  to  re-adduce  it,  together  with  what 
corroborative  testimony  I  am  able  to  procure,  in  order  to  sliow 
that,  along  the  northern  shores  of  the  Mediterranean,  philology  and 
history  agree  as  to  the  priority  of  the  use  of  bronze  for  cutting 
instruments  to  that  of  iron. 

•  Trans.  EthmU  Soc,,  vol.  iv.  p.  6.  t  Soldi,  "  UArt  Eg>'pt.,"  p.  25. 


10  INTRODUCTORY.  [CHAP.  T. 

The  Greek  language  itself  bears  witness  to  this  fact,  for  the 
words  significant  of  working  in  iron  are  not  derived  from  the  name 
of  that  metal,  but  from  that  of  bronze,  and  the  old  forms  of  ^oXiret^ 
and  j(jaXK€V€iv  remained  in  use  in  connection  with  the  smith  and 
his  work  long  after  the  blacksmith  had  to  a  great  extent  super- 
seded the  bronze-founder  and  the  copper-smith  in  the  fabrication 
of  arms  and  cutlery.*  An  analogous  transition  in  the  meaning  of 
words  has  been  pointed  out  by  Professor  Max  Miiller.  "  The 
Mexicans  called  their  own  copper  or  bronze  tepuztli,  which  is  said 
to  have  meant  originally  lidtchet  The  same  word  is  now  used  for 
iron,  with  which  the  Mexicans  first  became  acquainted  through 
their  intercourse  with  the  Spaniards.  Tepuztli  then  became  a 
general  name  for  metal,  and  when  copper  had  to  be  distinguished 
from  iron,  the  former  was  called  red,  the  latter  black  Ujmztli."  t  I 
am  not  certain  whether  Professor  Max  Miiller  still  retains  the  views 
which  he  expressed  in  1864.  He  then  pointed  out  J  that  "what 
makes  it  likely  that  iron  was  not  known  previous  to  the  separation 
of  the  Aryan  nations  is  the  fact  that  its  names  vary  in  every  one 
of  their  languages."  But  there  is  a  "  name  for  copper,  which  is 
shared  in  common  by  Latin  and  the  Teutonic  languages,  ces,  ceris, 
Gothic  ais,  Old  High  German  er.  Modem  German  Er-z,  Anglo- 
Saxon  dr,  English  ore.  Like  cltalkos,  which  originally  meant 
copper,  but  came  to  mean  metal  in  general,  bronze  or  brass,  the 
Latin  ces,  too,  changed  from  the  former  to  the  latter  meaning;  and 
we  can  watch  the  same  transition  in  the  corresponding  words  of 
the  Teutonic  languages It  is  all  the  more  curious,  there- 
fore, that  the  Sanskrit  ayas,  which  is  the  same  word  as  aes  and 
aizy  should  in  Sanskrit  have  assumed  the  almost  exclusive  mean- 
ing of  iron.  I  suspect,  however,  that  in  Sanskrit,  too,  ayas  meant 
originally  the  metal,  i.e.  copper,  and  that  as  iron  took  the  place  of 

copper,  the  meaning  of  ayas  was  changed  and  specified 

In  German,  too,  the  name  for  iron  was  derived  from  the  older 
name  of  copper.  The  Gothic  eisai*n,  iron,  is  considered  by  Grimm 
as  a  derivative  form  of  aiz,  and  the  same  scholar  concludes  from 
this  that  *in  Germany  bronze  must  have  been  in  use  before  iron/" 

Ikit  to  return  to  Greece.  It  is,  of  course,  somewhat  doubtful  how 
far  the  word  ^^oAa-o?,  as  used  by  the  earliest  Greek  authors,  was 

*  XoXkevhv  ^k  Kai  to  fftcrjpivtiv  tXeyov,  Kal  x«^«aff»  tovq  rbv  ffidripov  ipyaZofiivovQ 
(Julius  l*ollux,  **  Onomasticon,"  lib.  ^'ii.  cap.  24). 

t  *'  Lotturcs  on  the  Scionco  of  LanjG:uago,"  2nd  S.,  1864,  p.  229 ;  Tylor's **  Anahnac," 
1801,  p.  140. 

I  "  Lectures  on  the  Science  of  Language,"  2nd  S.,  p.  231. 


BRONZE   IN   ANCIENT   GREECE.  11 

intended  to  apply  to  unalloyed  copper,  or  to  that  mixture  of 
copper  and  tin  which  wo  now  know  as  bronze.  Mr.  Gladstone,* 
who  on  all  questions  relating  to  Homer  ought  to  be  one  of  the 
best  living  authorities,  regards  the  word  as  meaning  copper : 
firstly,  because  it  is  always  spoken  of  by  Homer  as  a  pure  metal 
along  with  other  pure  metals ;  secondly,  on  account  of  the 
epithets  ipvBpo^y  yvo^^,  and  vwpoyfr,  which  mean  red,  bright,  and 
gleaming,  being  applied  to  it,  and  which  Mr.  Gladstone  considers 
to  be  inappUcable  to  bronze ;  and  thirdly,  because  Homer  does  not 
appear  to  have  known  anything  at  all  of  the  fusion  or  alloying  of 
metals.  The  second  reason  he  considers  further  strengthened  by 
the  probability  that  Homer  would  not  represent  the  walls  of  the 
palace  of  Alcinous  as  plated  with  bronze,  nor  introduce  a  heaven 
of  bronze  among  the  imposing  imagery  of  battle  (II.,  xvii.  424). 
On  the  whole  ho  concludes  that  yaXKo^  was  copper  hardened  by 
some  method,  as  some  tliink  by  the  agency  of  water,  or  else  and 
more  probably  according  to  a  very  simple  process,  by  cooling 
slowly  in  the  air.t 

I  regret  to  say  that  these  conclusions  appear  to  me  to  be  founded 
to  some  extent  on  false  premises  and  on  more  than  one  misconcep- 
tion. The  process  of  heating  copper  and  then  dipping  it  in  water  or 
allowing  it  slowly  to  cool,  so  far  from  being  adapted  for  hardening 
that  metal,  is  that  which  is  usually  adopted  for  annealing  or 
softening  it.  While  the  plunging  into  cold  water  of  steel  at  a  red 
heat  has  the  effect  of  rendering  that  metal  intensely  hard,  on 
copper  the  reverse  is  the  result ;  and,  as  Dr.  Percy  has  observed,  J 
it  is  immaterial  whether  the  cooling  after  annealing — or  restoring 
its  malleability  by  means  of  heat — takes  place  slowly  or  rapidly. 
Indeed,  one  alloy  of  copper  and  tin  is  rendered  most  malleable 
by  rapid  cooling. 

It  has  been  stated  §  that  bronze  of  the  ancient  composition  may 
by  coohng  it  slowly  be  rendered  as  hard  as  steel,  and  at  the  same 
time  less  brittle^  but  this  statement  seems  to  require  confirmation. 

According  to  some  II  the  impossibility  of  hardening  bronze  like 
steel  by  dipping  it  into  water  had  passed  into  a  proverb  so  early 
as  the  days  of  iEschylus,  but  "  '^oKkov  ^cKpa^  "  has  by  others  been 

♦  **  Stu<lips  on  Homer  and  tho  Homeric  Age,"  vol.  iii.  pp.  498,  499. 

t  The  reference  is  to  Millin,  "  Mineralogie  Hom^rique,"  pp.  126,  132. 

J  *'  Metallurgy — Fuel,  Fireclays,  Ck)pper,"  &c.,  p.  6. 

\  Moore,  **Anc.  Mineralogy,"  p.  67. 

II  7?<T.  Areh.^  N.S.,  vol.  iv.  p.  97 ;  -/Esch.  Agamem.,  v.  612.  Professor  Rolleston 
is  inclined  to  refer  the  expression  to  tho  "tempering"  of  \)T0i\7.e  {Tranx.  Brist.  and 
Qhue.  Arch,  Soc,  1878). 


12  INTRODUCTORY.  [cHAP.  I. 

regarded  as  referring  to  the  impossibility  of  dyeing  metal*  Some 
of  the  commentators  on  Hesiod  and  Homer  speak,  however,  dis- 
tinctly as  to  a  process  of  hardening  bronze  by  a  dipping  or  /3a^i/, 
and  Virgil  t  represents  the  Cyclopes  as  dipping  the  hissing  bronze 
in  water — 

''  Alii  stridentia  tingunt 
-^Ira  lacu  " — 

but  the  idea  of  bronze  being  hardened  or  tempered  by  this  process 
appears  to  me  to  have  been  based  on  a  false  analogy  between  this 
metal  and  steel,  or  even  iron.  The  French  chemist,  Geoffroy, 
thought  he  had  succeeded  in  imitating  the  temper  of  an  ancient 
bronze  sword,  but  no  details  are  given  as  to  whether  he  added 
more  than  the  usual  proportion  of  tin  to  liis  copper,  or  whether 
he  hardened  the  edge  with  a  hammer. 

With  regard  to  the  other  reasons  adduced  by  Mr.  Gladstone, 
it  is  no  doubt  true  that  -xoXko^  is  occasionally  spoken  of  by  Homer 
as  a  pure  metal,  mainly,  however,  it  may  be  argued,  in  conse- 
([uence  of  the  same  name  being  applied  to  both  copper  and  bronze, 
if  not,  indeed,  like  the  Latin  "  *«s,"  to  copper,  bronze,  and  brass. 
We  find,  moreover,  that  tin,  for  thus  we  must  translate  k-aaairepo^, 
is  mentioned  by  Homer  ;  and  as  this  metal  appears  in  ancient 
times  to  have  been  mainly,  though  not  exclusively,  employed  for 
the  purpose  of  alloying  copper,  we  must  from  this  fact  infer  that 
the  use  of  bronze  was  not  unknown.  In  the  celebrated  descrip- 
tion of  the  fashioning  of  the  shield  of  Achilles  by  Vulcan — which 
may  for  the  moment  be  assumed  to  be  of  the  same  age  as  the 
rest  of  the  Iliad — we  find  the  copper  and  tin  mentioned  in  juxta- 
l)Osition  with  each  other  ;  and  if  it  had  been  intended  to  represent 
llophaistos  as  engaged  in  mixing  and  melting  bronze,  the  descrip- 
tion could  not  hrtvo  been  more  complete.? 

XoAkoi'  Kiv  wvfil  paXktv  ilrcipca,  Kaxnriryiov  re. 

Even  the  term  indomitablo  may  n>fer  to  the  difiiculty  of  melting 
copper  in  its  unalloyod  condition. 

But  tin  was  also  us(»(l  iu  tlio  ]un*o  condition.  In  the  breast- 
plate of  AgjvnuMunon  §  tlioro  wore  ten  bands  of  black  k-vapo^, 
twelve  of  gold,  and  twonty  of  tiu.  In  his  shield  II  were  twenty 
bosses    of    tin.     The    cowsll    on    the    shiold    of    Achilles    were 

•  Rosaig:nol,  **  Los  UvUxwx  diuiH  TAnt.,"  p.  '^as.  f  -  ^Y,n.r  viii.  450. 

{"lUad,"  xviii.  474.  J  xi.  21.  ||  xi.  34.  •' xviii.  574. 


METALS  MENllONED   BY   HOMER.  13 

made  of  both  gold  and  tin,  and  his  greaves*  of  soft  tin,  and 
the  border  of  the  breast-plate  of  Asteropseus  t  was  formed  of 
glittering  tin. 

This  collocation  of  various  metals,  or  inlaying  them  by  way  of 
ornament,  calls  to  mind  some  of  the  pottery  and  bronze  pins  of 
the  Swiss  Lake  dwellings,  which  are  decorated  with  inlaid  tin, 
and  the  remarkable  bronze  bracelet  foimd  at  Moerigen,?  which  is 
inlaid  with  iron  and  a  yellow  brass  by  way  of  ornament. 

With  regard  to  the  epithets  red,  bright,  and  gleaming,  they  arc 
perfectly  applicable  to  bronze  in  its  polished  condition,  though 
they  ill  assort  with  the  popular  idea  of  bronze,  which  usually 
assigns  to  that  metal  the  brown  or  greenish  hues  it  acquires  by 
oxidation  and  exposure  to  atmospheric  influences.  As  a  matter  of 
fact,  the  red  colour  §  of  copper,  though  certainly  rendered  more 
yellow,  is  not  greatly  impaired  by  an  admixture  of  tin  within  the 
proportions  now  used  by  engineers,  viz.  up  to  about  two  and  a 
half  ounces  to  the  i)Oimd,  or  about  1 5  per  cent.  As  to  the  bright 
and  shining  properties  of  the  metal,  Virgil,  when  no  doubt  speak- 
ing of  bronze  swords  and  shields,  makes  special  mention  of  their 

glitter—  II 

**  JEratajque  micant  X)elta},  micat  oereus  ensis." 

Indeed,  the  mere  fact  of  the  swords  of  Homer  being  made  of 
XoXirov  is  in  favour  of  that  metal  being  bronze,  as  pure  copper 
would  be  singularly  inapplicable  to  such  a  purpose,  and  certainly 
no  copper  sword  would  break  into  three  or  four  pieces  at  a  blow 
instead  of  being  merely  bent.1[ 

The  bending  of  the  points  of  the  spear-heads  against  the  shields 
of  the  adversaries  is,  however,  in  favour  of  these  weapons  having 
been  of  copper  rather  than  of  bronze.** 

As  to  Homer  having  been  unacquainted  with  the  fusion  or 
alloying  of  metals,  it  may  fairly  be  urged  that  M^thout  such  know- 
ledge it  would  have  been  impossible  to  work  so  freely  as  he  has 
described,  in  gold,  silver,  and  tin ;  and  that  the  only  reason  for 
which  Vulcan  could  have  thrown  the  latter  metal  into  the  fire 
must  have  been  in  order  to  melt  it. 

•  "  II.,"  x\'iii.  612. 

t  xxiii.  561.    For  these  and  other  instances  see  Prof.  I'hilli}>6  in  the  Arch,  Jouru., 
vol.  xvi.  p.  10. 
1  Desor  et  Favre, "  Bel  Age  du  Bronze,"  p.  16. 

]  Holtzapffel,  "Taming  and  Mechanical  Manipulation/'  vol.  i.  p.  271. 
3  -  JEneid,"  rii.  743.  %  "  Iliad/'  iii.  363. 

••"IlViii.  348,vii.  259. 


14  INTRODTICTOKY.  [CHAP.  I, 

Whethur  steel  van  designated  by  the  term  KvavtK  is  a  matter  of 
considerablti  doubt,  and  certainly  in  later  times  that  word  was 
applied  to  a  substance  occasionally  used  as  a  blue  pigment,  not 
improbably  n  dark  blue  carbonate  of  copper.  Assuming  the  word 
to  mean  a  metal,  the  difficulty  in  re^rdiug  it  as  significant  of  steel 
appears  in  a  great  measure  due  to  the  colour  implied  by  the 
adjective  form  Kvapeov,  being  a  dark  blue.'  If,  however,  it  were  the 
custom  even  in  those  days  to  colour  steel  blue  by  exposing  it, 
after  it  had  been  polished,  to  a  certain  degree  of  heat — as  is  usually 
done  with  watch  and  clock  springs  at  the  present  day — the  deep 
blue  colour  of  the  sky  or  sea  might  well  receive  such  an  epithet. 
That  steel  of  some  kind  was  known  in  Homeric  days  is  abundantly 
evident  from  the  process  of  hardening  an  axe  by  dipping  it  in 
cold  water  while  heated,  which  is  so  graphically  described  in  tlio 


if  Kvavov  be  really  steel,  we  can  also  understand  the  epithet 
black  t  being  occasionally  applied  to  it,  even  though  the  adjective 
derived  from  it  had  the  signification  of  blue. 

According  to  tlie  Arundelian  Marbles,  iron  was  discovered  b.c, 
1432,J  or  'lib  years  before  the  taking  of  Troy,  but  though  wo 
havo  occasional  mention  of  this  metal  and  of  steel  in  the  Homeric 
poems,  yet  weapons  and  tools  of  bronze  ai-c  far  more  commonly 
mentioned  and  described.  Trees,  for  instance,  are  cut  down  and 
wood  carved  witli  tools  of  bronze  ;  and  the  battle-axe  of  UenelausS 
is  of  excellent  bronze  with  an  olive-wood  handle,  long  and  well 
polished. 

Before  noticing  further  tlie  early  use  of  iron  in  Greece,  it  will  be 
well  to  see  what  other  authors  than  Homer  say  as  to  the  origin 
and  ancient  use  of  bronze  in  that  country. 

The  name  of  the  princii>al  metal  of  which  it  is  composed,  copper, 
bears  witness  to  one  of  tlie  chief  sources  of  its  supply  having  been 
the  island  of  Cyprus.  It  would  appear  that  Tamassus  in  this 
island  was  in  ancient  times  a  noted  mart  for  this  metal,  as  it  is 
according  to  Nitzsch  and  other  critics  the  Temese  II  mentioned  in 
Homer  as  being  resorted  to  in  order  to  exchange  iron  for  j(a\xm, 
which  in  this  as  well  as  some  other  passages  seems  to  stand  for 
copper  and  not  bronze. 

The  advantage  arismg  from  mixing  a  proportion  of  tin  wiA 

"  M.  Ch.  HouBsol  in  Jtti:  -Iiv/k,  N,B.,  vol 
*  .4ic/,.  fUr  Aniliroji.,  vol.  liii.  p.  295 
1).  .549. 


IKOK    IK    AKCIKMT  GK&£C1S.  Id 

copper,  and  thus  rendering  it  at  the  some  time  more  fusihlc  aud 
harder,  must  have  been  known  before  the  dawn  of  Grecian  history. 

The  accoonts  given  by  early  Greek  ivTitors  as  to  the  first 
discoverer  of  the  art  of  making  bronze  by  an  admixture  of  copper 
and  tin  vary  considerably,  and  thus  prove  that  even  in  the  days 
whea  these  notices  were  written  the  art  was  of  ancient  date. 

Theophrastus  makes  Uelas,  a  Phrygian,  whom  Aristotle  •  regards 
as  a  Lydian,  to  have  been  tbe  inventor  of  bronze.  Pausanias  t 
ascribes  the  honour  of  first  costing  statues  in  bronze  to  Rhoecus 
and  Theodorus  tbe  Samians,  who  appear  to  have  Hved  about 
C40  B.C.  They  are  also  said  to  have  improved  the  accuracy  of 
casting,  but  no  doubt  tbe  process  on  a  smaller  scale  was  practised 
loi^  before  their  time.  Bbcecus  and  his  colleague  ore  also 
reported  to  have  discovered  the  art  of  casting  iron,+  hut  no  really 
ancient  objects  of  east  iron  have  as  yet  been  discovered. 

The  invention  of  the  metals  gold,  silver,  and  copper  is  also 
ascribed  to  the  Idiean  Dactyli,§  or  tbe  Telchines,  who  made  the 
sickle  of  ChroDos  {|  and  the  trident  of  Poseidon.^ 

Though,  as  has  already  been  observed,  iron  and  even  steel  were 
not  unknown  in  the  days  of  Homer,  both  seem  to  have  been  of 
considerable  ronty,  and  it  is  by  no  means  improbable  that,  as 
apjiears  to  have  been  the  case  with  tbe  Egyptians,  the  first  iron 
used  by  tbe  Greeks  was  of  meteoric  origin.  I  have  ekewhere  ** 
called  attention  to  the  possible  connection  of  the  Greek  name 
for  iron  (attijpoi)  with  aari'ip,  often  applied  to  a  shooting-star  or 
meteor,  and  with  the  Latin  Sidera  and  tbe  English  Star,  though 
it  b  unsafe  to  insist  too  much  on  mere  verbal  similarity.  In  an 
interesting  article  on  the  use  of  meteoric  iron  by  Dr.  L.  Beck.tt  of 
Biebrich  on  the  Rhine,  tbe  suggestion  is  made  that  the  final  i/pov 
of  autipov  is  a  form  of  the  Aiyan  wia  (conf.  as,  ivrie).  Dr.  Beck, 
however,  inclines  to  the  opinion  that  the  recognition  of  certain 
meteorites  as  iron  was  first  made  at  a  time  subsequent  to  the  dis- 
covery of  the  means  of  smelting  iron  from  its  ore. 

Tbe  self-fused  mass  or  disc  of  iron,*?  a6\ov  outoxowcoc,  wliich 
formed  one  of  tbe  prizes  at  tbe  funeral  gomes  of  Patroclus,  may 
[Mjssibly  have  bcou  niu-tijoric,  but  this  is  very  doubtful,  as  the 
I  of  iron,  and  the  trouble  and  care  it  involved,  were  well 

"Hirt.  Nat.,"  lib.  vii.  t,  Ivi.  6.  t  lib.  \-iii.  p.  U,  }  6. 

15.  J  K.  }  DiodoruB  SiculuB,  lib.  v.  c.  64. 
'■'-     iv.  i>.  OSo,  hI.  1807. 

n  I)u!.,"  1.  31.  ••  "Anc.  Htonc  Iniji.,"  ]■.  .'i. 

■  "80,  voL  lii.  p.  203.  j;  "  Iliad,"  Ub.  xraii-  v,  820. 


16  INTRODUCTORY.  [CHAP.  I. 

known  in  those  days,  as  is  evident  from  the  ei)itliet  iroKvKfirp-o^  so 
often  bestowed  upon  that  metal. 

For  a  considerable  time  after  the  Homeric  period  bronze  re- 
mained in  use  for  offensive  weapons,  especially  for  those  intended 
for  j)iercing  rather  than  cutting,  such  as  spears,  lances,  and  arrows, 
as  well  as  for  those  which  were  merely  defensive,  such  as  shields, 
cuirasses,  helmets,  and  greaves.  Even  swords  were  also  some- 
times of  bronze,  or  at  all  events  the  tradition  of  their  use  was  pre- 
served by  the  poets.  Thus  we  find  Euripides  *  speaking  of  the 
bronze-speared  Trojans,  ')(<iKKeYxewv  Tpwwp,  and  Virgil  t  describ- 
ing the  glitter  of  the  bronze  swords  of  some  of  the  host  of 
Tumus. 

Probably,  however,  the  use  of  the  word  ')(<iKk6^  was  not  restricted 
to  copper  or  bronze,  but  also  came  in  time  to  mean  metal  in 
general,  and  thus  extended  to  iron,  a  worker  in  which  metal  was, 
as  we  have  already  seen,  termed  a  j^aXA-eu?. 

Tlie  succession  of  iron  to  bronze  is  fully  recognised  by  both 
Greek  and  Latin  authors.  The  passage  in  Hesiod,+  where  he 
speaks  of  the  third  generation  of  men  who  had  arms  of  bronze 
and  houses  of  bronze,  who  ploughed  with  bronze,  for  the  black  iron 
did  not  exist,  is  already  hackneyed ;  nor  is  the  record  of  Lucre- 
tius §  less  well  known  : — 

*•  Anna  antiqua,  manus,  imgues,  dentesque  fuenmt, 
Et  lapides,  et  item  sylvarimi  fragmina  rami,  .  .  . 
Posterius  ferri  vis  est,  eerisque  reperta, 
Sed  prior  smB  erut  qiiam  ferri  cognitus  usus  ;  .  .  . 
Inde  minutatim  processit  ferrous  ensis, 
Versaque  in  opprobrium  species  est  falcis  ahenu), 
Et  ferro  coepere  solum  proscindere  terras." 

The  difference  between  the  age  of  Homer  and  Hesiod  in 
respect  to  the  use  of  metals  is  well  described  by  Mr.  Gladstone. 
The  former  II  "  lived  at  a  time  when  the  use  of  iron  (in  Greece) 
was  just  commencing,  when  the  commodity  was  rare,  and  when 
its  value  was  very  great ;  '*  but  in  the  days  of  Hesiod  **  ii-on,  as 
compared  Avith  copper,  had  come  to  bo  the  inferior,  that  is  to  say 
the  cheaper  metal,"  and  the  poet  "  looks  back  from  his  iron  age 
with  an  admiring  envy  on  the  heroic  period." 

*  "IVoad.,"  143.  .  ,        ,  ,"*"**  ^^^^^•'"  ^^\'  ^■"-  "^'^• 

X  *'  Op.  et  D.,"  i.  150.  ToTf  S'  ijv  xaXicca  /i€v  r«vx*<*  xA^kioi  Si  r«  oUoi 

XaXKtft  6*  aoyd^oiTo,  ftiXa^  d*  ovk  Icrxf  aiSfipog, 
^  Lib.  V.  1282,  et  seqq,  '  ||  "  Juv.  Mundi,"  1869,  p.  26. 


BRONZE  AMONG  OTHER  NATIONS.  17 

Hesiod  gives  to  Hercules*  a  helmet  of  steel  and  a  sword  of 
iron,  and  to  Saturn  t  a  steel  reaping-hook.  His  remark  that  at 
the  feast  of  the  gods  the  withered  +  part  of  a  five-fingered  branch 
should  never  be  cut  from  the  green  part  by  black  iron,  shows  that 
this  metal  was  in  common  use,  and  that  for  religious  ceremonies 
the  older  metal  bronze  retained  its  place. 

Bronze  was,  however,  a  favourite  metal  with  the  poet,  if  not 
indeed  in  actual  use  long  after  iron  was  known,§  for  Pindar,  about 
RC.  470,  still  frequently  cites  spears  and  axes  made  of  bronze. 

By  the  time  of  Herodotus,  who  wrote  before  400  b.c.,  the  use 
of  iron  and  steel  was  universal  among  the  Greeks.  He  instances, 
as  a  fact  worth  recording,  that  the  Massageta,l|  a  powerful  tribe 
which  occupied  the  steppes  on  the  east  of  the  Caspian,  made  no 
use  of  iron  or  silver,  but  had  an  abundance  of  ')(<iKk6^  and  gold, 
pointing  their  spears  and  arrows  and  forming  the  heads  of  their 
battle-axes  with  the  former  metal.  Among  the  iEthiopians,ir  on 
the  contrary,  he  states  that  bronze  was  rarer  and  more  precious 
than  gold  ;  nor  was  it  in  use  among  the  Scythians.**  The  Sagartii  tt 
in  the  army  of  Xerxes  are  mentioned  as  not  carrying  arms  either 
of  bronze  or  iron  except  daggers,  as  if  bronze  were  still  of  not 
unfrequent  use. 

Strabo,++  at  a  much  later  date,  thinks  it  worth  while  to  record 
that  among  the  Lusitanians  the  spears  were  tipped  with  bronze. 

But  certainly  some  centuries  before  the  time  of  Herodotus,  and 
probably  as  early  as  that  of  Homer,  the  Chalybes  on  the  shores  of 
the  Euxine  practised  the  manufacture  of  iron  on  a  considerable  scale, 
and  from  them  came  the  Greek  name  for  steel,  xa^y^-§§  Daimachus, 
in  the  fourth  century  B.C.,  records  that  different  sorts  of  steel  are 
produced  among  the  Chalybes  in  Sinope,  Lydia,  and  Laconia.  That 
of  Sinope  was  used  for  smiths'  and  carpenters'  tools ;  that  of  Laconia 
for  files,  drills  for  iron,  stamps,  and  masons'  tools ;  and  the  Lydian 
kind  for  files,  swords,  razors,  and  knives.  In  Laconia  iron  is  said 
to  have  formed  the  only  currency  in  the  days  of  Lycurgus. 

Taking  all  the  evidence  into  consideration,  there  can  be  no 
doubt  that  iron  must  have  been  known  in  Greece  some  ten  or 
twelve  centuries  before  our  era,  though,  as  already  observed,  it 
was  at  that  time  an  extremely  rare  metal.     It  also  appears  that  as 

•  "Scut.  Hercnl.,"  v.  122—138.        f  "Theogon.,"  v.  161. 

:  •*  Op.  et  D.,'*  V.  741.  §  "  OljTnp.,"  od.  i.  123 ;  "  Nem.,"  od.  x.  113,  &c. 

J  Lib.  i.  c.  215.  ^  Lib.  iii.  c.  23. 

••  Lib.  iv.  c.  71.  ft  Lib.  vii.  c.  85.  J  J  Lib.  iii.  p.  208,  ed.  1707. 

}}  Bochart' 8  "Phaleg.,"  p.  208,  cited  in  Arch,  JEliana,  vol.  i.  p.  62. 

C 


18  INTRODTJCrORY.  [CHAP.  I. 

early  as  B.c.  500,  or  even  600,  iron  or  steel  was  in  common  use, 
though  bronze  had  not  been  altogether  superseded  for  oflFensive 
arms  such  as  spear-heads  and  battle-axes. 

The  tradition  of  the  earlier  use  of  bronze  still,  however,  remained 
even  in  later  times,  and  the  preference  shown  for  its  employment 
in  religious  rites,  which  I  have  mentioned  elsewhere,*  is  a  strong 
witness  of  this  earlier  use.  It  seems  needless  again  to  do  more 
than  mention  the  bronze  ploughshare  used  at  the  foundation  of 
Tuscan  cities,  the  bronze  knives  and  shears  of  the  Sabine  and 
Roman  priests,  and  the  bronze  sickles  of  Medea  and  Elissa.  I 
must,  however,  again  bring  forward  the  speculations  of  an  intel- 
ligent Greek  traveller,  who  wrote  in  the  latter  half  of  the  second 
century  of  our  era,  as  to  the  existence  of  what  we  should  now 
term  a  Bronze  Age  in  Greece. 

Pausanias  t  relates  how  Lichas  the  Lacedaemonian,  in  the  fifth 
centurj'-  b.c.,  discovered  the  bones  of  Orestes,  which  his  country- 
men had  been  commanded  by  an  oracle  to  seek.  The  Pythia  J 
had  described  the  place  as  one  where  two  strong  winds  met,  where 
form  was  opposed  to  form,  and  one  evil  lay  upon  another.  These 
Lichas  recognised  in  the  two  bellows  of  the  smith,  the  hammer 
opposed  to  the  anvil,  and  the  iron  lying  on  it.  Pausanias  on  this 
observes  that  at  that  time  they  had  already  begun  to  use  iron  in 
war,  and  that  if  it  liad  been  in  the  days  of  the  lieroes  it  would 
have  been  bronze  and  not  iron  designated  by  the  oracle  as  the 
evil,  for  in  their  days  all  arms  were  of  bronze.  For  this  he  cites 
Homer  as  his  authority,  who  speaks  of  the  bronze  axe  of  Pisander, 
and  the  arrow  of  Meriones.  A  further  argument  he  derives  from 
the  spear  of  Achilles,  laid  up  in  the  temple  of  Minerva  at  Phaselis, 
and  the  sword  of  Memnon  in  that  of  iEsculapius  at  Nicomedia, 
which  is  entirely  of  bronze,  while  the  ferrule  and  point  of  his 
spear  are  also  of  that  metal. 

The  spear-head  which  lay  with  the  bones  of  Theseus  §  in  the 
Isle  of  Scyros  was  also  of  bronze,  and  probably  the  sword  like- 
Avise.  There  are  no  works  of  Latin  authors  of  a  date  nearly  so 
remote  as  that  of  the  earlier  Greek  writers,  and  long  before  the 
days  of  Ennius,  iron  was  in  general  use  in  Italy.  If  the  Articles 
of  Peace  which  "  Porsena,  King  of  the  Tuscans,  tendered  unto  the 
people  of  Rome "  were  as  Pliny  II  represents  them,  the  Romans 

•  "  Anc.  stone  Imp.,"  p.  4.  t  "  Lacon.,"  lib.  iii.  cap.  iii. 

t  Herod.,  lib.  i.  c.  67.  §  Plutarch,  "  Thes.,"  j).  17,  e,    Ed.  1624. 

|i  "Xat.  Hist.,"  lib.  xxxiv.  cap.  14. 


USE   OF   IRON   IN   GATJL  AND   ITALY. 


19 


most  even  in  those  early  days  have  had  iron  weapons,  for  they 
were  forbidden  the  use  of  that  metal  except  for  tilling  the  ground. 
In  RC.  224  the  Isumbrian  Gauls  who  fought  with  Flaminius 
were  already  in  possession  of  iron  swords,  the  softness  and  flexi- 
bility of  which  led  to  the  discomfiture  of  their  owners.  The 
Romans  themselves  seem  but  to  have  been  badly  armed  so  far  as 
swords  were  concerned  until  the  time  of  the  Second  Punic  War, 
about  B.C.  200,  when  they  adopted  the  Spanish  sword,  and  learnt 
the  method  of  preparing  it.  Whether  the  modem  Toledo  and 
Bilbao  blades  are  legitimate  descendants  of  these  old  weapons  we 
Deed  not  stop  to  inquire.  In  whatever  manner  the  metal  was  pre- 
pared, so  thoroughly  was  iron  identified  with  the  sword  in  classical 
times  that  ferruw,  and  gladiua  were  almost  synonyms. 

Pliny  mentions  that  the  best  steel  used  in  Rome  was  imported 
from  China,  a  country  in  which  copper  or  bronze  swords  are  said 
to  have  been  in  use  in  the  days  of  Ki,*  the  son  of  Yu,  b.c.  2197 — 48, 
and  those  of  iron  under  Kung-Kia,  B.r.  1897 — 48,  so  that  there 
also  history  points  to  a  Bronze  Age.     But  this  by  the  way. 

Looking  at  the  fact  that  iron  and  steel  were  in  such  general 
use  at  Rome  during  the  period  of  her  wars  in  Western  Europe, 
we  may  well  believe  that  had  any  of  the  tribes  with  which  the 
Roman  forces  came  in  contact  been  armed  with  bronze,  such  an 
nnusual  circumstance  could  hardly  have  escaped  record.     In  the 
Augustan  age  the  iron  swords  of  Noricum  were  in  great  repute,  and 
farther  north  in  Germany,  though  iron  did  not  abound,  it  was,  ac- 
cording to  Tacitus,  used  for  spears  and  swords.    The  Catti  had  the 
metal  in  abundance,  but  among  the  Aestii,  on  the  right  coast  of  the 
Baltic,  it  was  scarce.    The  Cimbrians  in  the  first  century  b.c.  had, 
according  to  Plutarch, t  iron  breast-plates,  javelins,  and  large  swords. 
The  Gauls  of  the  North  of  France  had  in  the  time  of  Julius 
Caesar  t  large  iron  mines  which  they  worked  by  tunnelling ;  the 
bolts  of  their  ships  were  made  of  that  metal,  and  they  had  even 
chain  cables  of  iron.     The  Britons  of  the  South  of  England  who 
were  in  such  close  communication  with  the  opposite  coast  of  Gaul 
must  have  had  an  equal  acquaintance  with  iron.     Cnesar  mentions 
ingots  or  rings  of  iron  as  being  used  for  money,  and  observes 
that  iron  is  obtained  on  the  sea-coast,  but  in  small  quantities,  and 
adds  that  bronze  was  imported. §    S'trabo  includes  iron,  as  well  as 
gold,  silver,  and  com,  among  the  products  of  Britain.     In  Spain, 


•  See  ZtiUeh.fSr  £th.,"  vol.  u.,  1870,  p.  131. 
X  "BeU.  GaU„"  iii.  13  ;  yii.  22. 

c  2 


t  "Vit.  Caii  Marii,"  420,  *. 
§  Lib.  V.  12. 


20  INTRODUCTORY.  [cHAP.  I. 

as  already  mentioned,  iron  had  long  been  known,  so  that  from  the 
concurrent  testimony  of  several  historians  we  may  safely  infer  that 
in  the  time  of  JuUus  Caesar,  when  this  country  was  first  exposed 
to  Roman  influences,  it  had  already,  like  the  neighbouring  coun- 
tries to  the  south,  passed  from  the  Bronze  into  the  Iron  Age. 

Notwithstanding  all  this  historical  testimony  in  favour  of  the 
prior  use  of  bronze  to  that  of  iron,  there  have  been  not  a  few 
authors  who  have  maintained  that  the  idea  of  a  succession  of 
stone,  bronze,  and  iron  is  delusive  when  applied  to  Western  Europe. 
Among  these  was  the  late  Mr.  Thomas  Wright,  who  has  gone  so 
far  as  to  express  *  "a  firm  conviction  that  not  a  bit  of  bronze 
which  has  been  found  in  the  British  Islands  belongs  to  an  older 
date  than  that  at  which  Csesar  wrote  that  the  Britons  obtained 
their  bronze  from  abroad,  meaning  of  course  from  Gaul."  "  In 
fact  these  objects  in  bronze  were  Roman  in  character  and  in  their 
primary  origin."  As  in  the  same  page  he  goes  on  to  show  that 
two  hundred  years  before  Christ  the  swords  of  the  Gauls  were 
made  of  iron,  and  as  his  contentions  have  ahready  been  met  by  Sir 
John  Lubbock,  t  and  will,  I  think,  be  effectually  disposed  of  by 
the  facts  subsequently  to  be  mentioned  in  this  volume,  it  seems 
needless  to  dwell  on  Mr.  Wright's  opinions.  I  may,  however, 
mention  that,+  while  denying  the  antiquity  of  British,  German, 
and  Scandinavian  weapons  and  tools  of  bronze,  he  admits  that  in 
Greece  and  Italy  that  metal  was  for  a  long  period  the  only  one  em- 
ployed for  cutting  instruments,  as  iron  was  not  known  in  Greece 
until  a  comparatively  late  date. 

About  one  himdred  and  thirty  years  ago,§  in  1751,  a  discussion 
as  to  the  date  of  bronze  weapons  took  place  among  the  members 
of  the  Academic  des  Inscriptions  et  Belles  Lettres  of  Paris,  on  the 
occasion  of  some  bronze  swords,  a  spear-head,  and  other  objects 
being  found  near  Gannat,  in  the  Bourbonnais.  Some  antiquaries 
regarded  them  as  weapons  made  for  use  ;  others  as  merely  made  for 
show.  The  Count  de  Caylus  considered  that  the  swords  were 
Roman,  though  maintaining  that  copper  or  bronze  must  have 
been  in  earlier  use  than  iron.  L^vesque  de  la  Ravalifere  main- 
itained,  on  the  contrary,  that  neither  the  Greeks,  Romans,  Gauls, 
nor  Franks  had  ever  made  use  of  copper  or  bronze  in  their  swords. 
Tlie  Abbd  Bartjhflemy  showed  from   ancient   authors   that   the 

•  Trans,  Ethnof.  Soc.,  vol.  iv.  p.  190^    Seo  also  Anthrop,  Rev.,  vol.  iv.  j).  76. 

+  Trans.  Eth.  iSV.,  vol.  v.  p.  105 ;  "P^h.  Times,"  4th  cd.,  p.  18. 

{  Arch.  Assoc.  Journ.y  vol.  xxii.  p.  78. 

§  See  Rossignol,  <*  J^iQs  M^t^ux  dans  TAjat/*  p.  205. 


DISPUTES  AS  TO  THE  THREE  PERIODS.  21 

earliest  arms  of  the  Greeks  were  of  bronze ;  that  iron  was  only 
introduced  about  the  time  of  the  siege  of  Troy  ;  and  that  in  later 
times  among  the  Romans  there  was  no  mention  of  bronze  having 
been  used  for  weapons  of  offence,  and  therefore  that  these  swords 
were  not  Roman.  Strangely  enough,  he  went  on  to  argue  that 
they  were  Frankish,  and  of  the  time  of  Childeric.  Had  he  been 
present  at  the  opening  of  the  tomb  of  that  monarch  in  1 6  5  3  he 
would,  however,  have  seen  that  he  had  an  iron  sword.* 

A  still  warmer  discussion  than  any  which  has  taken  place  in 
England  or  France,  one,  in  fact,  almost  amounting  to  an  inter- 
national war  of  words,  has  in  more  recent  times  arisen  between 
some  of  the  German  antiquaries  and  those  of  the  Scandinavian 
kingdoms  of  Denmark  and  Sweden. 

So  early  as  1860  t  my  friend  Dr.  Ludwig  Lindenschmit,  of 
^lainz,  had  commenced  his  attack  on  "the  so-called  Bronze 
Period,"  and  shown  a  disposition  to  regard  all  bronze  antiquities 
of  northern  countries  as  of  Italian  origin,  or,  if  made  in  the  coun- 
tries where  found,  as  mere  homely  imitations  of  imported  articles. 
Not  content  with  this,  he  in  1875  +  again  mustered  his  forces  and 
renewed  the  campaign  in  even  a  more  formal  manner.  He  found 
a  formidable  ally  in  Dr.  Hostmann,  whose  comments  on  Dr.  Hans 
Hildebrand's  "Heathen  Period  in  Sweden"  are  well  worth  the 
reading,  and  contain  a  vast  amount  of  interesting  information. 

Dr.  Hostmann's  method  of  dealing  with  Dr.  Hans  Hildebrand 
brought  Dr.  Sophus  Miiller  §  to  the  rescue,  vdth  whom  Dr.  Linden- 
schmit 11  at  once  grappled.  Shortly  after  Dr.  Hostmann  If  again 
appears  upon  the  scene,  and  before  engaging  with  Dr.  Sophus 
MUller  goes  so  far  as  to  argue  that  while  Greek  swords  of  iron 
are  knoi^Ti  to  belong  to  the  eighth  century  b.c.,  no  bronze  sword 
of  that  country  can  with  safety  be  assigned  to  an  earlier  date  than 
the  sixth  century,  and,  indeed,  these  may  have  been  only  weapons 
of  parade,  or  possibly  funereal  offerings  in  lieu  of  efficient  swords. 
Rector  Genthe  **  also  engages  in  the  fight  upon  the  same  side. 

These  three  antagonists  bring  Sophus  Miiller  tt  again  to  the 
front,  and  as  one  great  argument  of  his  opponents  was  that  bronze 
objects  could  not  be  produced  vnth  the  finish  and  orna- 
mentation which  is  found  upon  them  without  the  use  of  iron  and 

•  Cochet,  **Lo  Tombeau  do  Childeric,"  i.  p.  17. 

t  **  Sammlung  zu  Sig^nringcn,"  p.  153. 

X  Arehir.fur  AnthropoL^  vol.  >Tii.  p.  161. 

]Archii\,  vol.  ix.  p.  127.  ||  Op,  cit.,  p.  141.  H  Op.  ciL,  p.  18.3. 

♦♦  Arch,  fur  Anthrop.,  vol.  ix.  p.  181.  ft  -i-f-  ^^-j  vol.  x.  p.  27. 


22  INTRODUCTORY.  [CHAP.  I. 

steel  tools,  he  brings  forward  an  official  document  signed  by  four 
authorities  in  the  museum  at  Copenhagen,  and  stating  that  pre- 
cisely similar  ornamentation  to  the  S2)irals,  zigzags,  and  punched 
lines  which  occur  on  Scandinavian  bronze  antiquities  had  been 
produced  in  their  presence  by  a  workman  using  bronze  tools  only 
on  a  plate  of  bronze.  Both  plate  and  tools  were  of  the  same 
alloy,  viz.  9  of  copper  to  1  of  tin. 

On  this  a  final  charge  is  made  by  Professor  Hostmann  '^  and 
Dr.  Lindenschmit,  the  former  of  whom  produces  a  kind  of  affidavit 
from  the  late  director  of  the  Polytechnic  School  at  Hanover  and  the 
court  medallist  of  the  same  town,  to  the  effect  that  certain  kinds 
of  punched  work  camiot  be  produced  with  bronze  punches,  and 
the  editors  of  the  Archiv  think  it  best  to  close  the  discussion 
after  Dr.  Lindenschmit's  final  retort. 

I  have  not  thought  it  worth  while  to  enter  into  all  the  details 
of  this  controversy,  as  even  to  summarise  them  would  occupy 
more  room  than  I  could  spare.  It  seems  to  me,  however,  that  a 
considerable  amount  of  misconception  must  have  existed  in  the 
minds  of  some  of  the  disputants,  both  as  to  the  accepted  meaning 
of  the  term  Bronze  Age,  as  applied  not  chronologically,  but  to  a 
certain  stage  of  civilisation,  and  as  to  the  limitation  of  the  objects 
which  can  with  propriety  be  referred  to  that  age.  No  antiquary 
of  experience  will  deny  that  many  bronze  ornaments,  and  even 
some  bronze  weapons,  remained  in  use  long  after  iron  and  even 
steel  were  known,  any  more  than  he  would  deny  that  the  use  of 
stone  for  certain  purposes  continued  not  only  after  bronze  was 
known,  but  even  after  iron  and  steel  were  in  general  use,  and,  in 
fact,  up  to  the  present  time,  not  only  in  barbarian  but  in  civilised 
countries.  Our  flint  strike-a-lights  and  our  burnishers  are  still 
of  much  the  same  character  as  they  were  some  thousands  of 
years  ago,  and  afford  convincing  instances  of  this  persistent  use. 

The  real  question  at  issue  is  not  whether  any  bronze  weapons 
co-existed  with  those  of  iron  and  steel  in  Western  Europe,  but 
whether  any  of  them  were  there  in  use  at  a  period  when  iron  and 
steel  were  unknown.  Moreover,  it  is  not  a  question  as  to  whence 
the  knowledge  of  bronze  was  derived,  nor  whether  at  the  time 
the  Scandinavians  or  Britons  were  using  bronze  for  their  tools  and 
weapons,  the  inhabitants  of  Greece  and  Italy  were  already  ac- 
qiiainted  with  iron  and  steel ;  but  it  is  a  question  whether  in  each 
ui£fidaal  coontry  there  arrived  a  time  when  bronze  came  into 

*  Anh»f,  Atithrop.f  vol.  x.  jjp.  41,  63. 


THE  SUCCESSION  OF  IBON  TO  BBONZB.  23 

use  and  for  certain  purposes  superseded  stone,  while  iron  and 
steel  were  practically  unknown. 

This  is  a  question  to  be  solved  by  evidence,  though  in  the 
nature  of  things  that  evidence  must  to  some  extent  be  of  a  nega- 
tive character.  When  barrow  after  barrow  is  opened,  and  weapons 
of  bronze  and  stone  only  are  found  accompanying  the  interments, 
and  not  a  trace  of  iron  or  steel ;  when  hoards  of  rough  metal 
and  broken  bronze,  together  with  the  moulds  of  the  bronze- 
founder  and  some  of  his  stock-in-trade,  are  disinterred,  and  there 
is  no  trace  of  an  iron  tool  among  them — ^the  presumption  is  strong 
that  at  the  time  when  these  men  and  these  hoards  were  buried 
iron  was  not  in  use.  When,  moreover,  by  a  careful  examination 
of  the  forms  of  bronze  instruments  we  can  trace  a  certain  amount 
of  development  which  is  in  keeping  with  the  peculiar  properties 
of  bronze  and  not  with  those  of  iron,  and  we  can  thus  to  some 
extent  fix  a  kind  of  chronological  succession  in  these  forms,  the 
inference  is  that  this  evolution  of  form,  which  must  have  required 
a  considerable  amount  of  time,  took  place  without  its  course  being 
aflFected  by  any  introduction  of  a  fresh  and  qualifying  influence  in 
the  shape  of  iron  tools  and  weapons. 

WTien,  however,  in  various  countries  we  find  interments  and 
even  cemeteries  in  which  bronze  and  iron  weapons  and  instruments 
are  intermingled,  and  the  forms  of  those  in  bronze  are  what  we 
hiive  learnt  from  other  sources  to  regard  as  the  latest,  while  the 
forms  in  iron  are  not  those  for  which  that  metal  is  best  adapted, 
but  are  almost  servile  copies  of  the  bronze  instruments  found  with 
them,  the  proof  of  the  one  having  succeeded  the  other  is  almost 
absolutely  conclusive. 

The  lessons  taught  by  such  cemeteries  as  that  at  Hallstatt,  in 
Austria,  and  by  our  own  Late  Celtic  interments,  such  as  those  at 
Arras,  in  Yorkdiire,  are  of  the  highest  importance  in  this  question. 

It  is  not,  however,  to  be  supposed  that  even  in  countries  by  no 
means  geographically  remote  from  each  other  the  introduction  either 
of  iron  or  bronze  must  of  necessity  have  taken  place  at  one  and  the 
same  chronological  period.  Near  the  shores  of  the  Mediterranean 
the  use  of  each  metal  no  doubt  prevailed  far  earlier  than  in  any 
of  the  northern  coimtries  of  Europe  ;  and  though  the  knowledge 
of  metals  probably  spread  from  certain  centres,  its  progress  can 
have  been  but  slow,  for  in  each  part  of  Europe  there  appears  to 
have  been  some  special  development,  i)articularly  in  the  forms  of 
bronze  instruments,  and  there  is  no  absolute  uniformity  in  their 


18  INTRODTJCrORY.  [CHAP.  I. 

early  as  b.c.  500,  or  even  600,  iron  or  steel  was  in  common  use, 
though  bronze  had  not  been  altogether  superseded  for  offensive 
arms  such  as  spear-heads  and  battle-axes. 

The  tradition  of  the  earlier  use  of  bronze  still,  however,  remained 
even  in  later  times,  and  the  preference  shown  for  its  employment 
in  religious  rites,  which  I  have  mentioned  elsewhere,*  is  a  strong 
witness  of  this  earlier  use.  It  seems  needless  again  to  do  more 
than  mention  the  bronze  ploughshare  used  at  the  foundation  of 
Tuscan  cities,  the  bronze  knives  and  shears  of  tlie  Sabine  and 
Roman  priests,  and  the  bronze  sickles  of  Medea  and  Elissa.  I 
must,  however,  again  bring  forward  the  speculations  of  an  intel- 
ligent Greek  traveller,  who  wrote  in  the  latter  half  of  the  second 
century  of  our  era,  as  to  the  existence  of  what  we  should  now 
term  a  Bronze  Age  in  Greece. 

Pausanias  t  relates  how  Lichas  the  Lacedaemonian,  in  the  fifth 
century  B.C.,  discovered  the  bones  of  Orestes,  which  his  country- 
men had  been  commanded  by  an  oracle  to  seek.  The  Pythia  t 
had  described  the  place  as  one  where  two  strong  winds  met,  where 
form  was  opposed  to  form,  and  one  evil  lay  upon  another.  These 
Lichas  recognised  in  the  two  bellows  of  the  smith,  the  hammer 
opposed  to  the  anvil,  and  the  iron  lying  on  it.  Pausanias  on  this 
observes  that  at  that  time  they  had  already  begun  to  use  iron  in 
war,  and  that  if  it  had  been  in  the  days  of  the  heroes  it  would 
have  been  bronze  and  not  iron  designated  by  the  oracle  as  the 
evil,  for  in  their  days  all  arms  were  of  bronze.  For  this  he  cites 
Homer  as  his  authority,  who  speaks  of  the  bronze  axe  of  Pisander, 
and  the  arrow  of  Meriones.  A  further  argument  he  derives  from 
the  spear  of  Achilles,  laid  up  in  the  temple  of  Minerva  at  Phaselis, 
and  the  sword  of  Memnon  in  that  of  iEsculapius  at  Nicomedia, 
which  is  entirely  of  bronze,  while  the  ferrule  and  point  of  his 
spear  are  also  of  that  metal. 

The  spear-head  which  lay  with  the  bones  of  Theseus  §  in  the 
Isle  of  Scyros  was  also  of  bronze,  and  probably  the  sword  like- 
Avise.  There  are  no  works  of  Latin  authors  of  a  date  nearly  so 
remote  as  that  of  the  earlier  Greek  writers,  and  long  before  the 
days  of  Ennius,  iron  was  in  general  use  in  Italy.  If  the  Articles 
of  Peace  which  "  Porsena,  King  of  the  Tuscans,  tendered  unto  the 
people  of  Rome "  were  as  Pliny  II  represents  them,  the  Romans 

•  "  Ano.  Stone  Imp.,"  p.  4.  t  "  Lacon.,"  lib.  iii.  cap.  iii. 

t  Herod.,  lib.  i.  c.  67.  §  Plutarch,  "  Thos.,"  p.  17,  r.    Ed.  1624. 

II  "Xat.  Hirt.,"  lib.  xxxiv.  cap,  14. 


USE   OF   IRON   IN   GATJL  AND   ITALY. 


19 


must  even  in  those  early  days  have  had  iron  weapons,  for  they 
were  forbidden  the  use  of  that  metal  except  for  tilling  the  ground. 
In  B.C.  224  the  Isumbrian  Gauls  who  fought  with  Flaminius 
were  already  in  possession  of  iron  swords,  the  softness  and  flexi- 
bility of  which  led  to  the  discomfiture  of  their  owners.  The 
Romans  themselves  seem  but  to  have  been  badly  armed  so  far  as 
swords  were  concerned  until  the  time  of  the  Second  Pimic  War, 
about  B.C.  200,  when  they  adopted  the  Spanish  sword,  and  learnt 
the  method  of  preparing  it.  Whether  the  modem  Toledo  and 
Bilbao  blades  are  legitimate  descendants  of  these  old  weapons  we 
need  not  stop  to  inquire.  In  whatever  manner  the  metal  was  pre- 
l>ared,  so  thoroughly  was  iron  identified  with  the  sword  in  classical 
times  that  ferruya  and  gladius  were  almost  synonyms. 

Pliny  mentions  that  the  best  steel  used  in  Rome  was  imported 
from  China,  a  coimtry  in  which  copper  or  bronze  swords  are  said 
to  have  been  in  use  in  the  days  of  Ki,*  the  son  of  Yu,  b.c.  2197 — 48, 
and  those  of  iron  under  Kung-Kia,  b.c.  1897 — 48,  so  that  there 
also  history  points  to  a  Bronze  Age.     But  this  by  the  way. 

Looking  at  the  fact  that  iron  and  steel  were  in  such  general 
use  at  Rome  during  the  period  of  her  wars  in  Western  Europe, 
we  may  well  believe  that  had  any  of  the  tribes  with  which  the 
Roman  forces  came  in  contact  been  armed  with  bronze,  such  an 
unusual  circumstance  could  hardly  have  escaped  record.  In  the 
Augustan  age  the  iron  swords  of  Noricum  were  in  great  repute,  and 
farther  north  in  Germany,  though  iron  did  not  abound,  it  was,  ac- 
cording to  Tacitus,  used  for  spears  and  swords.  The  Catti  had  the 
metal  in  abundance,  but  among  the  Aestii,  on  the  right  coast  of  the 
Baltic,  it  was  scarce.  The  Cimbrians  in  the  first  century  b.c.  had, 
according  to  Plutarch,t  iron  breast-plates,  javelins,  and  large  swords. 

The  Gauls  of  the  North  of  France  had  in  the  time  of  Julius 
Ctesar  +  large  iron  mines  wliich  they  worked  by  tunnelling ;  the 
bolts  of  their  sliips  were  made  of  that  metal,  and  they  had  even 
chain  cables  of  iron.  The  Britons  of  the  South  of  England  who 
were  in  such  close  communication  with  the  opposite  coast  of  Gaul 
must  have  had  an  equal  acquaintance  with  iron.  Cresar  mentions 
ingots  or  rings  of  iron  as  being  used  for  money,  and  observes 
that  iron  is  obtained  on  the  sea-coast,  but  in  small  quantities,  and 
adds  that  bronze  was  imported.?  Strabo  includes  iron,  as  well  as 
gold,  silver,  and  com,  among  the  products  of  Britain.     In  Spain, 


•  See  ZtiUch.fir  Eth,;'  vol.  u.,  1870,  p.  131. 
X  "BeU.  GaU.,"  iii,  13  ;  yii.  22. 

c  2 


t"Vit.  CaiiMarii,"420,  *. 
§  Lib.  V.  12. 


66  FLAT   AND    FLANGED   CELTS.  [cHAP.   Ill; 

thought  to  have  been  found  in  the  Tliamea,*  it  is  the  upper  part  of  the 


blade  that  is  decorated,  and  not  the  lower,  which  is  left  amooth.    There 
is  no  central  ridge,  but  the  upper  part  has  a  ooane  lozenge  pattern 


CHARACTKR   OF  THBIR  DECORATIONS. 


67 


transrerae  tines.  Possibly  this  roughening  may  havo  aBsisted  to  keep  tho 
}>Ude  fast  in  the  handle,  though  in  producing  it  some  artistio  feeling  was 
hmu^ht  to  bear.  There  is  littlo  doubt  of  this  inatrumeat  being  of  Irish 
nripin. 

Other  celts,  like  Fi^.  36,  have  the  upper  part  of  tbo  blade  nlain  and 
the  lower  omiunonted.  This  npccimen  was  found  at  Trim,  Co.  U^th,  and 
is  in  the  collection  of  Canon  fcoonwoll,  F.R,8.  It  will  be  observed  that 
pren  the  cabled  fluting  of  the  sides  ceases  opposite  the  transverse  ridgo. 

In  Figs.  37  and  38  are  shown  two  moro  of  these  slightly  flanged 
nniamented  celts.  The  first  is  in  the  museum  of  the  Soyal  Imh  Academy, 
and  has  already  been  figured  by  Wilde  (Fig.  298).  The  lower  part  of  the 
Uade  is  fluted  transversely  with  chevron  patterns  punched  in  along  the 
curved  ridges.  In  the  second,  which  was  presented  to  me  by  Dr.  AquiUa 
fimith,  M.K.I.A.,  there  is  a  fairly  well  defined  though  but  shghtly  pro- 
iwtiiiff  curved  stop-ridge,  and  the  blade  is  decorated  by  boldly  punched 
anta,  lorming  a  pattern  which  a  herald  might  describe  as  "  per  saltire 
argent  and  azure."  The  cable  fluting  on  the  sides  is  beautifully  regular. 
Tu  Ber.  O.  W.  Brackenridge,  of  Ctovedon,  possesses  a  longer  Bi>ecimen 
(H  iocbeB),  found  at  Tullygowan,  near  Qracehill,  Co.  Antrim,  the  faces  of 
which  are  ornamented  with  a  nearly  similar  design.  Canon  Greenwell 
bu  another  example  found  at  Carrickfergus,  Co.  Antrim. 

The  patterns  punched  mion  the  celts  of  this  type  show  a  great 
Ttriety  of  form,  and  not  a  little  fertility  of  design  in  the  ancient 
artificers.*  Various  combinations  of  chevron  patterns  are  the  most 
frequent,  diough  grained  surfaces  and  straight  lines  like  those  on 
Fig.  17  tiao  frequently  occur.  Sir  William  Wilde  describes  them 
as  hammend,  punched,  engraved,  or  cast.  Most  of  the  patterns 
were,  bowerer,  produced  by  means  of  punches,  though  it  is  possible 

eit  in  some  instances  the  other  ]>r')cesses  may  have  been  used. 
Kgi  39  to  43,  borrowed  from  Wilde  (Figs.  28G  to  200),  show 
Da   of   the    patterns    full   size.     The    punch    most    commonly 


f§«Sl5  ittKCl'l'llCB  ^'SSSSS         /J'      il 

nr.  w.  Fid.  41.  Ke«.  Fig«. 

i  have  resembled  a  narrow  and  blunt  chisel ;  but  a 

fr-ponch,  producing  a  shallow  round  indentation,  wns 

i  And  possibly  a  somewhat  curved  punch  like  a  blunt 

a  canes  the  lines  between  the  punched  marks  are, 

i,  engraved.     It  is,  however,  a  question  whetlier 

S  might  not  have  been  produced  by  a  chisel  used 

ft  punch.     Wliat  were  probably  punches  for 

,"  p.  3B9  «<  •*(■  i  "  Vsllancej,"  voL  ir.  pL  i.  9. 


22  INTRODUCTORY.  [CHAP.  I. 

steel  tools,  he  brings  forward  an  official  document  signed  by  four 
authorities  in  the  museum  at  Copenhagen,  and  stating  that  pre- 
cisely similar  ornamentation  to  the  spirals,  zigzags,  and  punched 
lines  which  occur  on  Scandinavian  bronze  antiquities  had  been 
produced  in  their  presence  by  a  workman  using  bronze  tools  only 
on  a  plate  of  bronze.  Both  plate  and  tools  were  of  the  same 
aUoy,  viz.  9  of  copper  to  1  of  tin. 

On  this  a  final  charge  is  made  by  Professor  Hostmann  **  and 
Dr.  Lindenschmit,  the  former  of  whom  produces  a  kind  of  affidavit 
from  the  late  director  of  the  Polytechnic  School  at  Hanover  and  the 
court  medallist  of  the  same  town,  to  the  effect  that  certain  kinds 
of  punched  work  cannot  be  produced  with  bronze  punches,  and 
the  editors  of  the  Archiv  think  it  best  to  close  the  discussion 
after  Dr.  Lindenschmit's  final  retort. 

I  have  not  thought  it  worth  while  to  enter  into  all  the  details 
of  this  controversy,  as  even  to  summarise  them  would  occupy 
more  room  than  I  could  spare.  It  seems  to  me,  however,  that  a 
considerable  amount  of  misconception  must  have  existed  in  the 
minds  of  some  of  the  disputants,  both  as  to  the  accepted  meaning 
of  the  term  Bronze  Age,  as  applied  not  chronologically,  but  to  a 
certain  stage  of  civilisation,  and  as  to  the  limitation  of  the  objects 
which  can  with  propriety  be  referred  to  that  age.  No  antiquary 
of  experience  will  deny  that  many  bronze  ornaments,  and  even 
some  bronze  weapons,  remained  in  use  long  after  iron  and  even 
steel  were  known,  any  more  than  he  would  deny  that  the  use  of 
stone  for  certain  purposes  continued  not  only  after  bronze  was 
known,  but  even  after  iron  and  steel  were  in  general  use,  and,  in 
fact,  up  to  the  present  time,  not  only  in  barbarian  but  in  civilised 
countries.  Our  flint  strike-a-lights  and  our  burnishers  are  still 
of  much  the  same  character  as  they  were  some  thousands  of 
years  ago,  and  afford  convincing  instances  of  this  persistent  use. 

The  real  question  at  issue  is  not  whether  any  bronze  weapons 
co-existed  with  those  of  iron  and  steel  in  Western  Europe,  but 
whether  any  of  them  were  there  in  use  at  a  period  when  iron  and 
steel  were  unknown.  Moreover,  it  is  not  a  question  as  to  whence 
the  knowledge  of  bronze  was  derived,  nor  whether  at  the  time 
the  Scandinavians  or  Britons  were  using  bronze  for  their  tools  and 
weapons,  the  inhabitants  of  Greece  and  Italy  w^ere  already  ac- 
quainted with  iron  and  steel ;  but  it  is  a  question  whether  in  each 
individual  country  there  arrived  a  time  when  bronze  came  into 

•  Are/i»f,  Aiithrop.f  vol.  x.  pp.  41,  63. 


THE  SUCCESSION  OF  IBON  TO  BBONZB.  23 

use  and  for  certain  purposes  superseded  stone,  while  iron  and 
steel  were  practically  unknown. 

This  is  a  question  to  be  solved  by  evidence,  though  in  the 
nature  of  things  that  evidence  must  to  some  extent  be  of  a  nega- 
tive character.  When  barrow  after  barrow  is  opened,  and  weapons 
of  bronze  and  stone  only  are  found  accompanying  the  interments, 
and  not  a  trace  of  iron  or  steel ;  when  hoards  of  rough  metal 
and  broken  bronze,  together  with  the  moulds  of  the  bronze- 
founder  and  some  of  his  stock-in-trade,  are  disinterred,  and  there 
is  no  trace  of  an  iron  tool  among  them — ^the  presumption  is  strong 
that  at  the  time  when  these  men  and  these  hoards  were  buried 
iron  was  not  in  use.  AVhen,  moreover,  by  a  careful  examination 
of  the  forms  of  bronze  instruments  we  can  trace  a  certain  amount 
of  development  which  is  in  keeping  with  the  peculiar  properties 
of  bronze  and  not  with  those  of  iron,  and  we  can  thus  to  some 
extent  fix  a  kind  of  chronological  succession  in  these  forms,  the 
inference  is  that  this  evolution  of  form,  which  must  have  required 
a  considerable  amount  of  time,  took  place  without  its  course  being 
affected  by  any  introduction  of  a  fresh  and  qualifying  influence  in 
the  shape  of  iron  tools  and  weapons. 

\Vhen,  however,  in  various  countries  we  find  interments  and 
even  cemeteries  in  which  bronze  and  iron  weapons  and  instruments 
are  intermingled,  and  the  forms  of  those  in  bronze  are  what  we 
have  learnt  from  other  sources  to  regard  as  the  latest,  while  the 
forms  in  iron  are  not  those  for  which  that  metal  is  best  adapted, 
but  are  almost  servile  copies  of  the  bronze  instruments  found  with 
them,  the  proof  of  the  one  having  succeeded  the  other  is  almost 
absolutely  conclusive. 

The  lessons  taught  by  such  cemeteries  as  that  at  Hallstatt,  in 
Austria,  and  by  our  own  Late  Celtic  interments,  such  as  those  at 
Arras,  in  Yorkshire,  are  of  the  highest  importance  in  this  question. 

It  is  not,  however,  to  be  supposed  that  even  in  countries  by  no 
means  geographically  remote  from  each  other  the  introduction  either 
of  iron  or  bronze  must  of  necessity  have  taken  place  at  one  and  the 
same  chronological  period.  Near  the  shores  of  the  Mediterranean 
the  use  of  each  metal  no  doubt  prevailed  far  earlier  than  in  any 
of  the  northern  countries  of  Europe  ;  and  though  the  knowledge 
of  metals  probably  spread  from  certain  centres,  its  progress  can 
have  been  but  slow,  for  in  each  part  of  Europe  there  appears  to 
have  been  some  special  development,  particularly  in  the  forms  of 
bronze  instruments,  and  there  is  no  absolute  uniformity  in  their 


24  INTKODUCTORY.  [CHAP.  1. 

types  extending  over  any  large  area.  In  each  country  the  process 
of  manufacture  was  carried  on,  and  though  some  commerce  in  tools 
and  arms  of  bronze  no  doubt  took  place  between  neighbouring 
tribes,  yet  as  a  rule  there  are  local  peculiarities  characteristic  of 
special  districts. 

So  marked  are  these  that  a  practised  archaeologist  can  in  almost 
all  cases,  on  inspection  of  a  group  of  bronze  antiquities,  fix  with 
some  degree  of  confidence  the  country  in  which  they  were  foimd. 
To  this  rule  Britain  offers  no  exception,  and  though  some  forms  of 
instruments  were  no  doubt  imported,  yet,  as  will  subsequently  be 
seen,  our  types  are  for  the  most  part  indigenous. 

As  to  the  ornamentation  of  bronze  by  bronze  tools,  I  have  seen 
none  in  this  country  on  objects  which  I  should  refer  to  the  Bronze 
Age  but  what  could  have  been  effected  by  means  of  bronze 
punches,  of  which  indeed  examples  have  been  discovered  in  bronze- 
founders'  hoards  in  France,*  and  what  are  probably  such  also  in 
Britain.  Such  ornamentation  is,  however,  simple  compared  mth 
that  on  many  of  the  Danish  forms,  and  yet  I  have  seen  the  com- 
plicated  Scandinavian  ornaments  accurately  and  sharply  repro- 
duced  by  Dr.  Otto  Tischler,  by  means  of  bronze  tools  only,  on 
bronze  of  the  ordinary  ancient  alloy. 

But  even  supposing  that  iron  and  steel  were  kno>vn  during  some 
part  of  the  so-called  Bronze  Age,  I  do  not  see  in  what  manner  it 
would  affect  the  main  features  of  the  case  or  the  interest  attaching  to 
the  bronze  objects  which  I  am  about  to  describe.  "  De  non  apparen- 
tibus  et  non  existentibus  eadem  est  ratio  "  is  a  maxim  of  some 
weight  in  archsBology  as  well  as  in  law ;  and  in  the  absence  of  iron 
and  all  trace  of  its  influence,  it  matters  but  little  whether  it  was 
known  or  not,'except  in  so  far  as  a  neglect  of  its  use  would  argue  some 
want  of  intelligence  on  the  part  of  those  who  did  not  avail  them- 
selves of  so  useful  a  metal  It  will  be  seen  hereafter  that  some  of 
the  objects  described  in  these  pages  actually  do  belong  to  an  Iron 
Period,  and  nothing  could  better  illustrate  the  transition  of  one 
Period  into  another,  or  the  overlapping  of  the  Bronze  Age  upon 
that  of  Iron,  than  the  fact  that  in  these  pages  devoted  to  the 
Bronze  Period  I  must  of  necessity  describe  many  objects  which 
were  still  in  use  when  iron  and  st^el  were  sui^erseding  bronze,  in 
the  same  manner  as  in  my  "Ancient  Stone  Implements"  I  was  forced 
to  describe  many  forms,  such  as  battle-axes,  arrow-heads,  and 
bracers,  which  avowedly  belonged  to  the  Bronze  Period. 

•  MoitiUet,  '*  Fondoric  do  Lumaud,"  32,  33. 


THE  PRESEKVATION    OF   ANCIENT  IRON.  25 

A  point  which  is  usually  raised  by  those  who  maintain  the 
priority  of  the  use  of  iron  to  that  of  bronze  is,  that  inasmuch  as 
it  is  more  readily  oxidized  and  dissolved  by  acids  naturally  present 
in  the  soil,  iron  may  have  disappeared,  and  indeed  has  done  so, 
while  bronze  has  been  left ;  so  that  the  absence  of  iron  as  an 
accompaniment  to  all  early  interments  counts  for  nothing.  Pro- 
fessor RoUeston,*  in  a  paper  on  the  three  periods  knowoi  as  the 
Iron,  the  Bronze,  and  the  Stone  Ages,  has  well  dealt  with  this 
point ;  and  observes  that  in  some  graves  of  the  Bronze  Period  the 
objects  contained  are  incrusted  with  carbonate  of  lime,  which 
would  have  protected  any  iron  instrument  of  the  Bronze  Period  as 
well  as  it  has  done  those  of  Saxon  times.  Not  only  are  the  iron 
weapons  discovered  in  Saxon  cemeteries  often  in  almost  perfect 
preservation,  but  on  the  sites  of  Roman  occupation  whole  hoards 
of  iron  tools  have  been  found  but  little  injured  by  rust.  The  fact 
that  at  Hallstatt  and  other  places  in  which  graves  have  been 
examined  belonging  to  the  transitional  period,  when  both  iron 
and  bronze  were  in  use  together,  the  weapons  and  tools  of  iron, 
though  oxidized,  still  retain  their  form  and  character  as  com- 
pletely as  those  in  bronze,  also  affords  strong  ground  for  believing 
that  had  iron  been  present  with  bronze  in  other  early  interments 
it  would  also  have  been  preserved.  The  importance  attaching  to 
the  reputed  occurrence  of  bronze  swords  with  Roman  coins  as  late 
as  the  time  of  Magnentius  cannot  bo  better  illustrated  than  by  a 
discovery  of  my  own  in  the  ancient  cemetery  of  Hallstatt.  In 
company  with  Sir  Jolm  Lubbock  I  was  engaged  in  opening  a 
grave  in  which  we  had  come  to  an  interment  of  the  Early 
Iron  Age,  accompanied  by  a  socketed  celt  and  spear-heads  of 
iron,  when  amidst  the  bones  I  caught  sight  of  a  thin  metallic 
disc  of  a  yellowish  colour  which  looked  like  a  coin.  Up  to 
tliat  time  no  coin  had  ever  been  found  in  any  one  of  the 
many  hundred  graves  which  had  been  examined,  and  I  eagerly 
picked  up  this  disc.  It  proved  to  be  a  "  sechser,"  or  six-kreutzer 
piece,  with  the  date  1826,  which  by  some  means  had  worked  its 
way  down  among  the  crevices  in  the  stony  ground,  and  which 
from  its  appearance  had  evidently  been  buried  some  years.  Had 
this  coin  been  of  Roman  date  it  might  have  afforded  an  argument 
for  bringing  down  the  date  of  the  Hallstatt  cemetery  some  cen- 
turies in  the  chronological  scale.  As  it  is,  it  affords  a  wholesome 
caution  against  drawing  important  inferences  from  the  mere  coUo- 

♦  Trans,  Briat,  and  Glouc,  Arch.  Soc,,  1878. 


26  INTRODUCTORY.  [CHAP.  I. 

cation  of  objects  when  there  is  any  possibility  of  the  apparent 
association  being  only  due  to  accident. 

In  further  illustration  of  the  succession  of  the  three  Ages  of 
Stone,  Bronze,  and  Iron  in  Western  Europe,  I  might  go  on  to 
cite  cases  of  the  actual  supeq^osition  of  the  objects  of  one  age 
over  those  of  another,  such  as  has  been  observed  in  several  barrows 
and  in  the  well-known  instance  of  the  cone  of  La  Tinifere,  in  the 
Lake  of  Geneva,  recorded  by  Morlot. 

It  will,  however,  be  thought  that  enough,  if  not  more  than 
enough,  has  already  been  said  on  the  general  question  of  a  Bronze 
Age  in  a  book  particularly  devoted  to  the  weapons  and  instru- 
ments of  bronze  found  in  the  British  Isles.  It  is  now  time  to 
proceed  with  the  examination  and  description  of  their  various 
forms  ;  and  in  doing  this  I  propose  to  treat  separately,  so  far  as 
possible,  the  different  classes  of  instruments  intended  each  for  some 
special  jiurpose,  and  at  the  same  time  to  point  out  their  analogies 
with  instruments  of  the  same  character  found  in  other  parts  of 
Europe.  Their  chronological  sequence  so  far  as  it  can  be  ascer- 
tained, the  position  in  time  of  the  Bronze  Period  of  Britain  and 
Ireland,  and  the  sources  from  which  our  bronze  civilisation  was 
derived,  will  be  discussed  in  a  concluding  chapter. 

I  begin  with  the  instrument  of  the  most  common  occurrence, 
the  so-called  celt. 


CHAPTER  II. 

CELTS. 

Of  all  the  forms  of  bronze  instruments  the  hatchet  or  axe,  to 
which  the  name  of  celt  has  been  applied,  is  perhaps  the  most 
common  and  the  best  known.  It  is  also  probably  among  the 
earliest  of  the  instruments  fabricated  from  metal,  though  in 
this  country  it  is  possible  that  some  of  the  cutting  instruments, 
such  as  the  knife-daggers,  which  required  a  less  amount  of  metal 
for  their  formation,  are  of  equal  or  greater  antiquity. 

These  tools  or  weapons — for,  like  the  American  tomahawk,  they 
seem  to  have  been  in  use  for  peaceful  as  well  as  warlike  purposes — 
may  be  divided  into  several  classes.  Celts  may  be  described  as 
flat ;  flanged,  or  having  ribs  along  the  sides ;  winged,  or  having 
the  side  flanges  extended  so  as  almost  to  form  a  socket  for  the 
handle  on  either  side  of  the  blade,  to  which  variety  the  name  of 
jiaLstave  has  been  given  ;  and  socketed.  Of  most  of  these  classes 
there  are  several  varieties,  as  will  be  seen  farther  on. 

The  name  of  celt  which  has  been  given  to  these  instilments  is 
derived  from  the  doubtful  Latin  word  "  celtis  "  or  "  celtes,"  a  chisel, 
which  is  in  its  turn  said  to  be  derived  d  cadaiulo  (from  carving), 
and  to  be  the  equivalent  of  coelunt. 

The  only  author  in  whose  works  the  word  is  found  is  St.  Jerome, 
and  it  is  employed  both  in  his  A'^ulgate  translation  of  the  Book  of 
Job*  and  in  a  quotation  from  that  book  in  his  Ej^istle  to  Pam- 
machius.  The  word  also  occurs  in  an  inscription  recorded  by 
Gruter  and  Aldus, t  but  as  this  inscription  is  a  modern  forgery, 
it  does  not  add  to  the  authority  of  the  word  **  celtis." 

Mr.  Knight  Watson,  Sec.  S.  A.,  in  on  interesting  paper  com- 
municated to  the  Society  of  Antiquaries  of  London,^  has  given 

♦  Cap.  xix.  V.  24. 

t  P.  329J.  23.  NEQVE  IIIC  ATRAMENTVM,  VEL  PAPYUVS,  AVT  MEM- 
BRANA  VLLA  ADHVC,  SED  3IALLE0L0  ET  CELTE  LITEKATVS  SILEX. 
This  inscription  is  said  to  have  been  found  at  Pola,  in  Istria. 

t  Jhroe.  Soc,  Ant,  2nd  S.,  vol.  vii.  p.  396. 


28  CELTS.  [chap.  n. 

several  detjiils  as  to  the  origin  and  use  of  this  word,  which  he  con- 
siders to  have  been  founded  on  a  misreading  of  the  word  certe,  and 
the  derivation  of  which  from  coelo  he  regards  as  impossible.  There 
can  be  no  doubt,  as  Beger  pointed  out  two  centuries  ago,  that  a 
number  of  MSS.  of  the  Vulgate  read  certe  instead  of  celte  in  the 
passage  in  Job  already  mentioned,  and  that  in  all  probability  these 
are  the  most  ancient  and  the  best.  But  this  only  adds  to  the  dif- 
ficulty of  imderstanding  how  a  recently  invented  and  an  unknown 
word,  such  as  celte  is  presumed  to  be,  can  have  ever  supplanted  a 
well-known  word  like  certe ;  and  so  far  as  the  Burial  Service  of  the 
Roman  Catholic  Church  is  concerned  can  have  maintained  its  ground 
for  centuries.  Nor  is  this  difficulty  diminished  when  we  consider 
that  the  ordinary  and  proper  translation  of  the  Hebrew  -jl?b  is 
either  "  in  ajtemum  "  or  "  in  testimonium,"  according  as  the  word 
is  pointed  "rjb  or  i^h,  and  that,  so  far  as  I  am  aware,  there  is  no 
other  instance  of  its  being  translated  *' certe'*  On  the  other  hand,  a 
nearly  similar  word,  tD55  "  with  a  stylus/*  or,  as  it  is  translated,  "  a 
pen,"  occurs  in  the  same  passage ;  and  assimiing  that  this  was  by 
some  accident  read  for  "ivh  by  St.  Jerome,  he  would  have  thought 
that  the  word  for  stylus  was  used  twice  over,  and  have  inserted 
some  word  to  designate  a  graving  tool,  by  way  of  a  synonym.  The 
probability  of  such  an  error  would  be  increased  if  his  MS.  had 
the  lines  arranged  in  couplets  in  accordance  with  its  poetical 
character,  the  passage  standing  thus  when  un-pointed  : — 

rrGV^  bnn  tarn 

Very  possibly  the  word  used  by  St.  Jerome  may  not  have  been 
celte  but  ccelo,  and  the  comiption  into  celte  in  order  to  make  a 
distinction  between  heaven  and  a  chisel  would  then  at  all  events 
have  been  possible. 

The  other  contention  involves  tw^o  extreme  improbabilities — the 
one,  that  St.  Jerome,  having  in  his  second  revision  of  the  Bible 
translated  the  passage  as  "  in  testimonium  in  petris  sculpantur," 
should  in  the  Vulgate  have  given  the  inaccurate  rendering  **  certe 
sculpantur  in  silice  ;"  the  other  and  the  more  extreme  of  the  two, 
that  the  well-knowTi  word  certe  should  have  been  ousted  by  a 
word  like  celte  had  it  been  utterly  new-fangled. 

Under  any  view  of  the  case  there  are  considerable  difficulties, 
but  as  the  word  celt  has  now  obtained  a  firm  hold  in  our  language, 
it  will  be  convenient  to  retain  it,  whatever  its  origin  or  derivation. 


ORIGIN   OF   THE   WORD   CELT,  29 

It  has  been  the  fashion  among  some  who  are  fond  of  novelties 
to  call  these  instruments  "  kelts/'  possibly  from  some  mental 
association  of  the  instruments  with  a  Celtic  or  Keltic  population. 
From  some  such  cause  also  some  of  the  French  antiquaries  must 
have  coined  the  new  plural  to  the  word,  Celtce.  Even  in  this 
country  it  has  been  said  "^  with  regard  to  "  the  ancient  weapon 
denominated  the  celt,"  *'  Our  antiquarians  have  commonly  as- 
cribed them  to  the  ancient  Celtse,  and  hence  have  eriven  them  this 
unmeaning  appellation."  If  any  one  prefers  pronouncing  celt  as 
"  kelt,"  or  celestial  as  *'  kelestial,"  let  him  do  so  ;  but  at  all  events 
let  us  adhere  to  the  old  spelling.  How  the  Romans  of  the  time 
of  St.  Jerome  would  have  pronounced  the  word  cceluvi  or  celtis 
may  be  inferred  from  the  punning  line  of  Ausonius  with  regard 

to  Venus,  t 

**  Orta  salo,  suscepta  solo,  patre  edita  coelo." 

The  first  author  of  modem  times  whose  use  of  the  word  in  con- 
nection with  Celts  I  can  trace  is  Beger,  who,  in  his  "  Thesaurus 
Brandenburgicus  "  J  (1C96),  gives  an  engraving  of  a  celt  of  the 
palstave  form,  under  the  title  Celtes,  together  with  the  follo^ving 
dialogue  : — 

"Et  nomen  et  instrumentum  mihi  obscurum  est,  infit  Ar- 
CH-«0PHILUS ;  Instrumentum  Statuariorum  est,  respondit  DuLO- 
DORUS,  qui  simulacra  ex  Cera,  Alabastro,  aliisque  lapidum 
generibus  csedunt  et  poliunt.  Graecis  dicitur  '  Ey Konev^,  qua  voce 
Lucianus  usus  est  in  Somnio,  ubi  cum  lusum  non  insuavem 
dixisset,  Deos  sculpere,  et  parva  quondam  simulacra  adomare,  addit 
tyKoirea  yap  tlvcl  fioi  Zov9y  scilicet  avunculus,  id  quod  Job.  Bene- 
dictus  vertit,  Celte  data.  Celte  ?  excepit  Archjj:ophilus  ;  at  nisi 
fallor  hajc  vox  Latinis  incognita  est  ?  Habetur,  inquit  DuLO- 
DORUS,  in  versione  vulgat&  Libri  Hiob  c.  19  quamvis  alii  non 
Celte,  sed  Certe  ibi  legant,  quod  tamen  minus  quadrat.  Quicquid 
sit,  instrumentum  Statuariorum  hoc  esse,  ex  formS,  patet,  figuris 
incidendis  aptissima ;  neque  enim  opinio  Molineti  videtur  admit- 
tenda,  qui  Securim  appellat,  cum  nuUus  aptandi  manubrii  locus 
huic  faveat.  Metallum  reposuit  ARCHiEOPHiLUS,  minus  videtur 
convenire.  Instrumentum  hoc  ex  sere  est,  quod  duritiem  lapidum 
nescio  an  superare  potuerit  ?  Uti  lapides  diversi  sunt,  regessit 
DuLODORUS,  ita  diversa  fuisse  etiam  metalla  instrumentorum  iis 

♦  Rev.  John  Dow  in  Archcpol.  Scot.,  vol.  ii.  p.  199.    See  also  Pegge  in  the  Arch., 
Tol.  ix.  p.  88,  and  Whitaker's  "  Iliflt.  of  Manchester,**  vol.  i.  p.  24. 
t  Epig.  zxxiii.  1.  1.  }  Vol.  iii.  p.  418. 


30  CELTS.  [chap.  II. 

caedendis  destinatonim,  faeilfe  cesserim.  Vet.  Gloss.  Celtem 
inatimmentum  ferreum  dicit  proculdubio  qu6d  durioribus  lapidibus 
ferreum  chalybe  munitum  servierit.  Hoc  autem  non  obstat,  lit 
ffireum  vel  ceris,  vel  terns,  vel  lapidibus  moUioribus  fiierit  adhibi- 
tum.  Si  tamen  res  Tibi  minus  probetur,  me  non  contradicente, 
moUiori  vocabulo  yXixfmov  ccelum  poteris  et  appellare  et  credere. 
T\v(f)€ia  etiam  Statuarionim  instrumenta  fuisse,  ex  allegato  mod6 
Luciano  planum  est,  iibi  Humanitas,  ai  me  relmquis^  inquit,  axij/ia 
ZouXoTrperre^  avaKyy^rj,  koI  /loyXia,  koI  y\v<f)€iay  icat  Konea^,  koi 
k'oXa'jrrljpa^  tv  rcuv  xepoiv  e^ei?,  habit uin  sennlem  asaumes,  Ve^fss, 
COELA,  CELTESy  Scalpra  pi'ce  manibus  Itabehisy 

The  idea  of  a  bronze  celt  being  a  statuary's  chisel  for  carving  in 
wax,  alabaster,  and  the  softer  kinds  of  stone  will  seem  the  less 
absurd  if  we  remember  that,  at  the  time  when  Beger  wrote,  the 
manner  in  which  such  instruments  were  hafted  was  unknown,  and 
that  all  antiquities  of  bronze  were  generally  regarded  as  being  of 
Roman  or  Greek  origin. 

Dr.  Olaf  Worm,  a  Danish  antiquary  of  the  seventeenth  centurj% 
was  more  enlightened  than  Beger,  for  in  his  "  Museum  Wormia- 
niim,"*  published  in  1655,  he  states  his  belief  that  bronze  weapons 
had  formerly  been  in  use  in  Denmark,  and  cites  two  flat  or 
flanged  celts,  or  cunei,  as  he  calls  them,  found  in  Jutland,  which 
he  regards  as  hand  weapons  for  close  encounters.  He  also  was, 
nevertheless,  at  a  loss  to  know  how  they  were  hafted,  for  he  adds 
that  had  they  but  been  provided  with  shaft-holes  he  should  have 
considered  them  to  have  been  axes. 

In  a  work  treating  of  the  bronze  antiquities  of  Britain  we  must, 
however,  first  consider  the  opinion  of  British  antiquaries,  by  whom 
the  word  celt  had  been  completely  adopted  as  the  name  for  bronze 
hatchets  and  axes  by  the  middle  of  the  last  centurj-.  Borlase,t 
in  his  "  Antiquities  of  Cornwall,"  1754,  speaking  of  some  "spear- 
heads "  of  copper  mentioned  by  Leland,  says  that  by  the  spear- 
heads he  certainly  meant  those  which  we  (from  Begerus)  now 
call  Celts.  Leland's  words  are  as  follows  :  J — "  There  was  found  of 
late  Yeres  syns  Spere  Heddes,  Axis  for  Warre,  and  Swerdes  of 
coper  wrapped  up  in  l}Tiid  scant  perished  nere  the  Mount  in  S. 
Hilaries  Paroch  in  Tynne  Works ; "  so  that  it  by  no  moans 
follows  but  that  he  was  right  in  speaking  of  spear-hoads,  for  if 
there  were  any  celts  among  the  objects  discovered  they  were  pro- 
bably termed  battle-axes  by  Leland. 

♦  P.  354.  t  p.  265.  t  "  Itin.,"  vol.  iii.  p.  7. 


VIEWS  OF   EARLY  ANTIQrARIES.  31 

Camden  makes  mention  of  the  same  find  :  *  "At  the  foote  of 
this  mountaine  (St.  Michaers  Mount),  within  the  memorie  of  our 
Fathers,  whiles  men  were  digging  up  of  tin,  they  found  Spear- 
heads, axes,  and  swordes  of  brasse  wrapped  in  linnen,  such  as  were 
sometimes  found  within  the  forrest  of  Hercinia  in  Germanie,  and 
not  long  since  in  our  Wales.  For  evident  it  is  by  the  monuments 
of  ancient  Writers  that  the  Greeks,  the  Cimbrians,  and  the 
Britans  used  brazen  weapons,  although  the  wounds  given  with 
brasse  bee  lesse  hurtfull,  as  in  which  mettall  there  is  a  medicinable 
vertue  to  heale,  according  as  Macrobius  reporteth  out  of  Aristotle. 
But  happily  that  age  was  not  so  cunning  in  devising  meanes  to 
mischiefe  and  murthers  as  ours  is." 

Heame,  the  editor  of  Leland's  **  Itinerary,"  took  a  less  philoso- 
phical view  of  these  instruments.  Writing  to  Thoresbyt  in 
1709,  he  maintains  that  some  old  instruments  of  bronze  found 
near  Bramham  Moor,  Yorkshire,  are  not  the  heads  of  British 
spears  ;  on  the  contrary,  they  are  Roman,  not  axes  used  in  their 
sacrifices,  nor  the  heads  of  spears  and  javelins,  but  chisels  w^hich 
were  used  to  cut  and  polish  the  stones  in  their  tents.  Such 
instruments  were  also  used  in  making  the  Roman  highways  and  in 
draining  their  fens. 

Plot  {  also,  at  a  somewhat  earlier  date,  asserted  a  Roman  origin 
for  bronze  celts,  which  he  regarded  as  the  heads  of  bolts,  founding 
his  opinion  mainly  on  two,  which  are  engraved  in  the  Museum 
Moscardi.  These,  which  are  reproduced  in  the  Archceologia, 
vol.  V.  PL  VIII.  18  and  19,  are  of  the  palstave  form,  and  were 
regarded  by  Moscardo  §  as  the  heads  of  great  darts  to  be  thrown 
from  a  catapult.  A  flat  celt  found  in  Staffordshire,  II  Plot  takes  to 
be  the  head  of  a  Roman  aecuris  with  which  the  Popw  sIcav  their 
sacrifices. 

Rowland.lf  in  his  "Mona  Antiqua  Restaurata,'*  1723,  suggested 
that  looped  palstaves  fastened  by  a  thong  to  a  staff  might  be  used 
as  war  flails. 

The  imaginative  Dr.  Stukeley,  in  the  year  1724,  communicated 
to  the  Society  of  Antiquaries  a  discourse  on  the  use  of  celts, 
which  is  to  be  found  in  the  Minute  Book  of  the  Society.  An 
abstract  of  it  is  given  by  Mr.  Lort  **  in  his  paper  subsequently  men- 

•  "  Britannia,"  ed.  1637,  n.  188. 

t  *'Thoresby'§  CJorreapondence,**  vol.  ii.  p.  211. 

;  «  Nat.  Hist,  of  Staffordshire,*'  1686,  p.  403. 

}  **Mui.  Lud.  Moflcard."    Padua,  1656,  fol.  305,  lib.  iii.  c.  174. 

ll  '^Nat.  Hist  of  Staff.,"  p.  403.  U  P.  86.  •♦  Arch,,  vol.  v.  p.  110. 


32  CELTS.  [chap.  II. 

tioned.  Dr.  Stukeley  undertook  to  show  that  celts  were  British 
and  appertaining  to  the  Druids,  who,  when  not  using  them  to  cut 
off  the  boughs  of  oak  and  mistletoe,  put  them  in  their  pouches, 
or  hung  them  to  their  girdles  by  the  little  ring  or  loop  at  the 
side.  In  a  more  sensible  manner  he  divided  them  into  two 
classes,  the  recipient  and  the  received  ;  that  is  to  say,  the  socketed, 
in  which  the  handle  was  received,  and  the  flat  and  palstave  forms, 
which  entered  into  a  notch  in  the  handle. 

Borlase,^  notmthstanding  that  he  was  under  the  impression 
that  a  number  of  socketed  celts  found  at  EjimbrS  in  1744  were 
accompanied  by  Roman  coins,  one  of  them  at  least  as  late  as 
the  time  of  Constantius  I.,  did  "  not  take  them  to  be  purely 
Roman,  foreign,  or  of  Italian  invention  and  workmanship." 

He  argues  that  the  Romans  of  Italy  would  not  have  made  such 
instruments  of  brass  after  Julius  Caesar's  time,  when  the  superior 
hardness  of  iron  was  so  well  understood,  and  that  metal  was  so 
easily  to  be  procured.  Farther,  that  no  representations  of  such 
weapons  occur  on  the  Trajan  or  Antonine  Columns,  that  few 
specimens  exist  in  the  cabinets  of  the  curious  in  Italy,  where  they 
are  regarded  as  Transalpine  antiquities,  and  that  none  have 
been  found  among  the  ruins  of  Herculaneum  ;  t  nor  are  any  pub- 
lished in  the  Museum  Romanum  or  the  Museum  Kircherianum. 
He  concludes  that  they  were  made  and  used  in  Britain,  but  that 
though  they  were  originally  of  British  invention  and  fabric,  they 
were  for  the  most  part  made  when  the  Britons  had  improved  their 
arts  under  their  Roman  masters,  as  most  of  them  seem  too  correct 
and  shapely  for  the  Britons  before  the  Julian  conquest. 

As  to  the  uses  of  celts,  Borlase  cites  the  various  opinions  of  the 
learned,  and  observes  that  if  they  had  not  been  advanced  by  men 
of  learning  it  would  be  scarce  excusable  to  mention  some  of  them, 
much  less  to  refute  them.  They  had  been  taken  for  heads  of 
Avalking  staffs,  for  chisels  to  cut  stone  wdthal  (as  such  instruments 
nuist  have  been  absolutely  necessary  in  making  the  great  Roman 
roads),  as  tools  with  which  to  engrave  letters  and  inscriptions,  as 
the  sickles  with  which  the  Druids  cut  the  sacred  mistletoe,  and  as 
rests  to  support  the  lituus  of  the  Roman  augurs.  After  all,  how- 
ever, Borlase  himself  comes  to  the  somewhat  lame  conclusion  that 
they  formed  the  head  or  arming  of  the  spear,  the  javelin,  or  the 

♦  "  Ants,  of  Cornwall,"  p.  263. 

t  Count  de  Caylus  has,  howeyer,  engraved  two  wliich  are  said  to  have  been  found  at 
Herculaneum.  Ho  thought  that  they  were  chisels  {Etc,  d'Ani.y  vol.  ii.  pi.  xciii. 
fig.  2 ;  xciv.  fig.  1). 


OONJECrrURES  AS  TO  THE   USE   OF    CELTS.  33 

urow,  and  thinks  that  Mr.  Rowland  comes  the  nearest  to  the  truth 
of  any  author  he  has  read,  when  he  says  that  they  might  be  used 
with  a  string  to  draw  them  back,  and  something  like  a  feather  to 
guide  them  in  flying  towards  the  enemy,  and  calls  them  sling- 
hatchets.  He  concedes,  however,  that  for  such  weighty  heads 
there  was  no  occasion  for  feathers,  and  as  for  slinging  of  hatchets 
against  an  enemy,  he  does  not  remember  any  instance,  ancient 
or  modem.  Some  of  the  celts,  moreover,  are  too  light  to  do  any 
execution  if  thrown  from  the  hand. 

The  Rev.  Mr.  Lort,*  who  communicated  some  observations  on 
celts  to  the  Society  of  Antiquaries  in  1776,  differed  from  Dr. 
Borlase,  and  regarded  a  large  flat  celt  found  in  the  Lower 
Fumess  as  manifestly  designed  to  be  held  in  the  hand  only,  and 
much  better  adapted  to  the  chipping  of  stone  than  to  any  other 
use  which  has  hitherto  been  found  out  for  it.  He  will  not,  how- 
ever, take  upon  himself  to  assert  that  some  socketed  celts,  which 
he  also  describes,  were  designed  for  the  same  purpose.  Appended 
to  the  paper  by  Mr.  Lort  are  notices  of  several  bronze  celts,  which 
at  different  times  had  been  brought  under  the  notice  of  the 
Society  of  Antiquaries.  Some  which  had  been  exhibited  in  1735 
were  regarded  by  Mr.  Benjamin  Cooke  and  Mr.  CoUinson  as 
Gaulish  weapons  used  by  the  Roman  auxiliaries  at  the  time  of 
Claudius.  Mr.  Cooke,  however,  took  them  to  be  axes,  and 
mounted  one  of  them  on  a  shaft,  citing  Homer  as  his  authority 
for  doing  so,  and  speaking  of  the  a^ivrjv  evxoXtcov, 

The  Rev.  Samuel  Pegge  in  1787  makes  some  pertinent  remarks 
respecting  celts  in  a  letter  to  Mr.  Lort,  which  is  published  in  the 
Archcgologia.'f  He  points  out  that  from  some  of  them  having 
been  found  in  barrows  associated  with  spear-heads  of  flint,  it  is 
probable  that  some  at  least  were  military  weapons.  He  also 
maintains  that  though  the  use  of  bronze  originally  preceded  that 
of  iron,  yet  that  regard  must  be  had  to  the  circumstances  of  each 
country,  so  that  it  would  not  follow  that  a  bronze  celt  found  in 
Ireland  was  prior  in  age  to  the  invention  of  iron.  All  that  could 
be  said  was  that  it  was  older  than  the  introduction  of  iron  into 
Ireland,  and  when  that  was,  no  one  could  pretend  to  say.  Mr. 
Pegge  did  not  approve  of  the  derivation  of  the  name  of  celt  from 
eeltia  or  ccdare,  but  thought  it  derived  from  the  name  of  the 
Celtic  people  who  used  the  instruments.  In  his  opinion  the 
instruments  were  not  Roman,  especially  as  they  were  frequent  in 

•  Areh.,  Tol.  V.  p.  106.  t  Vol.  ix.  p.  84. 

D 


34  CELTS.  [chap,  iu 

Ireland  and  in  places  where  the  Romans  never  were  settled.  The 
specimen  on  which  he  comments  is  of  the  palstave  form,  and, 
though  it  might  be  mounted  as  a  tool,  he  thinks  it  could  never  have 
served  as  an  axe,  but  it  might  have  tipped  a  dart  or  javelin. 

Douglas*^  was  of  opinion  that  the  bronze  arms  found  in  this 
country  were  not  Roman,  but  that  it  was  more  reasonable  to  refer 
them  to  the  early  inhabitants,  of  probably  not  less  than  two 
centuries  b.c. 

Mr.  C.  J.  Harford,  F.S.A.,t  writing  in  1801,  expressed  his 
opinion  that  a  clue  as  to  the  uses  of  celts  might  be  obtained  from 
a  consideration  of  similar  instruments  which  had  been  brought 
from  the  South  Sea  Islands.  "  Our  rude  forefathers  doubtless 
attached  the  celt  by  thongs  to  the  handle,  in  the  same  manner  as 
modem  savages  do ;  and,  Hke  them,  formed  a  most  useful  implement 
or  destructive  weapon  from  these  simple  materials."  He  thought 
that  the  metal  celts  might  have  been  fabricated  abroad  and  ex- 
ported to  this  country,  just  as  we  have  sent  to  the  South  Sea 
Islands  an  imitation  in  iron  of  the  stone  hatchet  there  in  use. 

Coming  down  to  later  times,  we  find  Sir  Richard  Colt  Hoare,J 
who  discovered  a  few  flat  and  flanged  celts  in  the  Wiltshire  barrows, 
regarding  them  as  for  domestic,  and  not  for  military,  architectural, 
or  religious  purposes.  He  thought  that  the  flat  form  must  be  the 
most  ancient,  from  which  the  pattern  of  that  with  the  socket  for  the 
insertion  of  a  handle  was  taken  ;  for  among  the  numerous  speci- 
mens described  by  Mr.  Lort  in  the  Archoeologia,  not  one  of  the 
latter  pattern  is  mentioned  as  having  been  discovered  in  a  barrow. 
As  many  were  found  in  Gaul,  he  rather  supposed  that  they  were 
imported  from  the  Continent ;  or,  perhaps,  the  art  of  making 
them  might  have  been  introduced  from  Gaul.  From  the  method 
of  hafting  of  one  of  those  he  found  (see  Fig.  189),  he  seems  to 
have  regarded  the  whole  of  them  as  chisels  rather  than  hatchets. 

Sir  Joseph  Banks,§  m  some  observations  communicated  to  the 
Society  of  Antiquaries  in  1818,  on  an  ancient  celt  found  near 
Boston,  Lincolnshire,  pointed  out  the  manner  in  which  looped  pal- 
staves could  be  hafted  so  as  to  serve  either  as  axes,  adzes,  or  chisels. 
He  thought  that  they  were  ill  adapted  for  any  warlike  purposes, 
and  regarded  them  as  tools  such  as  might  be  used  in  hollo^ving 
out  the  trunks  of  trees  to  form  canoes,  and  suggested  that  they 
were  secured  to  their  handles  by  strings  tied  round  them  in  the 

♦  "Nsenia  Britennica"  (1793),  p.  163.  t  Areh,y  vol.  xiv.  p.  98. 

I  "Ancient  Wilts,"  vol.  i.  1812,  p.  203.  {  Areh,,  vol.  xix.  p.  102. 


THE   PRESUMED   USES  OF   CELTS.  35 

same  manner  as  the  stone  axes  used  in  the  South  Sea  Islands  were 
&stened  to  theirs. 

About  the  year  1816  the  Rev.  John  Dow,*  in  some  remarks 
on  the  ancient  weapon  denominated  the  celt,  advocated  the  opinion 
that  it  was  an  axe,'  and  probably  a  weapon  of  war.  He  also 
traces  its  connection  with  the  stone  celt,  from  which  he  considered 
it  to  have  been  developed. 

About  the  same  year  the  Rev.  John  Hodgson,  secretary  of  the 
Society  of  Antiquaries  of  Newcastle-on-Tyne,  communicated  to 
that  society  a  valuable  memoir  in  the  shape  of  t"An  Enquiry  into 
the  iEra  when  Brass  was  used  in  purposes  to  which  Iron  is  now 
applied,"  of  which  mention  has  already  been  made  in  the  Intro- 
ductoiy  Chapter.  He  thought  that  celts  were  tools  which  were 
well  adapted  for  use  as  wedges  for  splitting  wood,  or  that  with 
wooden  hafts  they  might  be  used  as  chisels  for  hollowing  canoes 
and  for  similar  purposes,  some  instruments  found  with  them  being 
undoubtedly  gouges.  As  to  their  date,  he  thought  that  bronze 
began  to  give  way  to  iron  in  Britain  nearly  as  soon  as  it  did  in 
Greece,  and  that  consequently  the  celts,  &c.,  found  in  this  island 
belonged  to  an  era  500,  or  at  least  400  years,  p.c. 

In  1839  Mr.  Rickman  J  communicated  to  the  Society  of 
Antiquaries  a  paper  on  the  Antiquity  of  Abury  and  Stonehenge, 
in  the  notes  to  which  he  propounds  the  theory  that  the  socketed 
celts  were  used  merely  as  chisels,  with  hafts  of  wood  inserted  in 
the  socket  They  could  be  then  either  held  in  the  hand  or  by 
means  of  a  withe,  like  a  blacksmith's  chisel,  while  they  were 
struck  with  a  stone  hammer. 

Among  writers  of  comparatively  modem  times,  the  first  whom  I 
have  to  mention  is  the  late  Mr.  G.  V.  Du  Noyer,§  who  in  1847  com- 
municated to  the  Archaeological  Institute  two  papers  on  the  classi- 
fication of  bronze  celts,  which  are  still  of  great  value  and  interest 
He  traces  the  gradual  development  in  form  from  the  bronze  celt 
shaped  like  a  wedge  to  that  which  is  socketed,  and  shows  that  an 
important  element  in  the  transition  from  one  form  to  the  other 
has  been  the  method  of  hafting.  He  also  enters  into  the  subjects 
of  the  casting  and  ornamentation  of  celts  ;  and  as  in  subsequent 
pages  I  shall  have  to  refer  to  these  as  well  as  to  the  methods  of 
hafting,  I  content  myself  here  with  citing  Mr.  Du  Noyer's  papers 
as  being  worthy  of  all  credit 

*  Areh4BoL  Seoi.,  voL  ii.  p.  199.  f  Arckaol.  JSlianat  vol.  i.  p.  17. 

X  Ar€h,f  ToL  zxViii.  p.  418.  §  Arch,  Joum,,  vol.  iv.  pp.  1  and  327. 

d2 


36  CELTS.  [chap.  II. 

In  1849  Mr.  James  Yates  communicated  a  paper  to  the  Archaeo- 
logical Institute  of  a  far  more  speculative  kind  than  those  of  Mr. 
Du  Noyer,  his  object  being  to  prove  that  among  the  various  uses 
of  bronze  celts  one  of  the  most  important  was  the  application  of 
them  in  destroying  fortifications  and  entrenchments,  in  making 
roads  and  earthworks,  and  in  similar  military  operations.  He 
confines  his  inquiry,  however,  to  those  which  were  adapted  to  be 
fitted  to  straight  wooden  handles.  FoUowing  in  the  steps  of  some 
of  the  older  antiquaries,  he  appears  to  regard  them  as  of  Roman 
origin,  and  identifies  them  with  the  Roman  dolahra,  an  instrument 
which  he  thinks  was  used  as  a  chisel  or  a  crowbar.  In  fact,  he  was 
persuaded  that  the  celt  was  commonly  used  not  as  a  hatchet,  but 
as  a  spud  or  a  crowbar.  Had  he  but  been  acquainted  with  the 
ancient  handles,  such  as  have  been  discovered  in  the  Austrian 
salt-mines  and  elsewhere,  he  would  probably  have  come  round  to 
another  opinion  as  to  the  ordinary  method  of  hafting,  though  it  is 
of  course  possible  that  in  some  instances  these  instruments  may 
have  been  mounted  and  used  as  spuds.  Had  he  practically  tried 
mounting  them  and  using  them  as  crowbars,  he  would  have  found 
that  with  but  slight  strain  the  shafts  would  break  or  the  celts 
become  loosened  upon  them.  And  had  he  been  better  versed  in 
archaeology,  he  would  have  known  that  whatever  was  the  form  of 
the  Roman  dolahra,  or  whatever  the  uses  for  which  it  served,  it 
can  hardly  have  diflfered  from  their  other  implements  in  being 
made  of  bronze  and  not  of  iron  ;  and  he  would  have  thought  twice 
before  engraving  bronze  celts  from  Cornwall  and  Furness  as  illus- 
trations of  the  Roman  dolahra  in  Smith's  "  Dictionary  of  Greek 
and  Roman  Antiquities." 

The  ring  or  loop,  which  so  often  is  found  on  the  side  of  celts  of 
the  palstave  and  socketed  forms,  was  thought  by  Mr.  Yates  to  have 
been  principally  of  use  to  assist  in  carrying  them,  a  dozen  or 
twenty  perhaps  being  strung  together,  or  a  much  smaller  number 
tied  to  the  soldier's  belt  or  girdle.  He  also  thought  that  they 
might  serve  for  the  attachment  of  a  thong  or  chain  to  draw  the 
instrument  out  of  a  wall,  should  it  become  wedged  among  the  stones 
in  the  process  of  destruction. 

The  next  essay  on  celts  and  their  classification  which  I  must 
adduce  was  written  by  the  late  Rev.  Thomas  Hugo,  F.S.A.,*  who 
followed  much  the  same  system  as  Mr.  Du  Noyer,  so  far  as  the 
development  of  the  socketed  celt  was  concerned,  though  he  differed 

*  Areh,  Attoe.  Jowm.,  1853,  vol.  ix.  p.  63. 


OPINIONS    OF    MODERN   WRITEBS.  37 

from  him  with  regard  to  the  method  of  hafting,  as  he  was  persuaded 
tliat,  in  general,  celts  were  mounted  with  a  straight  shaft,  like  spuds. 
He  considered  that  the  loop  was  not  used  for  securing  the  celt  to 
its  haft,  but  for  hanging  it  up  at  home  when  not  in  use,  or  for 
suspending  it  from  the  soldier's  girdle  whilst  on  the  march. 

Mr.  Hugo's  paper  was  followed  by  some  supplementary  remarks 
from  Mr.  Syer  Cuming,  who  suggests  that  a  thong  may  have 
passed  through  the  loop  by  which  the  weapon  might  be  propelled, 
and  contends  that  socketed  celts  are  neither  chisels  nor  axe-blades, 
but  the  ferrules  of  spear-shafts,  which  might  be  fixed  in  the 
ground,  or  even  used  at  times  as  offensive  weapons. 

The  name  of  the  late  Mr.  Thomas  Wright*  has  already  been 
mentioned.  In  his  various  works  and  papers  he  claims  a  Roman 
origin  for  bronze  celts  and  swords,  though  admitting  that  they  may 
occasionally  have  been  made  in  the  countries  in  which  they  are 
found. 

Among  other  modem  writers  who  have  touched  upon  the  sub- 
ject of  celts,  I  may  mention  that  accomplished  antiquary,  the  late 
Mr.  Albert  Way,  F.S.A.,  whose  remarks  in  connection  with  an 
exhibition  of  bronze  antiquities  at  a  meeting  of  the  Archaeological 
Institute,  in  1 86 1 1  are  well  worth  reading.  I  may  also  refer  to  the 
late  Sir  W.  R  Wilde,  in  his  "  Catalogue  of  the  Copper  and  Bronze 
Antiquities  in  the  Museum  of  the  Royal  Irish  Academy,"  published 
in  the  same  year ;  to  Mr.  Franks,  in  the  "Horse  Ferales ;"  to  Sir 
John  Lubbock,  in  his  "  Prehistoric  Times ; "  and  to  General  A. 
Lane  Fox  (now  Pitt-Rivers),  in  his  excellent  lecture  on  Primitive 
Warfare,  section  iilj 

Canon  Green  well,  in  his  "British  Barrows,"  §  has  also  devoted 
a  few  pages  to  the  consideration  of  bronze  celts  and  axe-heads, 
more  especially  in  connection  with  interments  in  sepulchral 
mounds. 

Foreign  writers  I  need  hardly  cite,  but  I  may  mention  a  re- 
markable idea  that  has  been  promulgated  by  Professor  Stefano  de 
Rossi  II  as  to  celts  having  served  as  money,  which  has,  however,  been 
shown  by  Count  Gozzadini  to  be  unfounded. 

In  conclusion,  I  may  also  venture  to  refer  to  an  address^  which 

*  Areh,  AsMoe,  Joum,,  yoI.  xxii.  p.  64. 

t  Areh.  Joum.,  vol.  xviii.  p.  148,  et  teq. 

X  Jour,  Boy.  Un.  Service  Jnst.y  vol.  xiii.,  1869. 

{  P.  43,  et  $eqq.  188. 

II  See  Eetue  de  la  Numie.  Belge^  6th  Ser.,  vol.  vi.  p.  290. 

H  Froe.  Soe,  Ant.,  2iid  8.,  vol.  v.  p.  392. 


38  CELTS.  [chap.  II. 

I  delivered  to  the  Society  of  Antiquaries  on  the  occasion  of  an  exhi- 
bition of  bronze  antiquities  in  their  apartments  in  January,  1873. 

In  treating  of  the  different  forms  of  celts  on  the  present  occa- 
sion, I  shall  divide  them  into  the  following  classes  : — 

Hat  celts. 

Flanged  celts. 

Winged  celts  and  palstaves,  with  and  without  loops. 

Socketed  celts. 

What  are  known  as  tanged  celts  may  perhaps  be  more  properly 
included  under  the  head  of  chisels,  to  which  class  of  tools  it  is  not 
unlikely  that  some  of  the  narrow  celts  of  the  other  forms  should 
be  referred. 

It  is  difficult  to  draw  a  hard  and  feist  line  between  the  flat 
celts  and  the  flanged,  and  between  these  latter  and  the  so-called 
palstaves.  I  propose,  therefore,  to  include  the  flanged  celts,  which 
are  not  provided  with  a  stop-ridge  to  prevent  their  being  driven 
into  their  hafb,  in  the  same  chapter  with  the  flat  celts,  and  to  treat 
of  those  which  have  a  stop-ridge  in  the  same  chapter  as  the  pal- 
staves, with  and  without  a  loop.  In  a  subsequent  chapter  I  shall 
speak  as  to  the  manner  in  which  these  instruments  were  probably 
hafbed. 


CHAPTER  III. 

FLAT  AND  FLANGED  CELTS. 

Flat  celts,  or  those  of  simple  form  with  the  faces  somewhat 
convex,  and  approximating  in  shape  to  the  polished  stone  celts  of 
the  Neolithic  Period,  have  been  regarded  by  several  antiquaries 
as  being  probably  the  earliest  bronze  implements  or  weapons. 
Such  a  view  has  much  to  commend  it,  but,  as  already  observed, 
it  may  be  doubted  whether  in  the  earliest  times,  when  metal  was 
scarce,  it  would  be  so  readily  applied  to  purposes  for  which  much 
of  the  precious  material  was  required,  as  to  the  manufacture  of 
weapons  or  tools  of  a  lighter  kind,  such  as  daggers  or  knives. 

Among  celts,  however,  the  simple  form,  and  that  most  nearly 
approaching  in  character  to  the  stone  hatchet,  was  probably  the 
earliest,  though  it  may  have  been  continued  in  use  after  the 
introduction  of  the  side  flanges,  the  stop-ridge,  and  even  the 
socket  Some  celts  of  the  simplest  form  found  in  Ireland  are  of 
copper,  and  have  been  thought  to  belong  to  the  period  when  the 
use  of  stone  for  cutting  purposes  was  dying  out  and  that  of  metal 
coming  in ;  but  the  mere  fact  of  their  being  of  copper  is  by  no 
means  conclusive  on  this  point. 

A  copper  celt  of  the  precise  shape  of  an  ordinary  stone  celt, 
6  inches  long  and  2^  inches  wide,  which  was  found  in  an  Etruscan 
tomb,  and  is  preserved  in  the  Museum  at  Berlin,  appears  to  have 
been  cast  in  a  mould  formed  upon  a  stone  implement  of  the  same 
dass.  It  has  been  figured  and  described  by  Sir  William  Wilde.* 
I  have  not  seen  the  implement,  nor  am  I  aware  of  the  exact 
circumstances  of  the  finding.  Celts  may,  however,  like  the  flint 
arrow-heads  inserted  in  Etruscan  t  necklaces  of  gold,  have  been 
regarded  with  superstitious  reverence,  and  it  does  not  appear  to 
me  quite  certain  that  this  specimen  was  ever  in  actual  use  as  an 


(i 


Catal.  Mas.  R.I.A.,"  pp.  367,  396  (Etruacan  CoU.,  Berlin,  No.  3244). 
t  '*  Hone  Ferales,"  p.  136 ;  Arch,  Journ.,  toI.  xi.  p.  169. 


40  FLAT   AND   FIAKOED  CELTS.  [cHAP.  III. 

implement,  and  was  not  placet!  in  the  grave  as  a  substitute  for  a 
stone  hatchet  or  Ceraunivs. 

However  this  may  be,  some  of  the  earliest  bronze  or,  possibly, 

copper  celts  with  which  we  are  acquainted,  those  from  the  excavations 

of  General  di  Cesnola  in  Cyprus,  and  of  Dr.  Schliemann  at  Hia- 

sarlik,  are  of  the  simple  flat  form,  and  justify  Sir  W,  Wilde*  in  his 

supposition  that   the  first  makers  of  these   instruments,  having 

once  obtained  a  better  material  than  stone,  repeated  the  form 

with  which  they  were  best  acquainted,  though  they  economized 

the  metal  and  lessened  the  bulk  by 

^^^^  ^         flattening  the   sides.      The  annexed 

fl^^k  ^^        cut.  Fig.  1 ,  shows  a  celt  from  Cyprus 

^^^^H         ^^        in  my  own  collection,  which  in  form 

^^^^H         ^H        might  be  matched  by  celts  of  flint, 

^^^^^^        ^H        though  it  must  be  acknowledged  that 

^^^^^H       ^H       the  type  in  stone  is  rather  that  of 

^^^^^H      ^^m       Scandinavia  than  of  Eastern  Europe 

^^^^^^H      ^^1       or  the  Levant.      A  slight  ridge    in 

^^^^^^H     ^^M       the  oxide  upon  it  seems  to  mark  the 

^^^^^^H     ^^M       distance  that  the  narrow  end  pene- 

^^^^^^^^    ^^M       trated  the  handle     Numerous  tools 

^^^^^^^1    ^^M       or  weapons  of  the  same  form  were 

^^^^^^^B    ^^1       found  by  Dr.    Schliemann  t   in  his 

^^^^^^^H    ^H       excavations  in  search  of  Troy.     They 

^^^^^^^H    ^H        were  at  first  thought  to  be  of  copper, 

^^^^^^^^H     Hi        but   subsequently  proved   to  have  a 

^^^^^^^^H     nf         small  per-cent^e  of  tin  in  them.      A 

^^^^^^^^      W         number  of  flat  celts,  some  short  and 

Ks.  i.-CTpnu.     I  broad,    and  others  long  and  narrow, 

were  found  at  Gungeria,J  in  the  Mhow 

Talook,  about  forty  miles  north  of  Boorha,  in  Central  India,  many 

of  which  are  now  in  the  British  Museum.    On  analysis  Dr.  Perey 

found  them  to  be  of  pure  copper.    The  same  form  was  found  at  Tel 

Sifr,  in  Southern  Babylonia.     Some  from  that  place,  and  from  the 

island  of  Thermia,§  in  the  Greek  Archipelago,  are  also  in  the  British 

Museum.      Nearly  similar  instruments,  said  to  he  made  of  copper, 

have  been  found  in  Austria,!!  Denraark,1[  Sweden,**  Hungary.tt 

•  "Catal.  M.  R.I.A.,"  p.  366.  f  "Troy  and  ita  RemaJDB,"  p.  330,  4c. 

1  "Cong,  prtb.,"  Stockholm  vol.  i.  p.  346.     Proe.  At.  See.  Btngal,  May,  1870. 
I)  Ptoc.  Sat.  Ant.,  2nd  S.,  vol.  iii.  p.  437.      ||  Kennar,  "  Arch.  Funde,"  1867,  p.  29. 
fl  Wonaae,"Nord.  OUb.,"  Bg.  17S.  "•"Cong,  prfb.,"  Bologna  vol.  p.  292, 

tt  "Cong,  preh.,"  Bada  Pest  vol.  i.  p.  227. 


DISCOVERIES   IN    BABR0W8. 


41 


FV»ncfl,*ftnd  Italy,  t  I  have  one  3  J  inches  long,  from  Royat,  Puy  de 
Dome.  A  large  and  thicker  specimen  is  in  the  Museum  at  Toulouse. 
Theyhave  usually  a  small  per-eentage,  0  15  to  2  08  of  tin  in  them.J 

I  have  already,  in  the  Introductory  Chapter,  made  some  remarks 
on  the  probability  of  a  copper  age  having,  in  some  part  of  the 
world,  preceded  that  of  bronze,  and  need  here  only  repeat  that  the 
occurrence  of  implements  in  copper,  of  the  forms  usually  occurring 
in  bronze,  does  not  of  necessity  imply  a  want  of  acquaintance  with 
the  tin  necessary  to  mix  with  copper  to  form  bronze,  but  may 
only  be  significant  of  a  temporary  or  local  scarcity  of  the  former 
metal  I  may  also  add  that  without  actual  analysis,  it  is  unsafe, 
from  appearance  only,  to  judge  whether  copper  is  pure,  or  whether 
it  has  not  an  appreciable  per-centage  of  tin  in  it. 

In  treating  of  the  different  forms  and  characters  of  bronze  celts, 
ud  of  the  places  and  circumstances  of  finding,  I  think  it  will  -  be 
bcMt  first  to  take  those  from  England  and  Wales,  then  those  from 
Scotland,  and  lastly  those  from  Ireland.  I  begin  with  those  which 
have  been  found  in  barrows  in  England. 

Fig.  2  repreaenta  a  flat  celt  found  in  a  barrow  in  the  parieh  of  Butter- 
wick,  in  the  East  Biding  of  Yorkshire,  by  the  Eev.  Canon  Oreenwell, 
F.B.S.,  F.8.A.g  It  lay  at  the  hips  of 
the  body  of  a  young  man,  at  vhose  right 
hand  the  knife-da^er  (Fig.  279)  and  the 
bronze  drill  or  pricker  (Fig.  22a)  were 
found,  accompanied  by  a  flint  knife 
formed  from  a  broad  external  flake.  In 
front  of  the  chest  were  six  buttons,  five 
of  jet  and  one  of  sandstone,  two  of  which 
are  figured  in  my  "Ancient  Stone  Imple- 
menta."  ||  The  handle  of  the  celt  or  ase- 
head  could  be  plainly  traced  by  means  of 
a.  dark  line  of  decayed  wood,  and  to  all 
appearance  the  weapon  had  been  worn 
■lung  from  the  wust.  "  The  blade  is  of 
the  simplest  form,  modelled  on  the  pat- 
tern of  the  stone  axe,  and  may,  it  is 
probable,  be  regarded  as  the  earliest 
type  of  bronze  axe  antecedently  to  the 
appearance  of  either  flanges  or  socket. 
It  IS  4  inches  long,  2|  inches  wide  at  the 
cutting  edge,  and  I^  inches  at  the  smaller 
mi.  IthanevidentiybeenfixedinloaBolidhandle  toadepthof  2inches." 

•  BkH.  Set.  (U  Borda,  Dux,  1878,  p.  S7. 

t  "Cong,  prth.,"  Copenhagen  toI,  p.  48-1. 

i  Harlot,  Mim.  Soc.  AnI.  d«  Iford.  1866—71.  p.  2a. 

}  "  British  Barrow*,"  p.  188,     The  cut  is  t'iy;.  SB. 

i  figs.  36a  aod  370,  p.  407. 


42  FLAT  AND   FLANGED   CELTS.  [CHAP.  111. 

A  very  similar  discovery  to  that  at  Butterwick  was  made  by  the  late 
Mr.  Thomas  Bateman  in  a  barrow  upon  Parwich  Moor,  Derbyshire,* 
called  8huttlestone,  opened  by  him  in  June,  1848.  In  this  case  a  man  of 
fine  proportions  and  in  the  prime  of  life  had  been  interred,  surrounded  by 
fern-leaves  and  enveloped  in  a  hide  with  the  hair  inwards.  Close  to  the 
head  were  a  small  fiat  bead  of  jet  and  a  circular  fiint  (probably  a 
"scraper  ").  In  contact  with  the  left  arm  lay  a  bronze  dagger,  much  Hke 
Fig.  279,  with  two  rivets  for  the  attachment  of  the  handle,  which  had 
been  of  horn.  About  the  middle  of  the  left  thigh  was  a  bronze  celt  of  the 
plainest  axe-shaped  t3rpe.  The  cutting  edge  was  turned  towards  the 
upper  part  of  the  person,  and  the  instnmient  itself  had  been  inserted  into 
a  wooden  shaft  for  about  2  inches  at  the  narrow  end.  The  celt  and 
dagger  are  engraved  in  the  Archceohgical  Association  Joumalf\  and  the 
former  in  the  Archaologia.X  It  is  about  5^  inches  long,  and  in  form  much 
like  Fig.  19. 

In  a  small  barrow  named  Borther  Low,§  about  two  miles  south  of 
Middleton  by  Youlgrave,  Mr.  William  Bateman  discovered  a  skeleton 
with  the  remains  of  a  plain  coarse  urn  on  the  left  side,  a  fiint  arrow-head 
much  burnt,  a  pair  of  canine  teeth  of  cither  a  fox,  or  a  dog  of  the  same 
size,  and  a  diminutive  bronze  celt.  In  the  catalogue  of  the  Bateman 
Museum  ||  this  is  described  as  **  of  the  most  prmiitive  type,  closely 
resembling  the  stone  celts  in  form,"  and  2  inches  only  in  length.  It  is 
there  stated  to  have  been  found  with  a  fiint  spear,  but  this  seems  to  be  a 
mistake  for  an  arrow-head.^ 

Dr.  Samuel  Pegge,**  in  his  letter  to  Mr.  Lort  already  cited,  mentions  that 
**Mr.  Adam  Wolsey  the  younger,  of  Matlock  in  Derbyshire,  has  a  celt 
foimd  near  the  same  place  a.d.  1787,  at  Blakelow  in  the  parish  of 
Ashover,  with  a  spear-head  of  fiint,  a  military  weapon  also."  Not 
improbably  this  was  an  axe-head  of  the  same  class. 

A  celt  of  much  the  same  character  as  Fig.  2,  but  in  outline  more 
nearly  resembling  Fig.  19,  4f  inches  long  and  2f  broad  at  the  cutting 
edge,  was  found  in  company  with  two  diadems  or  lunettes  of  g^ld  such 
as  the  Irish  antiquaries  call  "Minds,"  at  Harlyn,  in  the  parish  of 
Merryn,  near  Padstow,  OomwaU,  and  is  engraved  in  the  Archaological 
Joumal.^^  The  objects  were  found  at  a  depth  of  about  six  feet  from  the 
surface,  and  with  them  was  another  bronze  article,  which  was  unfortu- 
nately thrown  away.  This  was  described  by  the  man  at  work  on  the  spot 
as  "Hke  a  bit  of  a  buckle."  The  discovery  was  quite  accidental,  and  no 
notice  seems  to  have  been  taken  as  to  whether  there  were  any  traces  of  an 
interment  at  the  spot,  though  the  earth  in  contact  with  tlie  articles  is 
described  as  havine  been  "  of  an  artificial  character." 

It  is  a  celt  of  tnis  kind  which  is  engraved  by  Plot  J  J  as  found  near 
St.  Bertram's  Well,  Ham,  Staffordshire.  He  describes  it  as  "  somewhat 
like,  only  larger  than,  a  lath-hammer  at  the  edge  end,  but  not  so  on  the 
other,"  and  regards  it  as  a  Homan  sacrificial  axe. 

One  (4  J  inches)  was  foimd  on  Bevere  Island,  Worcestershire.  §§ 

♦**Ten  Years'   Diggings,"  p.   34.      "Catalogue,**   p.   75.     Arch.  Auoe.   Journ.y 

vol.  vii.  p.  217.  t  Vol.  vii.  p.  217,  pi.  xix. 

t  Vol.  xUii.  p.  446.  §  "  Vest,  of  the  Anta.  of  Derb.,'*  p.  48. 

If  P.  74,  No.  11.  H  See  **  Catal.,"  p.  32,  No.  29. 

••  Areh.,  rol.  ix.  p.  85.  ft  Vol.  xxii.  p.  277. 
11  <*  Nat  Hist,  of  StaflFordflhire,"  tab.  xxiii.  p.  403 
ff  Allies,  p.  151,  pi.  iv.  11. 


DISCOVERIES  OF   FLAT  CELTS.  43 

Others  of  the  same  kind  have  been  found  near  Duxford,  Cambs,*  near 
Orappenhall,  Cheshire ;  f  the  Beacon  Hill,  Chamwood  Forest,  Leicester- 
ahire ;  J  and,  near  Battlefield,  Shrewsbury,  §  in  company  with  a  palstave 
without  loop,  some  sickle-like  objects,  and  other  articles.  One,  9  inches 
kmg  and  5  inches  broad  at  the  cutting  edge,  found  in  the  ruins  of  Gleas- 
tom  Castle,  Lower  Fumess,  Lancashire,  is  engraved  in  the  Archaolo^ia.\\ 

The  celts  found  on  Baddow  Hall  Common,^  near  Danbury,  Essex,  one 
of  which  was  6  inches  long  and  3^  inches  broad  at  the  edge,  seem  to  have 
been  of  this  character. 

I  have  seen  specimens  of  the  same  type  from  Taxley  Fen,  Hunting- 
donshire {4}  inches  long),  in  the  collection  of  Mr.  S.  Sharp,  F.S.A. ;  and 
bom  Haisthorp,  near  Fimber,  Yorkshire,  in  that  of  Messrs.  Mortimer. 

In  Canon  Greenwell's  collection  are  three  (about  4 J  inches)  foimd  at 
Newbig^in,  Northumberland,  and  others  (about  5^  inches)  from  Alnwick 
and  WaUsend.  A  specimen  in  the  same  collection  (5^  inches),  foimd  at 
Knapton,  Yorkshire  (£.  E.),  has  a  slight  ridge  along  the  centre  of  the 
sides,  which,  as  well  as  the  angles  between  the  faces  and  the  sides,  is 
indented  with  a  series  of  slight  hammer  marks  at  regular  intervals. 

Mr.  Wallace  of  Distington,  Whitehaven,  has  one  (6J  inches)  from 
Hango  Hill,  Castleton,  Isle  of  Man. 

I  have  myself  celts  of  the  same  class  from  the  Cambridge  Fens 
(4J  inches) ;  Sherbum  Carr,  Yorkshire  (5§  inches),  found  with  another 
nearly  similar;  Swansea (4^  inches,  much  decayed);  and  near  Font  Caradog, 
Brithder,  Glamorganshire  (6^  inches),  found  with  three  others,  and  given 
to  me  by  Canon  Greenwdl,  F.K.S.,  in  whose  collection  the  others  are 
preserved. 

A  few  of  these  flat  plain  celts  have  been  found  in  France.  Some  from 
the^departments  of  Doubs  and  Jura  are  engraved  by  Chantre.**  One  from 
Normandy,  tt  figured  by  the  Abbe  Cochet,  seems  to  show  some  trace  of  a 
transverse  ridge.  One  from  the  Seine  is  engraved  in  the  *^  Dictionnaire 
Archeologique  de  la  Ghiule."  Another  was  found  in  Finist^re#JJ  Others 
are  in  the  Museum  at  Narbonne§§  and  elsewhere.  The  form  is  also 
found  in  Spain,  both  in  bronze  and  what  is  apparently  copper.  I  have 
specimens  rrom  the  Ciudad  Heal  district. 

The  plain  flat  form  like  Fig.  2  is  also  occasionally  found  in  Germany. 
One  fnnn  Ackenbach,  near  Homberg,  is  figured  by  Schreiber.|||| 

With  nearly  straight  sides  like  Fig.  27,  the  form  is  not  uncommon  in 
Hungary.     Some  of  these  are  very  thm. 

Others  of  nearly  the  same  form,  but  thicker,  have  been  found  on  the 
other  side  of  the  Atlantic  in  Mexico,  and  many  of  the  copper  celts  of 
North  America  are  also  of  the  plain  flat  t3rpe  with  an  oblong  section. 
This  circumstance  to  my  mind  rather  proves  that  the  form  is  the  simplest, 
and  therefore  that  most  naturally  adopted  for  hatehets,  than  that  there 
was  of  necessity  any  intercourse  between  the  coimtries  in  which  it  has 
prevailed. 

Many  of  the  flat  celts  are  ornamented  in  a  more  or  less  artistic 

•  Areh.  Joum.,  voL  vii.  p.  179.  t  Op.  eit.,  vol.  xyiii.  p.  168. 

;  JProe.  Soc.  Ant.,  2nd  8.,  rol.  i.  p.  44.  j  F.  S.  A.,  2nd  8.,  vol.  ii.  p.  251. 

R  Vol.  V.  pi.  vii.  i.  p.  106.  H  Arch.,  vol.  ix.  p.  378. 

••  PI.  ii.  1,  2,  3.  tt  "  La  8eine  Inf.,"  p.  562. 

XX  "  Mat^riaux,"  vol.  iv.  p.  526.  §§  "  Mat6riaux,'*  vol.  v.  pi.  ii.  2,  3. 

Ii  "Die  ehemen  Streitkeile  "  (1842),  Taf.  i.  I. 


44 


FLAT  AHD    FLANQBD   CEIiT9 


[chap.  III. 

manner  on  the  fiu^s,  or  the  sides,  or  on  both ;  hut  before  pro- 
ceeding to  notice  any  of  them,  it  will  be  well  to  mention  another 
variety  of  the  plain  celt,  in  which  the  faces,  instead  of  being  nearly 
flat  or  uniformly  convex,  slope  towards  either  end  from  a  trans- 
verse ridge  near  the  middle  of  the  blade.  This  ridge  is  never  very 
strongly  defined,  as  the  total  thickness  of  the  blade  from  ridge  to 
ridge  is  rarely  more  than  half  an  inch.  The  plain  variety  is  some- 
what rare  in  Britain,  but  one  ornamented  on  both  faces  will  be 
described,  under  Fig.  5,  and  an  Irish  example  is  shown  in  Fig.  35. 
A  lai^e  doubly  tapering  celt  (8  inches)  was  found  at  East  Surby, 
Rushen,*  Isle  of  Man.  Some  of  those  afready  mentioned  partake 
of  this  character.  In  Hoare's  great  work  a  specimen  from  the 
Bush  Barrow,  Normanton,t  is  engraved  as  being  of  this  plain 
doubly  tapering  tj-pe ;  but  from  the  more  accurate  engraving 
given  by  Dr.  Thumam  t  it  appears  that  this  instrument  has  flanges 
at  the  side,  like  Fig.  8,  and  must  therefore  be  spoken  of  later  on. 
1  now  proceed  to  consider  some  of  the  flat  celts  ornamented 
with  patterns  probably  producerl  by  punches,  as  will  subsequently 
be  mentioned.  The  first  which  I  ad- 
duce was  found  with  an  interment,  and 
the  ornamentation  is  so  shght  that  it 
is  a  question  whether  the  celt  ought 
not  to  rank  among  those  of  the  plain 
kind. 

The  late  Mr.  Thomas  Bateman  in  1846 
found  what  ho  described  as  "  a  fine  bronze 
celt  of  Dovol  form  "  and  "  of  elegant  out- 
line "  near  the  head  of  a  contracted  skele- 
ton in  a  barrow  called  Moot  Low,§  about 
half -way  between  Alsop  Moor  and  Dove- 
dale,  Derbyshire.  "  It  was  placed  in  a 
line  with  the  body,  with  its  edge  up- 
words."  By  the  kmdness  of  Mr.  Llewd- 
lynn  Jewitt,  r.8.A.,||  I  am  enabled  to 
give  a  figure  of  this  inatrimient  in  Fig.  3. 
Ah  will  be  seen,  it  has  slight  flanges 
along  the  sides,  and  the  upper  part  is 
w.        i  ornamented     with     short    vertical    lines 

punched  in. 
1  Fig.   4  was  found  in  Yorkshire,   and  is  now  in  thf 
,    The  jiatina  upon  it  has  been  somewhat  injured,  but 


"Fint  Rep.  Arch,  Comm.  I.  of  Man,"  pi.  iv.  2. 
"  Anuicnt  WillB,"  vol.  i.  p.  302.  pi.  iiri.  • 

"  Vert.  Ant.  Dorb.,"  p.  68.    "  Catal..'"  p.  7fi,  No.  1 
'■  Orave-Diouniiii;'  flg.  1H7. 


vol.  iliii.  p.  iU. 


ORKAMRNTED   ON   THE   FACES,  45 

the  omamentatioD  upon  the  faces  is  in  places  very  veil  preserved.  It 
Gonaiflta  of  numerous  parallel  lines,  eadi  made  up  of  short  diagonal 
indentatioas  in  the  metal,  and  together  forming  the  pattern  which  will  be 
better  imderstood  from  the  figure  than  from  any  description.  Tke  aides 
are  omameDt«d  by  having  two  low  pyramidal  bosses  drawn  out  upon 
them,  leaving  a  long  ooncave  hexagonal  epace  in  the  middle  between 


them.  This  celt  has  already  been  figured,  but  oa  a  much  smaller  scale,  in 
the  "  Hone  Ferales."* 

Tbia  style  of  ornamentation  on  the  sides  is  more  conmion  on  Irish  tiiaa 
on  Bnglish  or  Scottish  celts.  One,  however,  5i  inches  long,  of  the  doubly 
tapering  form  with  lunate  edge,  having  the  central  portion  of  the  blade 
omameated  with  a  series  of  Unes  in  a  chevron  pattern,  and  having  the 
sides  worked  into  three  facets  of  a  pointed  oval  form,  was  found  at 
'Whittington,j'  Gloucestershire,  and  was  presented  by  Mr.  W.  L.  Law- 
rence F.B.A.,  to  the  Society  of  Antiquaries.  The  ornamentation  is  much 
•  PL  W.  No.  *.  f  Proe.  Soe.  Ant.,  and  S.,  vol.  i,  pp.  236,  260. 


46  PLAT   AUD   FLAKOBD   CELTS  [clIAP.  III. 

like  that  on  Yig.  7,  but  between  tbe  ornamented  portion  of  the  blade 
and  the  eAge  tbere  ie  a  curved  hollow  facet,  the  ridge  below  which  runs 
nearly  parallel  with  the  edge. 
The  celt  shown  in  Fig.  5  loight  perhaps  be  more  properly  placed  among 
the  flanged  celts,  as,  without  having  welt 
developed  flanges  along  the  sides,  were  is 
a  projecting  ndge  running  along  either 
margin  of  ^o  faces,  in  consequence  of  the 
sidea  having  been  somewhat  chamfered,  or 
having  hod  their  angles  beaten  down  by 
liammering.     It    was    found   on   Preeton 
Down,  near  Weymouth,  Dorsetahiro ;  but 
I  do  not  know  under  what  circiuustancea. 
It  has  become  thickly  coated  with  a  dork 
sage-greon   patina,    which  has  in  places 
been    unfortunately    knocked    off.      The 
beautiful  original    ornamentation   of  the 
celt  has  been  admirably  preserved  by  the 
patina.     The  greater  part  of  the  surface 
has  been  figured  with  a  sort  of  grained 
pattern  like  morocco  leather,  probably  by 
means  of  a  punch  in  form  like  a  narrow 
blunt  chisel.    The  faces  of  the  blade  are 
not  flat,  but  taper  in  both  directiuns  from 
a  ridge  rather  more  than  half-way  up  the 
blade.    Along  the  lower  side  of  this  some- 
what curved  ridge,  and  again  about  un 
inch  above  the  cutting  edge,   a  bolt  of 
chevrons  has  been  punched  in,  having  the 
appearance  of  a  plaited  band.     Below  the 
lower    band    the   surface    has    been  left 
smooth  and  unomamentod,  so  that  grind- 
ing the  edge  would  not  in  any  way  injure  the  pattern.  The  upper  part  of 
the  blade  has  at  the  present  time  exactly  the  appearance  of  dark  green 
morocco  with  "blind-tooling"  upon  it.     No   doubt  many  blades  which 
were  originally  ornamented  after  the  same  fashion  as  this  specimen  have 
now,  through  oxidation  or  the  accidental  destruction  of  the  patina,  lost 
all  traces  of  their  original  decoration.     On  this,  where  the  patina  has 
been  destroyed,  nothing  can  be  seen  of  the  graining. 

I  have  a  flat  celt  from  Mildenball,  Suffolk  (6  inches),  in  form  like  Fig. 
6,  the  greater  part  of  the  surface  of  which  has  been  grained  in  a  similar 
manner,  though  the  graining  ie  now  almost  obliterated. 

In  the  collection  of  the  Diie  of  Northumberland*  is  a  large  celt  which 
appears  to  be  of  the  flat  kind,  with  the  side  edges  "  slightly  recurved," 
and  with  the  surface  "elaborately  worked  with  chevrony  linos  and  orna- 
ments which  may  have  been  partly  produced  by  hammering."  It  was 
found  in  Nortliumberland. 

Another  belonging  to  James  Kendrick,  Esq.,  M.D.,  found  at  Eisdon.f 

near  Warrington,  is  described  as  being  "  ornamented  with  punched  lines 

in  a  very  unusual  manner."     Another,  of  which  a  bad  representation 

from  one  of  Dr.  Stukeley's  drawings  is  given  in  the  Arrhaologia,  ia  said 

•  Arch.  Ja«m.,  vol.  lix.  p.  363.  t  ^"h.  Jaarn.,  toI.  iviii.  p.  169. 


< 


ORNAMENTED   ON   THE   FACES.  47 

la  bare  been  found  in  the  long  barrow  at  Stouebenge.*  One  4^  inches 
long,  the  faces  ornamented  with  a  number  of  longitudinal  cuts,  was  found 
near  Sidmoutb.f 

In  some  inataneea  the  faces  of  the  celts  have  been  wrought  into  a  series 
of  slightly  hollowed  facets.  One  such  from.  Bead,  Laucaahire,  is  in  the 
Britiui  Museum,  and  is  engraved  as  Fig.  6.  The  central  space  between 
the  two  series  of  ridges  and  also  the  margins  of  the  faces  are  ornamented 
with  Bhallow  chevrons  punched  in.     The  sides  have  been  hammered  into 


three  fecete,  and  this  has  produced  slight  flanges  at  the  margins  of  the 
bees.  Hiese  facets  are  ornamented  with  diagonal  lines.  This  celt  was 
found  with  two  others,  apparently  of  the  same  kind,  and  is  described  and 
engraved  in  Whitaker's  "History  of  the  Original  Parish  of  WhaUey."J 
The  autbor  says  that  these  instruments  were  from  9  to  12  inches  long,  and 
had  a  broad  and  narrow  end,  but  had  neither  loops,  grooves,  nor  any 
other  contrivance  by  which  they  could  he  fixed  in  a  shaft,  or  indeed 
applied  to  any  known  use.     That  in  the  British  Museum  was  obtained 


48  FLAT  AND   FtAMGBD  CELTS.  [CHAP.  111. 

by  the  late  Mr.  Charles  Towneley.     The  two  othen  were  formerly  in 
the  collections  of  the  Bev.  Dr.  Milles,  P.S.A.,  and  of  Dr.  Whitaker. 

I  now  come  to  the  flanged  celts,  or  those  which  have  projecting 
ledges  along  the  greater  port  of  each  side  of  the  faces,  produced 
either  by  hammering  the  metal  at  the  sides  of  the  blades,  or 
in  the  original  casting.  As  has  already  been  observed,  some  of 
the  celts  which  have  been  described  as  belonging  to  the  flat 
variety  might,  with  almost  equal  propriety,  have  been  classed  as 
flanged  celts,  as  the  mere  hammering  of  the  sides  with  a  view  to 
render  them  smooth  or  to  produce  an  ornament  upon  them 
"  iipseta  "  the  metal,  and  produces  a  thickening  along  tlie  margin 
which  almost  amounts  to  a  flange. 

In  the  celt  shown  in  Fig.  7  the  flan^  are  very  slight,  and  are  in  all 
probability  merely  due  to  the  hanunermg  necessary  to  produce  the  kind 
of  cable  pattern  or  spiral  fluting  which  is 
seen  in  3ie  aide  view.  The  faces  taper 
in  each  direction  from  a  transverse 
ridge,  and  tlie  blade  for  some  distance 
below  this  is  ornamented  with  an  incuae 
chevron  pattern.  The  blade  towards 
the  edge  and  above  the  ridge  is  left 

tlun.  This  specimen  was  found  in 
uffolk,  but  I  do  not  know  the  exact 
lopalily.     It  is  in  my  own  collection. 

Among  nineteen  bronze  celts  dis- 
covered about  the  year  1845  on  the  pro- 
perty of  Mr.  Samuel  Ware,  F.S.A.,  at 
PosUingford  Hall,*  near  Clare,  Suffolk, 
were  several  of  this  class,  two  of  which 
(6^  and  5^  inches),  now  in  the  British 
Museum,  are  figured  in  the  Archao- 
logia.  One  of  them  is  ornamented  with 
a  chevron  pattern,  covering  the  part  of 
the  blade  usually  decorated,  and  having 
vertical  lines  running  through  the 
Fig.  T.— BuSMk.  i  centres  of  the  chevrons,   and  through 

the  junctiou  of  their  bases.  The  other 
is  ornamented  with  a  series  of  curved  parallel  lines  running  across  the 
blade,  as  on  Fig.  16.  They  have  a  slight  projection  or  ridge  at  the 
thickest  part  of  the  blade,  as  have  also  two  that  are  not  ornamented, 
which  likewise  were  presented  by  Mr.  Ware  to  the  British  Museum. 

Another  celt  of  this  kind  (4  J  inches)  was  found  with  a  bronze  spear-head 
having  loops  at  the  lower  port  of  die  blade  in  the  Kilcot  Wood.f  near 
Newent,  Glouoestershire.     The  faces  are  ornamented  with  parallel  rows 


•  Prof.  See.  AnI.,  Ist  S.,  vol.  i.  ] 
Wat  Suf.  Areh.  Inst.,  vol.  i.  p.  26. 
t  Prut.  Six.  Ant.,  2nd  S.,  voL  i,  p. 


83;  Arch.,  vol,  lui.  p.   496;  Frae.  Bury  and 


FLANOED  CELTS   FBOH  ABBETOK  DOWX. 


49 


at  abort  dia^oal  liuoB,  bounded  at  the  lover  end  by  a  double  aeries  of 
dots,  and  a  transverBe  tow  of  diagonal  lineB. 

In  the  remarkable  hoard  of  bronze  inetFuments  diBcovered  on  Aireton 
Dovn,  in  the  Isle  of  Wight,  about  the  year  1735,  were,  besides  the  epear- 
faeods  and  da^er  blades,  of  which  mention  will  be  made  in  subsequent 
diapten,  four  of  these  flanged  celts.  Of  these  one  {6J  inches)  was  orna- 
mented both  on  the  face  and  sides,  but  is  at  present  only  known  from  a 
dimwing  in  an  album  belonging  to  the  Society  of  Antiquaries. 


■Aireton  Down. 


The  othetB  were  plain,  and  of  one  of  them  a  woodcut  is  given  in  the 
Ardtmologia,  *  which  by  the  permission  of  the  Council  of  the  Society  of 
Antiquaries  is  here  reproduced  as  Tig.  8.  It  is  8  inches  in  length,  and  is 
one  rf  the  lai^est  of  its  class  in  the  British  Museum.  As  will  he  seen,  the 
blade  itself  is  of  the  doubly  tapering  kind.  The  others  are  4^  and  4} 
inches  long.  They  are  said  to  have  been  found  arranged  in  regular 
orfer,t  and,  as  Mr.  Franks  has  suggested,  may  possibly  have  been  the 
(tore  deposited  by  some  ancient  founder,  which  he  was  imable  to  reclaim 
from  its  hiding-place. 


•  Vol.  nxri.  p.  32B. 


t  Art\.,ro\.y.f.  US. 


do  FLAT   AHD   FIANOBD  CELTS.  [CHAF.  III. 

In  FigB.  9  and  10*  are  eliawii  two  more  of  these  doubly  tapering^ 
flanged  celta,  v}iich  were  found  in  tlie  parisli  of  FlymBtock,f  Devonshire, 
about  a  mile  east  of  Freston.  They  lay  beneath  a  £at  stone  at  a  depth  of 
about  two  feet  below  the  surface,  together  with  fourteen  other  celts,  three 
doggers,  one  of  which  is  given  as  Fig.  301,  a  spear-head  or  dagger, 
shown  in  Fig.  327,  and  a  narrow  chisel  (Fig.  190).      All  the  sixteen 


FiB.  10.— Plynutock. 


wits  are  of  the  same  general  tynO'  ^^^  '^'7  "*  length  from  3J  iiiche.'  to 
(ij  inches.  The  extent  of  the  flanges  or  wings  also  varies,  and  in  some 
they  project  considerably,  and  are  brought  with  m^at  precision  to  a  sharp 
edge.  At  tlio  narrow  or  butt  end,  tho  late  Mr,  Albert  Way,  who  describeU 
the  hoard,  noticed  a  peculiar  slight  groove  extending  only  as  fur  as  the 


FLANGED  CELTS   FOUND   IN   BARROWS.  61 

commencement  of  the  lateral  flanges.  The  character  of  the  groove  is 
shown  in  the  portion  of  the  side  view  given  with  each  figure.  Mr.  Way 
and  Mr.  Franks  thought  that  the  narrow  end  of  the  celt,  when  produced 
from  the  mould,  had  been  slightly  bifid,  and  that  the  little  cleft  had  been 
closed  by  the  hammer.  My  own  impression  is  that  these  marks  are 
merely  the  result  of  **  drawing  down  "  the  narrow  ends  with  the  hammer 
after  their  sides  had  been  somewhat  **  upset"  or  expanded  by  hammering 
out  the  side  flanges. 

The  sides  of  some  of  these  celts  have  been  hammered  so  as  to  present 
three  longitudinal  facets ;  others  have  the  sides  simply  rounded.  One  of 
the  most  interesting  features  of  this  discovery  is  its  analogy  with  that 
already  mentioned  as  having  been  made  at  Arreton  Down.  The  greater 
number  of  the  objects  found  at  Plymstock  were  given  by  the  Duke  of 
Bedford  to  the  British  Museiun,  and  the  remainder  to  the  Exeter  Museum. 

Four  or  five  celts  with  slight  side  flanges  were  found  in  the  Wiltshire 
barrows  by  Sir  R.  Colt  Hoare.  The  largest  of  these  (6J  inches  long  and 
2^  inches  broad)  was  found  in  1808^  in  a  tumulus  known  as  the  Bush 
Barrow,  near  Normanton.*  The  following  are  the  particulars  of  this 
discovery: — On  the  floor  of  the  barrow  was  the  skeleton  of  a  tall  man 
lyin^^  from  south  to  north.  Near  his  shoulders  lay  the  celt,  which  owes 
its  great  preservation  to  having  been  inserted  in  a  handle  of  wood.  About 
eighteen  inches  south  of  the  head  were  several  bronze  rivets,  intermixed 
with  wood  and  thin  pieces  of  bronze,  which  were  regarded  as  the  remains 
of  a  shield.  Near  the  right  arm  were  a  large  dagger  of  bronze  and  a 
tpear-head  of  the  same  metal,  fully  13  inches  long.  The  handle  of  this 
oagger,  marvellously  inlaid  with  pins  of  g^ld,  will  be  described  in  a 
subseauent  chapter.  On  the  breast  of  the  skeleton  was  a  large  lozenge- 
ahapea  plate  of  gold,  ornamented  with  zigzag  and  other  patterns,  and 
near  it  were  some  other  gold  ornaments,  some  bone  rings,  and  an  oval 
perforated  stone  mace,  the  representation  of  which  I  have  reproduced  in 
my  **  Ancient  Stone  Implements." 

We  have  here  an  instance  of  bronze  weapons  occurring  associated 
with  those  of  stone  and  with  gold  ornaments.  Sir  B.  Colt  Hoare  has 
recorded  some  other  cases.  In  a  bell- shaped  barrow  near  Wilsfordjf  at 
the  feet  of  the  skeleton  of  a  tall  man,  he  foimd  a  massive  hammer  of  a 
dark-oolonred  stone,  some  objects  of  bone,  a  whetstone  with  a  groove  in 
the  centre,  and  a  bronze  celt  with  small  lateral  flanges  3^  inches  long. 
These  were  accompanied  by  a  very  curious  object  of  twisted  bronze, 
apparently  a  ring  about  4^  inches  in  diameter,  having  a  tang  pierced  with 
four  rivet  holes  for  fixing  in  a  handle.  In  the  ring  itself,  opposite 
the  tang,  is  a  long  oval  hole,  through  which  passes  one  of  three  circular 
links  forming  a  short  chain. 

In  a  barrow  on  Overton  Hill,  J  Sir  R.  Colt  Hoare  found  a  contracted 
skeleton  buried  either  in  the  trunk  of  a  tree  or  on  a  plank  of  wood.  Near 
the  head  were  a  small  celt  of  this  kind,  an  awl  with  a  handle  (Fig.  227), 
and  a  small  dagger,  or,  as  he  terms  it,  a  **  lance-head." 

The  occurrence  of  celts  of  this  character  is  not  limited  to  interments  by 
inhumation.  In  another  barrow  of  the  Wilsford  group  Sir  R.  C.  Hoare 
found,  in  a  cist  2  feet  deep,  a  pile  of  burnt  bones,  an  ivory  (?)  pin,  a  rude 

•  "  Anc.  Wilt*,"  vol.  i.  p.  202,  pi.  xxvi ;  Areh.,  vol.  xliii.  p.  444. 

f  "Anc.  WiltB,"  vol.i.  p.  209,  pi.  xxix. 

X  **  Anc.  Wilts,"  vol.  ii.  90  ;  Cran,  Brit.,  xi.  7,  where  these  objects  are  figured. 

£  2 


S3  FLAT   AND   FLANGED  CELTS.  [cHAF.   111. 

ring  of  bone,  and  a  small  bronze  celt,  aW  with  aide  flanges,  and  only 
2i  inclieB  long. 

Among  other  spedmene  of  thia  form  of  celt  may  be  cited  one  found  on 
Flumpton  Plain,*  near  Lewes,  Sussex,  now  in  the  British  Uuseum  ;  one 
(4  indies)  found  near  Dover  in  1856;  and  one  (6i  inches)  from  Wye 
Down,  Kent,  both  in  ihe  Mayer  collection  at  Liverpool.  Canon  Green- 
well,  F.B.S.,  has  one  (3^  inches)  from  Uarch,  Cambridgeshire. 

Flanged  celts  much  like  Fig.  9  have  been  found  in  France.  Some 
from  Haute-Saane,t  Bbone,  and  Compi^gne  ^  (Oise)  have  been  figured.  I 
have  spedmens  from  Evreux  (Enre),  Amiens  (Somme),  and  Lyons. 
The  type  also  occurs  in  ItalyS  in  some  abundance;  it  is  found  more  rarely 
in  C^ermany.  ||  Examples  from  Denmark  are  figured  by  8chreiber,*[[ 
Segested,**  and  Madeen.ff    The  form  also  occurs  in  8weden.l| 

A  peculiar  form  of  flanged  celt  is  shown  in  Fig.  11.  l^e  flanges 
extend  as  usual  nearly  to  the  edge,  but  at  the  upper  part  of  the  blade  are 


set  down  so  as  to  project  still  farther  over  the  faces,  though  at  a  lower 
level.  The  ori^al  was  found  in  the  Thames,gg  and  is  the  property  of 
Mr.  T.  Layton,  F.S.A. 

A  small  example,  ornamented  with  a  fluted  pattern  on  the  sides  and  witli 
the  blade  slightly  tapering  in  each  direction  horn  a  central  ridge,  is  shown 
in  Fig.  12.  The  original  was  found  in  Norfolk,  and  is  in  the  collection  of 
Mr.  fi.  Fit«h,  F.S.A. 

Another,  decorated  with  a  fluted  chevron  pattern  on  the  sides,  and  with 
indented  herring-bone  and  chevron  patterns  on  the  faces,  is  given  in 
Fig.  13.  This  example  was  found  in  Dorsetshire,  and  is  now  in  the 
British  Museum.     Li    the  same   collection  is  a  beautiful  celt  with  side 

•  Sun.  Areh.  Coll.,  vol.  M.  p.  288. 

t  Chantra,  "  Album,"  pi.  iv.  2,  3.    "  Cong,  preh.,"  Bologna  toI.  p.  3.S2. 

I  DUl.  Arth.  dt  la  Gauh.    Sev.  Arch.,  NTS.,  yd.  liii.     PI.  i.  fig-  H. 

i  Areh.  Journ.,  vol.  xxi.  100.     Lnbbock'a  "Preh.  Times,"  p.  28,  fig.  17. 

II  Liach,  "  Fred.  Frondsc,"  tab.  ziii.  7.  t  Die  ehemen  Streitkeile,  Taf .  i.  5, 
••  "  Olddag.  to  Broholm,"  pi.  uiii.  6.  tt  "  Afbild,,"  vol.  ii.  pi.  xii.  fi. 

"     T     " -n  ,.    •■  Bologna  vol.  p.  292. 


DECORATED   VIAMGED  CELTS. 


fluigea  found  near  Brough,  Westmoreland  (6}  inchea),  wMoh  has  the 


Fig.  1>.— DoiHlnhin. 

portion  of  the  bliide  below  the  thickeet  part  omamentfid  with  a  lozengy 

matted  pattern  much  like  that  on 

Tig.  $1,  but  with  the   alternate 

lozen^  plain  and  hatched.    The 

hatching  on  some  of  the  lozengea 

is  from  left  to  right,  on  others  the 

A  flanged  celt  of  unusual  type, 
the  (ddee  curiously  wrought  and 
engraved  or  punched,  and  the 
facM  exhibiting  a  pattern  of  che- 
viony  lines,  is  shown  in  Fig.  14. 
It  was  found  near  Lewes,*  Sussex, 
sad  is  the  property  of  Sir  H. 
Shiffner,  Bart. 

An  example  of  nearly  the  same 
kind  is  shown  in  Fi^.  15,  from  a 
celt  found  in  the  Pens  near  Ely, 
and  now  in  the  museiun  of  Mr. 
Uarshall  Fisher,  of  that  city.  Both 
faces  are  ornamented  1 
thickest  part  with  broad  indented 
lines,    vertical  and  transverse,   as 

will  be  best  seen  in  the  figure.  jng.  is.— ti>-.      i 

■  AreK  Jeum.,  vol,  iviii.  p.  167.    Chiche«t«r  vol.  of  jlreh  Intl.,  p.  62,  nhenc*  this 

CBtisUkBIl. 


S4 


FLAT  AND   FLANGBn   CELTS. 


[chap.  III. 

The  sides  are  hammered  into  three  facets,  each  having  a  series  of  diagonal 
KTooves  wrought  in  them.  The  two  left-hand  facets  on  each  side  have 
Uie  grooves  running  upwards  from  left  to  right;  on  the  third  facet  they 
run  downwards,  but  at  a  much  less  incliuation.  The  punch  with  whim 
the  grooves  and  ornaments  were  produced  has  also  been  ranployed  along 
the  inner  angle  of  the  fianges. 

A  pretty  little  celt,  ornamented  with  transverse  ridges  in  the  lower  part, 
is  shown  m  Fig.  16.    The  original  was  fomid  at  Barrow,  Suffolk. 

Tho  Eev.  Canon  Greenwell,  F.E.S.,  possesses  one  (4|  inches)  found  at 
HomcasUe,  Lincolnshire,  the  faces  of  which  are  decorated  in  a  nearly 


Fig.  le.— BUTD^. 


similar  manner;  but  the  sides  show  a  cable  pattern,  and  there  js  a  slight 
central  ridge  on  the  faces. 

A  much  larger  specimen  (6}  inches),  found  near  the  Menai  Bridge,* 
Anglesea,  has  also  cabled  sides,  but  the  grooves  on  the  faces  are  straighter 
and  wider  apart. 

A  Danish  celt,  ornamented  in  a  similar  manner,  is  engraved  by 
Madsen.t 

The  celt  shown  in  Fig.  17  is  of  somewhat  the  same  character,  but  the 
transverse  lines  are  closer  and  not  continuous.  They  have  evidently  been 
produced  by  means  of  a  small  blunt  punch,  with  the  aid  of  a  hammer. 
The  original  was  found  at  Liss,{  near  Peterafield,  Hants,  and  is  now  in 
the  British  Museum. 

Flanged  celts  decorated  on  the  faces  are  of  rare  occurrence  in  France. 
One  of  narrow  proportions,  and  ornamented  with  lozenges  and  zigzags, 
was  found  at  Mareuil-Bur-Ourcq  §  (Oise). 


i.  p.  27S,  1 


i.  p.  207. 


i.  p.  167. 


CAFrriKOS    FOR   FLANOBD   CELTS.  55 

The  only  iDstance  kno^m  to  me  in  which  the  rough  castings 
destined  to  be  wrought  into  this  form  of  celt  have  been  found  in 
Britain  is  one  recorded  in  the  Archeeologia  Cmnhreiisia  '  by  the 
RcT.  E.  L.  Samvell.  At  the  meeting  of  the  Cambrian  Archieo- 
logic&l  Association  at  Wresham,  Sir  R.  A.  Cunliffe,  Bart.,  exhibited 
vhat  had  evidently  been  the  stock  in  trade 
of  an  ancient  bronze -founder  or  merchant. 
It  had  been  found  at  Rhoanesney,  near  Wrex- 
ham, and  consisted  of  six  palstaves,  all  from 
the  same  mould,  another  somewhat  slighter 
and  broken  in  two,  the  blade  of  a  small 
da^er,  three  castings  for  flanged  celts,  and 
the  ehank  of  a  fourth — all  of  them  rough  as 
they  came  from  the  mould.  The  cut  given 
of  one  of  the  last-mentioned  castings  is  here 
reproduced  on  a  smaller  scale  as  Fig.  18.  It 
will  be  seen  that  a  broad  runner  is  left  at  the 
butt  end,  which  was  probably  destined  to  be 
broken  off;  the  sides  would  also  be  ham- 
mered, so  as  to  increase  the  prominence  of  the 
flanges ;  and  the  whole  would  be  planished  by 
hammering  and  grinding.  All  the  specimens 
have  the  appearance  of  havinsr  been  washed 

■,».   J      V    .    ^L-       J  ■?      /  i-  Rg.l8.-Blion««i»/.     1 

over  with  tin,  but  this  deposit  of  tin  upon 

the  surface  may,  I  think,  be  due  to  some  chemical  action  which 
has  gone  on  since  the  bronze  was  buried  in  the  ground,  and  may 
not  have  been  intentionally  produced. 

A  casting  for  a  longer  flanged  celt  found  at  Vicnne  (Isfere)  has 
been  figured  by  Chantre.t 

Turning  now  to  the  flat  and  flanged  celts  discovered  in  Scotland, 
I  may  remark  that  the  instruments  of  the  flat  form  appear  to  be 
comparatively  more  abundant  in  that  country  than  in  England 
and  Wales. 

In  Fig.  19  is  shown  a  remarkably  well-preserved  specimen  in  my  own 
cidlectioii,  wihich  u  said  to  have  been  found  near  Drumlanrig,  Dumfries- 
shire. The  sides  present  two  longitudinal  facets  at  a  low  angle  to  each 
other.  In  hammeiiag  these  the  margin  of  the  faces  has  been  somewhat 
raised  ;  they  are  otherwise  smooth  and  devoid  of  ornament.  Other  speci- 
mens have  iliree  facets  on  the  sides.  Instruments  of  much  the  same 
character  have  been  found  near  Bi^arJ  (6^  inches),  Cult«r§  (5}  inches), 


56  FLAT   AND    FLANGED   CELTS  [CHAP.  III. 

both  in  Lanarkelure ;  on  the  farm  of  Colleonard,*  near  Banff  (found  with 
three  vhich  were  ornamented) ;  at  Sluie  on  the  Findhom.t  Morayshire 
(two,  einchee) ;  near 
Abernethy,t  Perth- 
shire (4  indies  acrosB 
face) ;  near  Ardgour 
House,  S  Invemess- 
shire  (5|  inclies) ; 
the  Hill  of  Fortrie 
of  BalnoonJI  Inver- 
keithney,  Banffshire 
(5  J  inches  long) ;  Ea- 
velston,^  near  Edin- 
burgh (7  inches); 
CobbinBhaw,  Mid- 
calder,  Edinburgh 
(4J  inches),  in  my 
own  collection.  One 
found  in  the  Mosa 
of  Cree,**  near  Wig- 
ton  in  Qalloway,  has 
been  mentioned  by 
"Wilson,  and  is  en- 
graved in  the  A^ 
and  Wifflon  Colke- 
iiiuM.tt  Others  from 
Inch  and  Lea  wait, 
Wigtonahire,  have 
also  been  figured.i^t 


Fig.  IS.— Dnunluuig. 


Some  of  these 
blades,  and  not- 
ably the  celts  from 
Sluie,  the  Hill  of  Fortrie  of  Balnoon,  and  Ravelston,  have  been 
tliought  to  be  tinned.  Ad  interesting  paper  on  the  subject  has 
been  written  by  Dr.  J.  Alexander  Smith  and  Dr.  Stevenson 
Macadam.§§  Their  conclusion  is  rather  in  favour  of  the  celts 
having  been  intentionally  tinned,  so  as  to  protect  them  from 
oxidation  and  the  influence  of  the  weather.  I  think,  how- 
ever, that  the  tinned  appearance  of  the  castings  for  celts  from 
Rhosnesney  affords  a  stmng  argument  against  this  feature  being 
the  result  of  intentional  tinning ;  for,  if  so,  that  metal  would 


•  Proe.  Soe.  Ant.  Seat.,  vol.  iii.  p.  245.       t  P.  fl.  A,  S. 

vol.  iv.  p.  187.  and 

J  F.  S.  A.  S.,  Tol.  IT.  p.  380.                     {   P.  S.  A.  K. 

vol.  ix.  p.  182. 

I  P.  S.  A.  S.,  vol.  ii.  p.  430. 

1  Arth.  Sal.,  Tol.  iii.  App.  II.  p.  32 ;  P.  S.  A.  S.,  vol. 

"  "Preh.  Ann.  ofScot.,^'anded.,  vol.i.  p.  381. 

iz.  p.  431, 

t-t  Vol.  ii.  p.  6.                                                                I 

Op.  at.,  p.  7. 

ii  p.  a.  A.  S.,  Tol.  ii.  p.  428. 

FOUND   IN   SCOTLAND. 


67 


hftTe  been  applied  to  the  blades  after  they  had  been  wrought  and 
groond  into  shape,  and  not  to  the  rough  caslin;^,  from  the  Burftice 
of  which  the  tin  would  be  certainly  retaoVed  in  the  process  of 
finlthing  the  blades.  A  bronze  hammer  from  France  in  my  col- 
lection has  all  the  appearance  of  having  been  intentionally  tinned, 
even  partly  within  the  socket ;  but  in  this  case  the  bronze  appears 
unusually  rich  in  tin,  which  was  probably  added  in  order  to 
increase  the  hardness  of  the  metal,  and  some  considerable  altera- 
tion of  structure  has  taken  place  within  the  body  of  the  metal,  as 
the  surface  is  fissured  in  all  directions,  something  like  "  crackle 
china." 

la  the  Antiquarian  Mueeum  at  Edinbur^  are  other  flat  celte,  some  of 
them  with  slight  flon^  at  the  edge,  from  Eildon,  liosburghBhire ;  Inch- 
nadamff,  SutherlandBhire ; 
Dunino,  Fifeehire;  Vogrie 
•ad  Batho,  Midlothian ; 
Kintore  and  Tarland, 
Abeideenahire ;  and  other 
places. 

Some  celts  of  this  form, 
but  with  slight  side 
flanges,  have  been  found 
in  the  South  of  France.* 

A  celt  of  this  class,  also 
in  the  Museum  at  Edin- 
burgh, is  probably  the 
largest  ever  found  in  the 
Ciuted Kingdom.  ItislSg 
inches  in  length,  9  inches 
in  its  greatest  Dreadth,  but 
only  1|  inch  at  the  nar- 
row end.  Its  thickness  is 
about  g  inch  in  the  middle 
of  the  blade,  and  its  weight 
is  5  lbs.  7  ozB.  It  is  shown 
(m  a  scale  of  rather  more 
than  one-fourth  in  Fig.  20, 
for  the  use  of  the  woodcut 
of  which  I  am  indebted  to 
the  Socie^  of  Antiquaries 
of  Scotland.  It  was  found 
in  diggiu{;  a  drain  on  the 
farm  of  LAwhead,!  on  the 
<onth  side  of  the  Fentland 
Hills,  near  Edinburgh. 

Some  of  the  Scottish  celts,  both  flat  and  doubly  tapering,  are  ornamented 
on  the  faces.     One  with  four  raised  longitudinal  ribs,  and  two  with  a 


Fig.  9).-I*»heBJ. 


"  MaKrisnx,"  vol.  t.  pi.  ii.  6,  7. 


+  Froe.  Soe.  Ant.  Scot.,  vol  v 


,  p.  105. 


FLAT   AND    FLANGED   CELTS. 


[chap.  I 


series  of  short  indsed  or  punched  lines  upon  their  faoee,  were  among 
those  found  on  the  farm  of  Colleonard,*  Banff;  another  has  shallow 
flutings  on  the  blade ;  another,  £  22,  in  the  Catalo^e  of  the  Antiquarian 
Museum  at  Edinburgh,  is  also  ornamented  with  mdeed  lines.  One  of 
those  from  81uie,t  Morayshire,  is  cited  by  Wilson. 


The   tastefully  ornamented  celt  shown  in  Fig.  21   was   found  near 
Nairn,  and    is  now  in  the  Museum  of  the  Society  of   Antiquaries  of 


DECOBATRD   SCOTTISH   SPECIMENS.  OM 

^  to  tlifl  Omncil  of  whicli  I  am  indebted  for  the  um  of  tiie  cut. 
The  wreatbed  lines  appear  to  have  been  produced  by  a  chieel-lilce  punch. 
The  onuunentatiou  of  both  faces  is  almost  exactly  simUar. 

I  have  two  flat  eeltfl,  both  said  to  have  beea  foimd  near  Falkland,  Fife- 
■hire,  one  of  which  (6f  inchee)  hag  had  grooves  about  half  an  inch  apart 
worked  in  the  faces  parallel  to  the  sides,  so  aa  to  form  very  pointed 
chevrone  down  the  centre  of  the  blade.  The  other  (5  inches  long)  has 
had  broad  shallow  dents  about  ^  inch  long  and  ^  inch  apart  made  in  its 
fac«s,  ao  aa  to  form  a  herring-bone  pattern. 

The  doubly  tapering  celt  shown  in  Fig.  22  is  also  said  to  have  been 
found  near  Falkland.     Below  the  ridge  the  face  has  been  ornamented 


nith  parallel  belts  of  short,  narrow  indentations  arranged  longitudinally 
for  about  half  the  length  of  the  lower  face,  but  nearer  the  edge  trans- 
Teraely.     The  sides  are  worked  into  three  longitudinal  facets. 

Of  SoottiBh  flanged  celts  resembling  Fig.  9,  the  following  may  be 
mentioned.  One  found  in  Peeblesshire  *  (5}  inches  long,  with  a  circular 
depression  on  one  face);  one  from  Longmau,t  Macduff,  Banffshire  (3} 
indies  long). 

Another  of  the  same  class,  having  a  round  hole  at  the  upper  part  of  the 
blade,  ia  stud  to  have  been  found  in  Scotland,  and  is  engraved  by  Qordon.J 


60  FLAT  AND   FI.ANOED   CELTS  [CHAP.   IIL 

A  celt  with  but  slishtly  raised  flanges  and  peculiar  omameDtation  is 
shown  in  Fig.  23.  ft  was  found  at  Greenlees,*  near  Spottiswoode, 
Berwickshire,  and  is  in  the  collection  of  Lady  John  Scott.  There  is  a 
f  ^tly  marked  atop-ridge,  above  which  the  blade  has  been  ornamented  by 
thickly  set  parallel  hammer  or  punch  marks.  The  sides  are  fluted  in  a 
cable  pattern.  Parallel  to  the  cutting  edge  are  three  slight  fluted  hollows, 
and  on  the  blade  above  are  segments  of  concentric  hollows  of  the  same 
kind,  forming  what  heralds  would  tenn  "flanches"  ontheblade.  Whether 
in  this  ornament  we  are  to  see  a  representation  of  the  "flanches"  of  the 
winged  palstave  like  Fig.  85,  auch  as  is  so  common  on  socketed  celts,  or 
whether  it  is  of  indepeuMnt  origin,  I  will  not  attempt  to  determine. 


Fig.  M.— Perth.       1 


tig.  2i.— Aptlegarlh.       i 


A  flanged  celt  with  a  slight  stop-ridge,  having  the  sides  ornamented 
with  a  cable  pattern  and  the  faces  with  rows  of  triangles  alternately 
hatched  and  pain,  is  shown  in  Fig.  24.  The  orinnal  was  found  near 
Perth, j-  and  is  in  the  collection  of  flie  Bev.  James  Beck,  F.S.A.  A  celt 
with  five  hatched  bands  surmounted  by  triangles,  and  wiUi  the  sides  cable 
moulded,  though  found  in  Denmark,}  much  resembles  this  Scottish  speci- 
men and  some  of  those  &om  Ireland.  Another  with  similar  sides,  but 
with  the  lower  part  of  the  faces  ornamented  with  narrow  vertical  groovps, 
was  found  at  Applegarth.S  DumMesshire,  and  is  now  in  the  Antiquarian 
Museum  at  Edinoui^h.     It  is  represented  in  Fig.  25. 

'  Proe.  Sue.  Ant.  Sail.,  vol.  lO.  p.  601.     I  am  indebted  to  the  Council  for  the  use  of 

Yiii.  p.  6. 

ii.pl.  xxi.  7.    See  also '■  Ant.  Tidak.,"  1861-3,  p.  24. 


FOUND   IN    IBELANO.  61 

AxoUieT  decorated  celt  of  the  same  character,  though  with  different 
ornamentatioD,  is  showa  in  Fig.  26.  The  curved  hands  on  the  faces  are 
ftsmed  of  lines  with  dots  between,  and  the  sidea  have  a  kind  of  fem-leaf 
Httem  upon  them,  like  that  on  the  winged  celt  from  Trillick,  Fig.  98. 
The  original  was  found  at  Dams,  Balbimie,*  Fifeshire. 

A  Teiy  large  number  of  flat  celts  of  the  simplest  form  have  been 
found  in  Ireland.  So  numerous  are  they  that  it  would  ouly 
cucumber  these  pages  were  I  to  attempt  to  give  a  detailed  account 
of  all  the  varieties,  and  of  all  the  localities  at  which  they  have  been 
found.  Sir  William  Wilde,  in  his  most  valuable  "  Catalogue  of  the 
Museum  of  the  Royal  Irish  Academy,"  has  placed  on  record  a 


11 


Fig.  17.— BslliumiUud. 


large  amount  of  information  upon  this  subject,  from  which  some 
of  the  facts  hereafter  mentioned  are  borrowed,  and  to  which  the 
reader  is  referred  for  farther  information.  Some  of  those  of  the 
rudest  manufacture  are  fonned  "of  red,  almost  unalloyed  copper."t 
These  vary  in  length  from  about  2J  inches  to  6^  inches,  and  are 
never  ornamented. 

In  Fig.  27  ia  shown  a  small  example  of  a  celt  apparently  of  pure 
copper,  which  was  found  at  BallinamaUard,  Co.  Fennauagh,  and  was 
kindly  added  to  my  collection  by  the  Fail  of  Fnniskillen.  I  have  another, 
more  like  Fig.  28,  from  Ballybawn,  Co.  Cork,  presented  to  me  by  Mr. 
Bobert  Day,  F.S.A. 

A  small  celt  of  this  character,  from  King's  County,  now  In  the  British 
Huseum,  is  only  2^  inches  in  length. 

t.  p.  120.    I  am  iiidebt«d  to  the  Council  for  the  luon 
t  WUde,  p.  361. 


FLAT   AND   FLANGED   CELTS.  [uHAP.   Ill 


Fig.  28  shows  a  very  common  form  of  Irieli  celt,  in  this  inataiice  made 
of  bronze.     The  inetruments  of  this  t;pe  &re  in  general  nearly  flat,  and 


Fig. ».— Motthatlrdiuicl.      1 


without  any  marked  central  ridge,  such  as  ia  to  be  obserred  more 


Hg.  30.— TippwHry. 


frequently  on  the  longer  and  narrower  form,  of  which  a  remarkably  small 
specimen  from  the  collection  of  Mr,  E.  Day,  F.S.A.,  is  shown  in  Fig,  29.  In 


DECORATED  IBISH   SFUCIHENS.  63 

Qua  cue  it  will  be  seen  ihaX  the  blade  tapers  botb  ways  from  a  low 
central  rid^.  Others  of  theee  flat  celts  are  in  outline  more  like  Fig.  20. 
One  Buch,  in  tlie  museum  of  the  Boyal  Iriali  Academy,  is  12}  inches  long' 
by  H  intJies  broad,  and  weighs  nearly  5  lbs.  One  in  tbe  British  Museum, 
which,  unfortunately,  ia  somewhat  imperfect,  must  have  been  of  nearly 
the  same  edze.  The  usual  leng:tb  of  the  celts  like  Fig.  28  is  from 
4  to  6  inchee.  One  from  Qreenmount,  Castle  Bellingham,  Co.  Louth,  is 
enpared  in  the  Arehaologieai  Jbumal.* 

.  Occasionally  the  flat  surface  is  ornamented.  An  example  of  this  kind 
[H  inches)  is  given  in  Fig.  30,  from  a  specimen  found  m  the  county  of 
Tipperary,!  and  now  in  the  British  Museum.  The  surface  has  the  patterns 
punched  in,  and  the  angles  between  the  faces  and  the  sides  are  slightly 
serrated.  Some  few  Insh  celts  are  slightly  fiuted  on  the  face,  like  the 
English  specimen,  Fig.  6. 

Another  ornamented  celt  of  this  class,  &om  my  own  collection,  is  shown 
in  Fig.  31.     On  tins  the  roughly  worked   pattern   has  been  produced 


Kg.  SI.— Inland.  } 

by  means  of  a  long  blunt  punch,  or  possibly  by  the  pane  or  narrow  end 
of  a  hammer ;  but  it  is  far  more  probable  that  the  former  tool  was 
used  than  the  latter.  The  two  faces  are  nearly  alike,  and  the  sides  have 
been  hammered  so  as  to  produce  a  central  ridge  along  them. 

A  large  and  highly  ornamented  flat  celt  in  the  collection  of  Canon 
Greenw^  F.B.8.,  is  shown  in  Fig.  32.  The  ornamentation  on  each 
fac«  is  the  same,  and  tlie  sides  have  been  hammered  so  as  to  produce  a 
succession  of  flat  lozenges  upon  tbem.  It  was  found  near  Connor,  Co. 
Antrim,  with  two  others  of  nearly  the  same  size,  one  of  which  was 

•  Vol.  xzvii  p.  308. 

t  .Arelt.  Jtwn.,  toL  vi.  p.  410,  For  tha  uie  of  Uiii  cut  I  un  indebted  to  Mr.  A.  W. 
taakm,  P.B.8. 


64  FLAT  AND    FLANGED   CELTS.  [CHAF.  UL 

scraped  by  the  finder.  The  other  is  ornamented  with  a  cross-hatched 
border  along  the  tnargiae,  and  three  narrow  bands  across  the  blade,  one 
cross-hatched,  one  of  triangles  alternately  hatched  and  plain,  and  one  with 
Tertical  lines.  Parallel  with  the  cutting  edge,  which,  however,  has  been 
broken  off  in  old  times,  is  a  curved  band  of  alternate  triangles,  lUce  that 
across  the  centre  of  the  blade.  Much  of  the  surface  ia  grained  by  vertical 
indentations,  and  the  sides  are  ornamented  like  those  of  Fig.  4. 


Fig.  8».— Connor.       } 

In  the  celts  tapering  in  both  directions  from  a  slight  transverse  ridge, 
the  sides  have  often  been  "upset"  by  hammering,  so  as  to  produce  a 
thickening  of  the  blade  at  the  marg^  almost  amounting  to  a  flange. 
Not  unfrequently  a  pattern  is  produced  upon  the  sides,  aa  in  Fig.  33, 
where  it  will  be  seen  that  the  median  ridge  along  the  sides  ia  interrupted 
at  intervals  by  a  eories  of  flat  lozenges.  The  faces  of  this  instrument 
below  the  ridge  have  been  neatly  hammered,  so  as  to  produce  a  kind  of 
grained  surface  not  unlike  that  of  French  morocco  leatiier.     This  speci- 


DKOORATBD   IRISH   SFBCIHENS. 


65 


men,  Thich  U  unusually  large,  waa  found  near  Clontarf,  Co.  Dublin. 
The  Mme  kind  of  decoration  occutb  on  the  sides  of  many  specimenB  in  tho 
moseum  ot  the  Boyal  Irish  Academy.* 

The  decoration  of  the  faces  often  extends  over  the  upper  part  of  the 
Uade,  though,  vhen  halted,  much  of  this  was  probably  hidden.  In 
Rg.  34,  borrowed  from  Wilde  (Fig.  248),  tliis  peculiarity  is  well  ex- 
hibited, like  sides  have  the  long  loienges  upon  tnem,  like  those  on  the 
wit  lost  desuribed. 


rig.  Sfc-Clontarf. 


The  beautiful  specimen  shown  in  Fig.  35  was  presented  to  me  by  Mr. 
Bobert  Day,  F.S.A.  The  aides  have  in  this  case  a  kind  of  cable  pattern 
mvkod  upon  them.  The  ornamentation  of  the  faces  is  remarkable  a.i 
hsTin^  80  many  curved  lines  brought  into  it.  The  lower  part  of  the  blade 
has  two  ohallow  flutings  upon  it,  approximately  parallel  to  the  edge. 

In  the  case  of  a  celt  of  much  the  same  form  and  size  (7}  inches),  which 

belonged  to  the  late  Rev.  Thomas  Hugo,  F.S.A. ,  and  was  at  one  time 

•  Emi  Wilde,  Fig.  249.  266. 


64 


FLAT  AND  FLANGED  CELTS. 


[chap.  III. 


BCTaped 

border  along  the  margins,  and  three  narrow  bands  across  the  blade,  one 
croea-hatehed,  one  of  triangles  alternately  hatched  and  plain,  and  one  with 
vertical  lines.  Parallel  with  the  cutting  edge,  which,  nowever,  has  been 
broken  off  in  old  times,  is  a  curved  band  of  alternate  trianglee,  like  that 
across  the  centre  of  the  blade.  Much  of  the  surface  is  grained  by  vertical 
indentations,  and  the  sides  are  ornamented  like  those  of  Fig.  4. 


Fig.  M,— Connor.      | 

In  the  celts  tapering  in  both  directions  from  a  slight  tranBrerse  ridge, 
the  sides  have  often  been  "upset"  by  hammering,  so  as  to  produce  a 
thickening  of  the  blade  at  the  margins  almost  amounting  to  a  flange. 
Kot  unirequently  a  pattern  is  produced  upon  the  sides,  as  in  Fig.  33, 
where  it  wUl  be  seen  that  the  median  ridge  along  the  sides  is  interrupted 
at  intervals  by  a  series  of  flat  lozenges.  The  faces  of  this  instrument 
below  the  ridge  have  been  neatly  hammered,  so  as  to  produce  a  kind  of 
grained  surface  not  unlike  that  of  French  morocco  leather.     This  speci- 


DKOORATBD   IRISH   SFBCIHSKS. 


men,  vhich  ia  uiiuaually  large,  was  found  near  Clontarf,  Oo.  Dublin. 
The  same  kind  of  decoration  occutb  on  the  udes  of  many  apecunens  in  tho 
muBeum.  of  the  Eoyal  Irish  Academy,* 

The  decoration  of  the  faces  often  extends  over  the  upper  part  of  the 
blade,  though,  when  hafted,  much  of  this  was  probably  hidden.  In 
Fig.  34,  borrowed  from  Wilde  (Fig.  248),  this  pecniliarity  ia  well  ex- 
hibited. The  sides  have  the  long  lozenges  upon  them,  like  those  on  the 
(«lt  last  described. 


The  beautiful  specimen  shown  in  Fig.  36  was  presented  to  me  by  Mr. 
Bobeit  Day,  F.S.A.  The  sides  hare  in  this  case  a  kind  of  cable  pattern 
worked  upon  theuL  The  ornamentation  of  the  faces  is  remarkable  an 
having  so  manyourred  lines  brought  into  it.  The  lower  part  of  the  blade 
has  two  shallow  flutings  upon  it,  approximately  parallel  to  the  edge. 

In  the  case  of  a  celt  of  much  the  same  form  and  size  (71  inches),  which 

belonged  to  the  latn  Rev.  Thomas  Ilugo,  F.9.A.,  and  was  at  one  time 

•  Sm.  WiWc.  Fig,  2«9.  266. 


66  FLAT   AND    FLANGED   CELTS.  [CHAP.   III. 

thought  to  have  been  found  in  the  Thames,*  it  is  the  upper  part  of  the 


I'iu.  Uj.— IteLmd.       %  Vig.  M.— Trim.       } 

blade  that  is  decorated,  and  not  the  lover,  which  is  left  smooth.    Tliere 
is  no  central  ridge,   but  the  upper  part  has  a  coarse  lozenge  pattern 


Fig.  S7.— Ireland.       i  liR.  :iS,-lreLii..|,       J 

hammered  upon  it,  the  centres  of  the  lozenges  being  roughly  hatched  with 
•  Areh.  Joiiiv.,  vol.  li.  p.  295. 


CHARACTER    OF  THEIR  DECORATIONS. 


67 


transYerse  lines.  Possibly  this  roughening  may  have  assisted  to  keep  the 
blade  fast  in  the  handle,  &ough  in  producing  it  some  artistic  feeling  was 
brought  to  bear.  There  is  litUe  doubt  of  this  instrument  being  of  Irish 
origin. 

Other  celts,  like  Fig.  36,  have  the  upper  part  of  the  blade  plain  and 
the  lower  ornamented.  This  specimen  was  found  at  Trim,  Co.  M!eath,  and 
is  in  the  collection  of  Canon  (Sreenwell,  F.R.S.  It  will  be  observed  that 
even  the  cabled  fluting  of  the  sides  ceases  opposite  the  transverse  ridge. 

In  Figs.  37  and  38  are  shown  two  more  of  these  slightly  flanged 
ornamented  celts.  The  first  is  in  the  museum  of  the  Boyal  Insh  Academy, 
and  has  already  been  figged  by  Wilde  (Fig.  298).  The  lower  part  of  the 
blade  is  fluted  transversely  with  chevron  patterns  punched  in  along  the 
curved  ridges.  In  the  second,  which  was  presented  to  me  by  Dr.  Aquilla 
Smith,  M.K.I.A.,  there  is  a  fairly  well  defined  though  but  slightly  pro- 
jecting curved  stop-ridge,  and  the  blade  is  decorated  by  boldly  punched 
lineBy  forming  a  pattern  which  a  herald  might  describe  as  ''per  saltire 
argent  and  azure."  The  cable  fluting  on  the  sides  is  beautifully  regular. 
The  Rev.  G.  W.  Brackenridge,  of  Clevedon,  possesses  a  longer  specimen 
(^  inches),  found  at  Tullygo wan,  near  Qracehill,  Go.  Antrim,  the  faces  of 
which  are  ornamented  with  a  nearly  similar  design.  Canon  Greenwell 
has  another  example  foimd  at  Carrickferg^,  Co.  Antrim. 

The  patterns  punched  upon  the  celts  of  this  type  show  a  great 
variety  of  form,  and  not  a  little  fertility  of  design  in  the  ancient 
artificers.*  Various  combinations  of  chevron  patterns  are  the  most 
frequent,  though  grained  surfaces  and  straight  linos  like  those  on 
Fig.  17  also  jfrequently  occur.  Sir  William  Wilde  describes  them 
as  hammered,  punched,  engraved,  or  cast.  Most  of  the  patterns 
were,  however,  produced  by  means  of  punches,  though  it  is  possible 
that  in  some  instances  the  other  processes  may  have  been  used. 

Figs.  39  to  43,  borrowed  from  Wilde  (Figs.  286  to  290),  show 
some   of  the   patterns  full  size.     The   punch    most   commonly 


Fig.  89. 


Fig.  40. 


Fig.  41. 


o  oo 
oooc 

o  o     o  o 

0  O         qO 
O  O  qO 

Fig  48. 


employed  must  have  resembled  a  narrow  and  blunt  chisel ;  but  a 
kind  of  centre-punch,  producing  a  shallow  round  indentation,  was 
also  employed,  and  possibly  a  somewhat  curved  punch  like  a  blunt 
gouge.  In  some  cases  the  lines  between  the  punched  marks  are, 
according  to  Wilde,  engraved.  It  is,  however,  a  question  whether 
even  the  finest  lines  might  not  have  been  produced  by  a  chisel  used 
after  the  manner  of  a  punch.      What  were  probably  punches  for 

•  See  Wilde,  "  Catal.  Mu§.  R.  I.  A.,"  p.  389  et  teq. ;  "  Vallancey,"  vol.  iv.  pi.  x.  9. 

F  2, 


68  FLAT  AND  FLANGED  CELTS  [CHAP.  IIT. 

producing  such  patterns  have  been  found  in  some  English  hoards, 
as  will  subsequently  be  mentioned  ;  and  in  the  Fonderie  de  Lar- 
naud,  Jura,*  was  a  punch  with  an  engrailed  end  for  producing  a 
kind  of  "  milled "  mark,  either  in  the  mould  or  on  the  casting. 
Another,  with  concentric  circles,  seems  best  adapted  for  impressing 
the  loam  of  the  mould. 

Some  few  of  the  Irish  ornamented  celts  have  well-defined  stop- 
ridges  like  the  English  example.  Fig.  51  ;  but  these  will  be  more 
in  their  place  in  the  following  chapter.  One  or  two  other  forms 
may,  however,  be  here  mentioned,  though  they  approximate  closely 
to  the  chisels  described  in  subsequent  pages. 

One  of  these  is  shown  in  Fig.  44,  the  upper  part  of  the  blade  of  which 
is,  as  will  be  seen,  so  narrow,  and  the  instrument  itself  so  small  and  light, 


Fig.  44.— Armoy.       i  Fig.  46.— Ireland.       i 

that  it  is  a  question  whether  it  should  not  be  regarded  as  a  chisel  or  paring- 
tool  rather  than  as  a  hatchet.  The  blade  tapers  both  ways,  and  the  inci- 
pient flange  is  more  fully  developed  above  the  ridge  than  below.  The 
original  was  found  at  Annoy,  Co.  Antrim.  It  is  much  broader  at  the 
cutting  edge  than  the  blade  from  Culham,  Fig.  55,  to  which  it  is  some- 
what allied. 

Another  Irish  form  of  celt,  or  possibly  chisel,  tapers  in  both  dir^tions 
from  a  central  transverse  ridge,  near  which  there  are  lateral  projections 
on  the  blade,  as  if  to  prevent  its  being  driven  into  the  handle.  An 
example  of  this  kind,  from  the  museum  of  the  Eoyal  Irish  Academy,  is 
given  in  Fig.  45.  There  are  nine  or  ten  in  that  collection,  and  they  vary 
in  length  from  about  3^  to  8  inches.  Others  are  in  the  British  Museum, 
one  of  which  is  more  distinctly  tanged  than  the  figure,  and  the  stops  are 
formed  by  the  gradual  widening  out  of  the  blade,  whicli  again  contracts 
with  a  similar  curve,  and  once  more  widens  out  at  the  edge.  This  type 
is  also  known  in  France.  Other  varieties  of  this  form  are  described  in 
Chapter  VII. 

*  Chantre,  "  Altum,"  pi.  1.  9,  10. 


WITH   LATERAL  8T0P8, 


A  doubly  tapering:  blade  in  the  museum  of  the  Boyal  Irish  Academy, 
ahoim  in  Fig.  46,  ^s  a  slight  atop-ridge  on  the  face,  and  also  expands 
at  the  sides,  though  not  to  the  same  extent  as  the  plain  specimens  just 
mentioaed.  It  is  ornamented  with  straight  and  curved  bands  formed  of 
chevron  patterns. 

A  double-edged  instrument,  also  in  the  museum  of  the  Boyal  Irish 
Academy,  has  a  stop-ridge  on  one  of  the  faces  only,  as  shovn  in  Fig.  47. 

An  instnunent  of  the  same  form,  but  with  stops  at  the  sides  instead  of 
on  the  face,  4f  inches  long,  |  inch  broad  at  the  ed^es,  and  about  |  inch 
thick,  was  found  at  Farley  Heath,  Surrey,  and  is  now  in  the  British 
Uuaeum. 

A  Danish  instrument  of  the  same  kind  is  figured  by  Woreaae.* 


Flat  cdtB  of  iron  with  lateral  stops  have  been  found  in  the  cemetery  at 
Hallotptt,  Austria,  as  well  as  winged  palstaves  and  socketed  celts  of  the 
■aaifl  metaL 

Some  of  tlie  thin  votive  hatchets  foimd  at  Dodona  f  are  of  the  same  form, 
and  are  significant  of  such  blades  having  been  in  actual  use  in  Greece. 

Id  the  next  cliapter  are  deficribed  the  celts  in  which  the  side 
flanges  have  become  more  fully  developed,  so  as  to  form  wings  to 
embrace  and  steady  the  handle,  and  the  central  ridge  has  grown 
into  a  well-marked  shoulder  against  which  the  end  of  the  haft 
could  rest. 


•  JVwrf.  OlititftT,  No.  176.* 


t  Carapamw,  "  DoJtine,"  ]il.  liv. 


CHAPTER  IV. 

WINGED   CELTS   AND   PALSTAVES. 

To  any  one  who  has  examined  an  extensive  collection  of   the 
bronze   instruments  found   in  this  country  it  will   at   once   be 
apparent  that  in  the  class  of  celts  designed  to  be  fixed  in  some 
sort  of  haft,  and  not  themselves  socketed  for  the  reception  of  a 
handle,  there  is  a  wide  range  of  form.     Any  attempt,  however,  to 
divide  them  into  well-marked  classes  is  soon  seen  to  be  futile,  as 
there  is  found  to  be  a  gradual  transition  from  what  at  .first  sight 
appears  to  be  a  well-marked  form  into  some  other  which  presents 
different  characteristics.     If,  for  instance,  we  take  the  side  flanges 
as  a  criterion,  we  find  them  ranging  from  a  mere  thickening  on  the 
margins  of  the  flat  celts  to  well-developed  flanges,  extending  along 
nearly  the  whole  blade ;  we  then  find  them  confined  to  the  upper 
part  of  the  instrument,  and  in  some  cases  of  great  lateral  extent, 
so  as  to  be  capable  of  being  hammered  over  to  form  a  kind  of 
semicircular  socket  on  each  side  of  the  blade.     In  other  cases  we 
find  that  the  flanges  have  some  part  of  their  apparent  projection 
due  to  a  diminution  in  the  thickness  of  the  portion  of  the  blade 
which  lies  between  them.     If  we  take  as  a  criterion  the  stop- 
ridge,  as  it  has  been  termed,  a  projecting  ridge  for  the  purpose  of 
preventing  the  blade  being  driven  too  far  into  its  wooden  handle, 
we  find  the  ridge  in  a  rudimentary  form  in  the  blades  which  taper 
both  ways  ;  next  as  a  slightly  raised  ridge  or  bead  running  across 
the  blade  ;  then  as  a  better-defined  ridge,  to  which,  at  last,  greater 
development  is  given  by  a  reduction  in  the  thickness  of  the  blade 
above  it.     The  presence  or  absence  of  a  loop  at  the  side  is,  no 
doubt,  a  good  differentiation,  but  as  this  is  a  mere  minor  accessory, 
and  two  celts  may  be  identical  in  other  respects  with  the  excep- 
tion of  one  being  provided  with  a  loop  and   the    other  being 
without  it,  it  does  not  materially  assist  in  the  classification  of  this 
group  of  instruments,  although  for  convenience*  sake  it  is  best  to 


ORIGIN    OF   THE   TERM    PALSTAVE. 


71 


treat  of  the  two  varieties  of  form  separately.  An  additional 
reason  for  this  may  be  found  in  the  possibility  that  the  loop  was 
a  comparatively  late  invention,  so  that  the  palstaves  provided 
with  it  may  be  in  some  cases  of  later 
date  than  those  without  it,  though 
the  identity  in  the  ornamentation  of 
some  of  the  instruments  of  the  two 
classes,  and  the  fact  of  their  being 
occasionally  found  together,  are  al- 
most conclusive  as  to  their  contem- 
poraneity. 

In  the  present  chapter  I  propose 
to  treat  of  the  celts  with  a  stop- 
ridge,  of  the  winged  celts,  and  of 
those  of  the  palstave  form. 

The  winged  celts  may  be  generally 
described  as  those  in  which  the 
flanges  are  short  and  have  a  great 
amount  of  lateral  extension.  When 
these  wings  are  hammered  over  so  as 
to  form  a  kind  of  socket  on  each  side  . 
of  the  blade,  one  of  the  varieties 
of  the  palstave  form  is  the  result. 
Tlie  other  and  more  common  variety 
of  the  palstave  form  has  the  portion 
of  the  blade  which  lies  between  the 
wings  or  side  flanges  and  above  the 
stop-ridge  cast  thinner  than  the  rest 
of  the  blade,  thus  leaving  a  recesS  or 
groove  on  each  side  into  which  the 
handle  fitted. 

I  have  already  made  frequent  use 
of  the  term  palstave,  and  it  will  bo 
well  here  to  make  a  few  remarks 
as  to  the  origin  and  meaning  of  the 
word.  The  term  palstave,  or  more 
properly  paalstab,  comes  to  us  from 
the  Scandinavian  antiquaries.    Their 

reason  for  adopting  the  term  was  that  there  is  still  in  use  in 
Iceland  a  kind  of  narrow  spade  or  spud,  which  is  known  by  the 
name  of  paalstab,  and  which  somewhat   resembles   these  bronze 


Fig.  48.  Fig.  49. 

Icelandic  "Palstavw." 


72  WINGED  CELTS   AND   PALSTAVES.  [CHAP.  IT. 

instruments.  Woodcuts  of  two  of  these  Icelandic  palstaves  are 
given  in  the  Archoeological  Journal*  from  drawings  communi- 
cated to  Mr.  Yates  by  Councillor  Thomsen,  of  Copenhagen.  They 
are  here  by  permission  reproduced.  The  derivation  of  the  term 
suggested  in  a  note  to  the  Journal  is  that  j)aal  comes  from  the 
Icelandic  verb  pula,  or  pala,  to  labour,  so  that  the  word  means  the 
"  labouring  staflF."  But  this  appears  to  me  erroneous.  Pul,  indeed, 
signifies  hard,  laborious  work;  but  ^xcZi  (at  pcela)  means  to  dig,  and 
paU  (conf.  Latin  pala  and  French  pelle)  means  a  kind  of  spade  or 
shovel.  The  word,  indeed,  survives  in  the  English  language  as  peel, 
the  name  of  a  kind  of  wooden  shovel  used  by  bakers  for  placing 
loaves  in  the  oven.  The  meaning  of  the  term  would  appear, 
then,  to  be  rather  "spade  staff"  than  "labouring  staff/'  unless 
the  word  labouring  be  used  in  the  sense  of  the  French  lubourer. 

Mr.  Thoms,  in  a  note  to  his  "  Translation  of  Worsaae's  Primeval 
Antiquities  of  Denmark," "I"  says  that  the  "term  Paalstab  was 
formerly  applied  in  Scandinavia  and  Iceland  to  a  weapon  used 
for  battering  the  shields  of  the  enemy,  as  is  shewn  by  passages  in 
the  Sagas.  Although  not  strictly  applicable  to  the  (bronze) 
instruments  in  question,  this  designation  is  now  so  generally  used 
by  the  antiquaries  of  Scandinavia  and  Germany,  that  it  seems 
desirable,  with  the  view  of  securing  a  fixed  terminology,  that  it 
should  be  introduced  into  the  archsBology  of  England."  The  term 
had  already  been  used  in  1848  in  the  "Guide  to  Northern 
Archaeology,"  J  edited  by  the  Earl  of  EUesmere,  and  has  now,  like 
celt,  become  adopted  into  the  English  language. 

I  have  not  been  able  to  refer  to  the  passage  in  the  Sagas  men- 
tioned as  above  by  Mr.  Thoms,  but  whatever  may  be  the  original 
meaning  of  the  word  palstave,  h;  is  applied  by  northern  anti- 
quaries to  all  the  forms  of  celts  with  the  exception  of  those  of  the 
socketed  type.§ 

Among  English  antiquaries  it  has,  I  think,  been  used  in  a  more 
restricted  sense.  Professor  Daniel  Wilson  II  defines  palstaves  as 
"  wedges,  more  or  less  axe-shaped,  having  a  groove  on  each  side 
terminating  in  a  stop-ridge,  and  with  lateral  flanges  destined  to 
secure  a  hold  on  the  handle.  The  typical  example,  however, 
which  he  engraves  has  neither  groove  nor  stop-ridge,  but  is  what 
I  should  term  a  winged  celt,  like  Fig.  56. 

♦  Vol.  vii.  p.  74.  t  London,  1849,  p.  25.  t  V.  59. 

^  See  Nilsson,  "  Skandinaviska  Nordona  Ur-Invanare,"  p.  92. 
li  "  Preh.  Ann.,"  2nd  ed.,  vol.  i.  p.  382. 


CELTS    WITH    A    STOP-RIDGE.  73 

lu  the  present  work  I  propose  confining  the  term  palstave  to 
die  two  varieties  of  form  already  mentioned  ;  viz.  the  winged  ceUs 
which  have  their  wings  hammered  over  so  as  to  form  what  may  be 
termed  external  sockets  to  the  blade  ;  and  those  with  the  portion 
of  the  blade  which  lies  between  the  side  flanges  and  above  the  stop 
thinner  than  that  which  is  below. 

The  first  form,  however  of  which  I  have  to  treat  is  that  of  the 
celts  provided  with  a  stop  ridge  on  each  face.  These  are  almost 
always  flanged  celts. 

A  fine  specimen,  with  the  Htop  ndge  consisting  of  a  straight  narrow 
raised  band  across  each  face  anii  with  a  second  curved  band  at  some  dis- 
tance below,  is  shown  m  Fig  50      It  was  found  at  Wigton,  Cumberland, 


— Wiyton.       1 

and  is  in  the  collection  of  Canon  Greenwell,  F.B.S.  The  face  between 
the  two  bands  has  a  grained  appearance  given  it  by  hammering.  The 
wings  OT  Bide  flanges  are  also  faceted  by  the  same  process.  In  the  same 
collection  is  another  blade  (5J  inches)  of  this  form,  with  a  small  stop-ridge, 
and  having  the  lower  part  ornamented  with  vertical  punched  lines,  ^e 
sides  have  three  facets,  that  in  the  centre  ornamented  in  a  similar  manner. 
This  celt  was  found  at  Rougham,  Norfolk.  I  have  a  sketch  of  another 
(6J  inches)  found  near  Longtown,  Cumberland,  in  1860. 

I  have  a  nearly  similar  specimen,  but  only  4 i  inches  lon^,  from  Stanton, 

Forest  of  Dean,  Gloucestershire.     Another  (dj  inches)  with  only  a  slight 

Etop-ridge  was  found  at  Aynhoe,*  Northamptonshire,  and  is  in  the  colkc- 

•  Baker's  "  Hirt.  of  Norih,"  p.  fiSS. 


74  WIXGED   CELTS   AND   PAI,STAVES.  [cHAP.  IV. 

tion  of  Sir  Henry  Dryden.  Fig.  51  ehowa  a  beautifully  wrought  and 
highly  decorated  flanged  celt,  provided  with  a  somewhat  curved  stop-ridge 
connecting  the  two  flanges.  The  two  faces  of  the  celt  are  ornamented 
with  an  interlaced  pattern  produced  by  narrow  dents,  with  a  border  of 
chevrons  along  each  margin  punched  into  the  metal.  The  flanges  are 
worked  into  three  facets  ornamented  with  diagonal  grooves,  and  the 
lower  side  of  the  sttip-ridge  has  a  moulding  worked  on  it.  This  fine 
exami>Ie  of  an  ornamentM  celt  was  found  near  ChoUerford  })ridge, 
Northumberland,  and  is  in  the  collection  of  Canon  Greenwell,  F.R.S. 

A  somewhat  similar  but  unomamonted  variety  of  instrument,  partaking 
more  of  the  ^talstave  character,  is  shown  in  Fig.  52.     The  original  was 


found  in  excavations  at  Chatliam  Dockj-ard,  and  is  now  In  the  British 
Museum.  Aa  will  bo  seen,  the  recess  for  tho  haft  ends  in  a  semicircular 
Btop-ridge. 

In  Fig.  53  is  shown  a  winged  celt  without  stop-ridge  found  in  Burwell 
Fen,  Cambridgeshire,  and  now  in  my  own  collection.  The  side  flangca 
or  wings  Imve  been  hammered  into  three  facets,  and  are  well  developed. 
Tbf  form  of  the  blaile  is  otherwise  that  of  a  flat  celt,  except  tliat  tliort-  is 
a  slight  irregularity  in  the  sweep  of  tlie  sides,  which  results  fitun  the 
hammering  of  thu  "flanges.  Tho  form  occ^nrs  occasionally  in  Ireland,  and 
one  (41  inches)  is  flgured  by  Wilde.*  Winged  colts  of  nearly  tho  same 
form,  but  provided  with  a  stop-ridge,  are  occasionally  found.  One  of 
these  in  the  British  JIusoum,  found  at  BuckncU,  Hereford  .shire,  is  shown 
in  Fig.  51.     The  blade  below  tho  stop-ridge  is  ,"„  indi  thick ;  above  it 


'(.'at;.l.  Miw.  ]t.  [.  A.,' 


(,  lig.  5 


'   WINDED   CELTS. 


oii]y{  inch.     A  celt  of  much  the  same  character  (7t  inohea),  found  at 
WoWey,  Warwickshire,  is  in  the  collection  of  Mr.  M.  H.  Bloitam,  I'.S.A. 


The  double  curvature  of  the  sides  may  be  noticed  in  the  narrow  chisel- 
lite  celt  shown  in  Fig.  55.  The  blade  in  this  instance  tapers  both  ways 
from  a  line  just  below  the  wings,  but  without  there  being 
any  actual  atop-ridge;  a  third  slope  is  produced  by  the 
lower  part  of  the  blade  haTing  been  drawn  down  by 
hammering  to  form  the  edge.  The  original  was  found 
at  Culham,  near  Abingdon,  Oxfordshire,  and  is  in  my 
own  collection. 

I  have  another  specimen,  4}  inches  long,  and  half 
u  wide  again  aa  the  Culham  chisel,  which  was  found 
near  Dorchester,  Oxon.  The  blade  at  the  lower  end 
of  the  wings  is  an  inch  wide,  but  in  the  straight  part 
between  that  point  and  the  edge  only  a  little  more 
thao  }  inch  wide. 

Although  these  instnunents  are  so  narrow  that  tliey 
may  be  regarded  as  chisels  rather  than  axes,  yet  from 
their  general  character  ao  closely  resembling  that  of 
Fig.  53,  I  have  thought  it  best  to  insert  them  here. 

A  Scotch  example  will  be  subsequently  cited.        ^^  sa-cunam.    t 

Another  form  of  winged  celt  without  stop-ridgG  is  shown  in  Fig.  .^6. 
In  this  the  blade  is  flat,  and  the  wings,  which  form  triangular  projeciims. 


76  AVIKtiBD   CELTS   AND   PALSTAVES.  [cHAP.  IV. 

etand  at  riglit  uiigles  to  it.  Had  they  been  hauunered  over  to  fonn 
BGiuit^iruutar  rtK^eptaoIee  on  each  eide  of  the  blade  tbe  matrumeiit  itquM 
liave  beeu  laoro  propt'rly  deecribed  as  a  polBtave.  It  was  found  with 
others  near  Iteetb,  in  the  North  Hiding  of  Yorkshire,  and  is  in  the  oolleo- 
tiun  of  Cunon  Grecnwell,  F.R.8.,  where  are  also  other  epecimenB  of  tliii 
iyjie  from  Linden,  Northumberland  (5J  inches) ;  Brompton,  N.E,,  Tork- 
^ure  (3]  inches) ;  and  Wolsiugham,  Durham  (5  j  inches). 


g.K.^B*Hh.       t  Fig.AT.— DoKbotcr.       i 


Fig.  57  shows  a  wiiig»?d  celt  with  a  broad  low  stop-ridge.  The  part  of 
the  blade  above  this  is  about  ^  inch  thinner  than  the  part  below,  so  that 
though  transitional  in  character  it  belongs  to  one  of  the  classes  to  which 
I  would  wislt  to  reetriut  the  term  palstave.  This  specimen  was  found 
near  Uorchester,  Oxfordshire,  and  is  in  my  own  collection. 

I  have  a  nearly  similar  ]>aistav6  (6  inches  long)  found  in  Wicken  Fen, 
Cambridgeshire.  In  this  the  blade  below  the  etop-ridge  is  J  inch  thick, 
and  above  it  iS  inch.  In  this  as  well  aa  in  that  from  Dorchester  the  stop- 
ridge  is  well  below  the  level  of  the  side  flanges.  In  one  found  on 
HoUingburj-  Hill,*  near  Brighton,  and  now  in  the  British  Museum,  the 
stop-ridge  is  nearly  on  tlie  same  level  as  the  side  flanges.  It  waa  found 
in  tlie  year  1825,  together  with  four  looped  armilla),  a  torque,  and  three 
spiral  rings,  which  are  said  to  have  been  arranged  in  a  sj-mmetriral 
manner  in  a  di.'prcwion  dug  in  the  chalk.      Both  the  torque  and  the 

•  Ar/h.  Joiirn.,  vol.  T.  p.  324, 


TRANSITIONAL    FORMS. 


77 


re  were  broken ;  oud  it  is  thought  that  this  was  done  iatentionally, 

time  of  the  interment. 

milar  discovery  is  recorded  as  having  been  made  in  1794  on  the 

ock  Hilla,  when  two  large  torques  were  found,  within  each  of  which 

laced  a  palstave.     In  this  case,  however,  these  instruments  were  of 

aped  kind. 

iged  celts  of  the  type  of  Fig.  57  are  of  not  unfrequent  occurrence 

Iwid,  though  the  stop-ridge  is  usually  less  fully  developed. 

y  also   occur  in  France.     One  from  Jonqui^rea*  (Oise)  has  been 

1.     I  have  a  good  specimen  (6^  inches)  from  the  Seine  at  Paris. 

rings  are  rather  wider  and  the 

idge  better  defined  than  in  the 

.     One   from   Gaany  ia    in  the 

un  at  Evreux. 

<ro  are  several  in  the  GKittingen 

un,  from  a  hoard  found  in  mat 

jourhood. 

lally  the  stop-ridge  is  nearly  on 

ime  level  as  the  part  of  the  aide 

B  on  which  it  abuts,  as  will  be 

n  Fig.  58.     This  specimen  was 

in  the  gravel  of  the  Trent  at 
ik,  near  Nottingham,  and  is  in 
rn  collection,  llie  blade  imme- 
r  below  the  stop  is  fluted,  and 
ttom  of  this  fluting  tapers  aome- 
in  the  contraiy  direction  to  the 
Dg  of  the  blade.  The  junction 
)  fluting  and  the  face  produces 
liptic  ridge  of  elegant  outline. 
[ade  ia  %  mch  thick  at  this  ridge, 
>ove  the  stop-ridge  barely  |  inch. 

rather  thinner  near  the   stop- 

than  somewhat  higher  up,  so 
Jie  blade  would  be  as  it  were 
liled  into  the  handle,  if  tightly 
I  it.  I  have  apecimens  of  much 
me  type  from  Attleborough,  Nor- 
i|  inches),  Newbury,  Berks  (6J  inches),  and  Hay,  Breckuockshire 
chea).  A  curious  variety  of  this  type  found  at  Monach-ty-gwyn.| 
iberdovey,  has  on  the  bottom  of  one  of  the  recesses  for  the  handle 
iber  of  sunk  diagonal  lines  crossing  each  other  so  as  to  form  a  kind 
;ice  pattern.  It  seems  to  me  that  though  this  cross-hatching  occurs 
ly  one  face  of  the  palstave,  it  was  intended  rather  as  a  means  of 
;  it  a  grip  on  the  handle  than  as  an  ornament,  for  when  hafted  this 
if  the  instrument  must  have  been  concealed  by  the  wood.  Mr. 
'ell,  however,  regards  it  in  the  light  of  an  ornament, 
in  palstaves  of  this  character  are  of  not  unfrequent  occurrence  in 
)rth  of  France.  I  have  one  from  a  hoard  found  at  Bemay,  near 
ille.  With  it  were  palstaves  of  different  varieties,  but  none  of 
irovided  with  loops.    The  form  also  occurs  occasionally  in  Holland. 


Fig.  68.-CDlwkk. 


(  Jr{A.  de  la  Oaiil: 


ifA.  C™».,  4th  S.,  vol.  ii.  p.  21. 


78 


WIKGED   CELTS   AND   PALSTAVES. 


[chap.  IV. 


In  tho  palatave  engraved  as  Fig.  69,  the  half-oval  ornament  below  the 
xtoii-tidge  is  preserved,  but  there  is  a  raised  bead  round  it.  There  is  also 
a  stigrht  median  ridge  running  down  the  blade.  The  joint  of  the  two 
moulds  in  wliich  it  was  cast  can  be  traced  upon  the  sides  of  the  instru- 
ment, and  it  appears  as  if  one  of  the  moulds  had  been  somewhat  deeper 
than  tlio  otliur.  The  original  was  found  at  Barrington,  near  Cambridge, 
and  is  in  my  own  collection.  I  have  other  specimens  of  the  same  type, 
and  of  nearly  tho  same  size,  from  Swaffham  Fen,  Cambridge;  and  &om 
Dorchester,  Oxfordshire.  The  semi-oUiptical  ridge  on  the  latter  is  larger 
and  flatter  than  in  that  figured.  Tho  same  is  the  case  in  a  large  sped- 
nion  (0^  inches  long)  from  Woeton,  near  Kobs,  also  in  my  own  collection. 

1  hiLVo  seen  others  from  the  Fens,  near  £1;  (6j-  inches),  and  from  Mjlden- 
huU  (Tij  inches),  in  the  collections  of  Mr.  Marshall  Fisher,  of  Ely,  and  the 
Itev.  H.  Banks,  of  Cottenham,  near  Cambridge.  Anotier  (SJ  inches) 
from  tho  Cnrlton  Bode  find  is  in  the  Museum  at  Norwich. 


Onu  from  North  Wales*  (7J  inches),  in  an  unfinished  statp,  is  in  the 
llritish  Museum.  Another  (6|  inches)  from  Llanfyllin.t  Montgomeryshire, 
\n  hImii  of  nparly  this  typo.  One  from  North  Tj-ne  (6^  inches),  in  the 
Nnwciiitld  Musnum,  Ims  two  of  the  looped  ridges  one  below  the  other  on 
i-iii'li  riicn.  In  tliis  tjT>e  and  in  that  subsequently  described  the  ridgo  at 
llin  HJili'H  of  the  semi -elliptical  ornament  sometimes  dies  into  the  upper 
piirtiif  tlio  blade.  Tho  variety  like  Fig.  fl9  is  also  abundant  in  the  North 
(if  Kriiiii'i'.  Tlicro  were  two  or  three  in  the  hoard  from  Bemay,  near 
AliliKvillo,  nni]  1  huvp  one  frnm  the  neighbourhood  of  Lille. 

Ill  Ii'ig.  lid  tlio  same  general  type  is  preserved,  but  there  is  a  vertical 
•  ■'  Hi.ni-  Kcnuli^ii,"  pt.  iv.  25.  t  JreA.  Camb.,  Hh  S.,  vol.  viii.  p.  209. 


PALSTAVES   WITH   ORNAMENTS   ON    FACE, 


79 


rib  rmming  down  the  middle  of  the  8eini-etli[>tical  omamont  below  the 
stop ;  and  the  median  ridge  alQng  the  upjitjr  purt  of  the  blade  13  more  fully 
developed.  In  thia  specimen,  which  is  in  my  own  collection,  and  was 
found  at  Harston,  near  Cambridge,  there  is  an  attempt  at  ornamentation 
along  the  sides,  the  angles  of  the  blade  having  been  hammered  in  such 
a  manner  as  to  produce  a  Beriee  of  small  pointed  oval  facets  along  them. 

I  have  other  specimens  of  the  same  type,  but  without  the  ornamenta- 
tion on  the  sides,  from  Burwoll,  Quy,  and  Eeach  Fens,  near  Cambridge, 
6  inches,  SJ  inches,  and  6J  inches  long  respectively.  In  that  from  Biir- 
well  there  ia  no  median  ridge  below  the  ornament.  Canon  Greenwell  has 
line  which  was  found  with  three  others,  one  of  them  with  a  loop,  near 
Wantage,  Berks. 

A  rather  peculiar  variety  of  this  type  (6J  inches),  found  in  Angloseu,* 
\ms  been  figured,  as  well  as  another 
irom  Pciidinas  Hill,|  near  Aberyst- 

«-ith. 

In  palstaves  of  this  class  there 
ig  often  a  slight  projection  on  each 
of  the  sides  a  little  below  the  level 
of  the  8t«p-ridge.  Below  this  pro- 
jection the  aides  are  usually  more 
carefully  hammered  and  planished 
thui  above  it. 

In  a  narrow  palstave  of  this  class, 
found  at  Freelnnd,  near  "Witney, 
Oxfordshire,  there  are  throe  short 
ridges  at  the  bottom  of  each  of  the 
receues  for  the  handle,  like  those 
m  a  palstave  from  Newbury,  sub- 
Mquently  described.  These  woi-e 
probably  designed  to  assist  iu 
steadying  the  handle. 

ApaUtave  (7i  inches}  from  Cy- 
nvryd,t  Merionethshire,  appears  to 
b«  of  this  type. 

An  instrument  of  this  typo  from 
Les  AndelysS  (Eure)  has  been 
figured.  Another,  with  tlie  vertical 
rib  in  the  shield,   from  a  hoard 

found  in  Normandy,  haa  been  engraved  by  the  Abb6  Cochet.|| 
from  the  Bemay  hoard  have  a  aimilar  ornament. 

On  some  palstaves  of  this  class  there  is  a  series  of  vertical  ribs  within 
(he  semi-emptical  loop,  as  will  be  seen  in  Fig.  61.  This  is  taken  from  a 
specimen  found  at  Shippey,  near  Ely,  which  is  in  the  collection  of  Mr. 
Marshall  Fisher  of  Ely,  who  has  kindly  allowed  me  to  engrave  it.  I  have 
one  fnan  Bottisham,  near  Cambridge  (6J  inches),  on  which  there  is  it 
smaller  vertical  ridge,  on  each  aide  of  the  central  ridge,  within  the  orna- 
ment. Ono  from  Snettisham,  Norfolk  (6  J  inches),  like  tliat  from  Shippey, 


Some 


•  Arth.  Cm*.,  4th  S.,  vol. 
t  Meyrick's  "  CardigHjuh." 
;  JrcM.  Auoc.  Jour*.,  vol,  ] 
1  "L«  Soine  Inf.,"  p.  272. 


,  p.  13. 


it  Arm.,"  by  Skplton,  pi.  ilvii.  1 


80  WINUED   CELTS   AND    PALSTAVES.  [CHAP.  IT. 

is  ID  the  Norwiuh  Museum.  Another  from  Lakenheath,  Suffolk  (5{ 
inches),  ie  in  the  collectioa  of  Mr.  Jamos  Carter  of  Cambrid^;e. 

A  ptdetave  with  thie  ornament  is  in  the  Museum  at  Boissous. 

The  tj-pe  is  also  found  in  Northern  Germany.* 

In  some  cases  these  vertical  lines  below  the  stop-ridce  are  not  enclosed 
in  any  loop.  In  Fi^.  62  is  shown  an  example  of  the  Kind  from  a  speci- 
men in  my  own  coUection  found  in  the  Severn,  near  Wainlodes  Hill, 
GlouceBter.  It  has  a  slight  rib  down  the  middle  of  the  blade.  One  of 
the  same  class  (6}  inches),  with  four  vertical  stripes,  found  on  Clayton 
Hill,  Sussex,  is  in  the  coUection  of  Mrs.  Dickinson  of  Ilurstpierpoint ; 


Fig.  W.—ScntiL       1  Tig.  e3.-8iinnin;mll.       I 

four  others  (about  6J  inches  long),  with  five  short  vertical  ridgea,  were 
found  with  two  of  the  typo  of  Fig.  63  in  making  the  railway  near 
BognoT,  and  are  now  in  the  Blackmore  Museum  at  Salisbury. 

Another,  apparently  of  the  same  type,  found  near  Brighton,  is  en- 
graved in  thp  Siutej-  Ai-eliaohgical  CaUtctioni.] 

Another  variety,  having  nearly  the  same  gonernl  form,  but  no  elliptical 
ridge  below  the  stop,  is  shown  in  Fig.  6.3,  engraved  from  a  specimen  in 
my  own  collection,  found  at  Sunningwell,  near  Abingdon.  The  end  of 
the  recess  for  the  handle  is  somewhat  rounded,  and  there  is  a  well-marked 
central  rib  running  down  the  blade.     At  tho  upper  part,  near  the  stop 

n.  Von.,"  vol.  i.  Heft.  i.  Taf.  ir.  43. 


PALSTAVES    WITH    A   CENTRAL   RIB   ON  THE   BLADE.  81 

ridge,  there  are  also  slight  side  flanges.     The  metal  in  the  recess  for  the 
handle  is  thinnest  near  the  stop,  so  as  to  be  somewhat  dovetailing. 

This  is  markedly  the  ease  in  a  fine  example  of  the  same  type  (6^  inches) 

with  the  provenance  of  which  I  am  unacquainted.     In  another,  also  in  my 

own  collection,  found  at  Newbury,  Berks,  the  side  flanges  of  the  blade 

are  continued  almost  down  to  the  edge,  and  the  bottom  as  well  as  the  end 

of  the  recess  for  the  handle  is  roimded.     Near  the  end  of  the  recess  are 

some  slight  longitudinal  ribs,  one  on  one  face   and  two  on   the  other, 

perhaps  designed  to  assist  in   steadying  the  handle.     The  mouldings 

along  the  sides  of  the  blade  are  often  much  more  fully  developed,  like 

those  on  Fig.  77. 

Palstaves  of  this  type  have  been  obtained  from  the  following  localities : 
from  South  Cemey,*  near  Cirencester ;  from  the  mouth  of  the  River 
Wandle,!  in  Surrey,  now  preserved  in  the  British  Museum;  from  Bucks  J 
(6  inches  long),  also  in  the  British  Museum;  from  Chichester;  §  Astley,|l 
Worcestershire ;  Llangwyllog,^  Anglesea  (6 J  inches) ;  from  near  Bognor,** 
Billingshurst,!!  and  liord,  J  J  Sussex ;  and  Lovehayne,§§  near  Broad  Down, 
Devon  (5^  inches) ;  where  several  appear  to  have  been  found  in  the  rough 
state  in  which  they  came  from  the  mould.  I  have  an  example  from  the 
neighbourhood  of  Penzance. 

One  (6J  inches)  found  near  Ashford,  Kent,  is  in  the  Mayer  Collection 
at  Liverpool.  One  of  the  same  kind  was  found  with  a  hammer,  a  tanged 
chisel,  broken  spear-heads,  and  rough  metal,  in  Burgesses'  Meadow, 
Oxfoid.  The  hoard  is  now  in  the  Ashmolean  Museum.  In  three 
palstaves  of  this  kind  found  in  the  peirishes  of  Uandrinio,  ||  {|  and  Caersws, 
KontgomeTyshire,  and  St.  Harmon,  Kadnorshire,  there  is  a  hole  in  the 
metal  between  the  two  recesses  for  the  handle  iust  above  the  stop-ridge. 
It  has  been  thought  by  Professor  Westwood  that  these  holes  were  con- 
nected with  the  manner  of  fastening  the  instrument  to  its  haft,  but  it 
appears  to  me  much  more  likely  that  they  arise  from  accidental  defects 
in  casting.  This  is  certainly  the  case  with  two  specimens  of  my  own, 
which  also  have  holes  through  the  same  part  of  the  instrument,  where  the 
metal  is  thin. 

One  (5  inches),  rather  narrower  in  the  blade  than  the  figure,  foimd  near 
Longford,  Ireland,  is  in  the  Blackmore  Museum  at  Salisbury. 

Palstaves  with  a  central  and  two  lateral  ribs  on  the  blade  are  of  not 
unfrequent  occurrence  on  the  Continent,  especially  in  the  Nortli  of  France. 
I  have  examples  much  like  the  figure  found  in  the  hoard  at  Bernay,  near 
Abbeville.  Others,  much  narrower  in  the  blade,  have  been  discovered  in 
large  numbers  in  the  North-west  of  France. 
Gennan  examples  have  been  figured  by  Lindenschmit.^^f 
In  another  variety  the  blade  is  nearly  flat,  having  only  a  broad  pro- 
tuberant ridge  extending  along  the  upper  part  to  the  stop.  A  palstave  of 
this  kind,  found  near  Winfrith,  Weymouth,  Dorset,  is  shown  m  Fig.  64. 
In  this,  the  metal  between  the  side  flanges  tapers  towards  tlie  top  of  the 

•  Areh,,  vol.  x.  pi.  x.  2,  p.  182.  f  Arch.  Journ.y  vol.  ix.  p.  8. 

X  •*Hor»  Ferales,"  pi.  iv.  26.  §  Proe.  Soe.  Ant.,  2nd  S.,  vol.  v.  p.  38. 

I  AlUee,  *«  Wore.,"  p.  112,  pi.  iv.  4. 

f  Arek.  Joum.y  vol.  xxvii.  pi.  x.  No.  3,  p.  163. 

••  Sum.  Areh.  CoU.y  vol.  xvii.  p.  255.  ft  Sms.  Arch.  Coll.j  vol.  xxvii.  p.  183. 

XX  S.  A.  C.f  voL  xxix.  p.  134.  {§  Trans.  Lev.  Aaoc.^  vol.  ii.  p.  647. 

I J  ^Montgom.  Collections,"  vol.  iii.  p.  435. 

5f  "Alt.  u.  h.  Vorz.,"  vol.  i.  Heft  i.  Taf.  iv. 

G 


82  -WIKCBD  CELTS   AND   PALSTAVES  [cHAP.  IV. 

inatrument,  inatead  of  being  of  nearly  even  thickness,  as  is  often  the  case, 
or  thinnest  near  the  stop-ridge,  as  it  is  sometimea.  Close  to  the  stop  the 
metal  is  i  inch  thick,  while  at  the  top  of  the  recess  it  comes  to  a  nearly 
sharp  edge.  A  palstave  of  this  character  was  found  on  Kingston  Hill,* 
Surrey,  near  Cmaaz'e  Camp. 

In  a  specimen  found  at  Winwiok,t  Lancashire,  the  blade  below  the  stop- 
ridge  appears  to  be  nearly  flat.  A  broad  flat  ring  of  bronze,  1 J  inch  m 
diameter  (Fig.  168),  was  found  at  the  same  time.  It  has  been  thought 
that  this  was  attatihed  to  the  shaft  to  prevent  its  sphtting.  A  palstave 
much  like  that  from  Winwick  was  found  at  Chagford,  Devon,  and  is  in 


Fig.  OS.— Bumoll 

the  possession  of  Mr.  G.  W.  Ormerod,  F.G.S.     Another  (6^  inches),  from 
Ashford.  Kent,  is  in  tlio  Mayer  Collection  at  Liverpool.    Another  of  these 

Elain  palptaves,  found  near  Llanidan,J  Anglesea,  with  one  of  the  looped 
ind  somewhat  like  Fig.  76,  ia  engraved  in  the  Archaologia  Camhrernii. 

I  have  a  palstave  of  nearly  the  same  form,  but  with  a  more 
clearly  defined  semi-conicnl  bracket  below  the  stop,  which  was 
fouml  at  Massoyck,  on  the  frontiers  of  Belgium  and  Holland. 

A  short  and  thick  form  of  palstave  is  shown  in  Fig.  G5,  engraved 
from  a  spocimeu  found  in  Burwell  Fen,  Cambridge.     On  one  of  ita  faces 

•  Fror.  Sof.  Atil.,  2ncl  S.,  vol.  i.  p.  R2. 

t  Arrh.  Atfor.  Jonrn.,  vol.  iv.  pi.  iit.  p.  236 ;  vol.  xiv.  p,  a69. 

X  STd  Series,  vol.  liii.  p.  283. 


it  hsB  the  semi-elliptical  ornament,  with  one  vertical  rib  in  it,  below  the 
itop-ridge.    Od  the  other  there  are  five  ribs  inetead  of  one  within  the 


I  have  another  from  BottiBham  Fen  (4|  inches),  not  quite  so  heavy  in 
its  make,  and  perfectly  flat  below  the  stop-ridge.  The  ends  of  the  recens 
for  tiie  handle  are  somewhat  undercut,  so  as  to  keep  the  wood  cloBO  to  the 
blade  when  a  blow  waa  struck. 

The  shortened  proportions  of  these  instnunents  are  probably  due  to 
wear.  In  this  instance  it  is  not  improbable  that  the  cutting  end  of  the 
original  palstave  bas  been  broken  oS,  and  the  blunt  end  that  was  left  has 
been  again  drawn  to  an  edge  by  hammering. 

A  form  of  palstave  without  any  ornament  below  the  stop-ridge  is  shown 
in  Fig.  66.     This  specimen  was  found  in  1846  at  East  Harnbam,  near 


tTT.-BnnnU  Fen.       1 

Salisbury,  and  is  now  in  my  own  collection.  The  thickness  of  the  blade 
below  the  stop  is  nearly  i  inch,  above  it  but  little  more  than  i  inch.  The 
ndee  are  remarkably  fiat. 

One,  only  21  inehea  long,  merely  recessed  for  the  handle,  found  at 
Chatham  Hill,  Kent,  is  in  tite  Mayer  Collection  at  Liverpool. 

This  plain  form  with  a  square  stop-ridge  is  found  in  France  and  in 
Western  Germany. 

A  long  cbisel-like  form  of  palstave  is  shown  in  Fig.  67,  engraved 
from  a  specimeii  in  my  own  coUeetion  found  in  Burwell  Fen,  Cambridge. 
It  is  ornamented  with  a  semi-elliptical  projecting  ridge  below  the  stop. 
The  flanges  at  the  sides  of  the  recess  have  some  notches  running  diagonally 
into  them,  so  as  to  form  a  kind  of  barb,  such  aa  would  prevent  the  blade 
from  being  drawn  away  from  the  handle  when  bound  to  it  by  a  cord. 

I  have  another  nearly  similar  tool,  also  from  the  Cambridge  Fens,  but 

without  any  barbs.     In  a  third,  from  the  neighbourhood  of  Dorchester, 

a  2 


84 


WIXQED   CELTO   AMD   PALSTAVES. 


[chap.  IV. 


Oxon,  there  ore  neitlier  barbs  at  the  sides  nor  any  omament  below  the 
Btop>ridge.  I  have  seen  another  of  the 
same  character  (4i  inches)  which  was 
found  et  Wolsonbury,  Sussex,  and  is 
in  the  collection  of  Mrs.  Dickinson. 
Another  (4}  inches),  foimd  in  the 
Thames  at  Kingston,  Surrey,  is  in  the 
Unseum  of  the  Society  of  AJttiquarieB. 
I  have  seen  another  (6i  inches),  found 
at  Sutton,  near  Woodbrid^,  Suffolk, 
in  which  there  was  a  tongue-shaped 
groove  below  the  etop-ridge,  Uke  Uiat 
oa  the  socketed  celt,  Fig.  148,  but 
single  instead  of  double. 

The  Eev.  James  Beck,  F.8.A.  *  has 
a  palstave  of  this  kind  6  inches  long 
and  H  inch  wide  at  the  edge,  with  a 
projecting  rib  below  the  stop-ridge 
and  also  in  the  recess  above.  It  was 
found  at  Westburton  Hill,  near  Big- 
nor,  Sussex.  There  are  depressions 
on  each  side  of  the  rib  below  the 
stop,  forming  an  ornament  like  that 
on  Fig.  81. 

A  narrow  palstave,  apparently  of  the 
same  character,  found  at  Windsor,! 
is  engraved  by  Stukeley. 

A  very  beautiful  narrow  palstave, 
found  in  the  Thames,  and  now  in  the 
collection  of  General  A,  Pitt  Rivers, 
F.E.S.,  is  shown  in  Fig.  68.  As  will 
be  seen,  the  angles  are  ornamented 
with  a  kind  of  milling,  and  the  sides 
are  also  decorated  with  zigzag  and 

t  chevron  patterns. 
In  Fig.  69  is  shown  an  unfinished  casting  for  a 
palstave  of  unusually  small  size,  which  formed 
part  of  the  great  hoard  found  at  Stibbard,  J  Norfolk. 
About  seventy  such  castings  were  found,  and  about 
ten  castings  for  Bpoar-heads  (see  Fig.  407). 
The  form  of  palstave  with  the  side  wings  or 
flanges  hammered  over  so  as  to  form  a  kind  of 
semi-circular  socket  on  either  side  of  the  blade,  ie 
of  rare  occurrence  in  Britain,  and  is  usually  pro- 
vided with  a  loop.  In  Canon  Gfreenwell'e  collection 
is  one  (7  inches)  without  iiny  ornament  below  the 
square  stop-ridge,  with  the  side  wings  slightly 
hammered  over.  It  was  found  with  othpre  (with 
and  without  loops),  together  with  a  niould  for 
palstaves  (Fig.  527),  at  Hotham  Carr,  York- 
.     shire,  E.  E. 

i.,  vol.  iv.  p.  442.  t  "  Itin.  Cur."  Cent.,  ii.  pi.  icri. 

J  AreS.  Intl.,  Nonrich  vol.  p.  xivi. 


PALSrrW-ES  WITH    A    TRANSVERSE   BDOB. 


In  a  lioaid  of  about  sixty  bronze  objects  found  at  Westow,*  about 
twelve  miles  from  York  on  tlie  Scarborough  Boad,  was  one  palatave  of 
thia  kind,  like  Fig.  85,  but  without  a  loop,  and  about  thirty  socketed  celts, 
Eiz  gouges,  a   socketed  chisel,   two    tanged    chisels,   and 
numexoua  fragmentA  of    metal,    including  some   jete    or 
numers  broken  off  castings. 

The  type  is  of  common  occurrence  in  Austria,  South  Ger- 
many, and  the  South  of  France. 

Palstaves  of  the  adze  form,  or  having  the  blade  at  right 
angles  to  the  septum  between  the  flanges,  are  but  very 
seldom  found  in  Britain.  A  small  specimen  from  the 
collection  of  Canon  Greenwell,  F.E.S.,  is  shown  in  Fig-  70, 
It  was  found  at  Irthington,  Cumberland. 

Another,  from  North  Owersby,  Lincolnshire,  in  the  same 
collection,  is  shown  in  Fig.  71.  It  has  a  remarkably  narrow 
i^sel-like  blade. 

Irish  examples  will  be  subsequently  cited. 

1  have,  in  Fig.  72,  engraved  for  comparison  a  larger 

specimen  in  my  own  collection,  which  came  from  the  Valley 

of  the  Bhine,  near  Bonn.     One  from  Badenf  is  figured  by  Lindenschmit. 

Others  have  been  found  near  Landehut,  X  Bavaria,  and  in  Uie  Bhine 
district.  §     One  with  a  loop,  from  Hesse, {|  is  engraved  by  Lindenschmit. 


Tj.  71.— Sorth  Owenbj.      | 


Fig.  7S.— Bonn. 


•  Areh.  jittoc.  Jeum.,  vol.  iii.  p.  68 ;  Arch.  Journ.,  voL  vi.  p.  381. 
t  "  Alt.  n.  h.  Von.,"  vol.  i.  Heft  i.  Taf.  iv.  48. 

X  Von  BrauDmnhl,  "Alt.  Deutachcn  Grabmiiler"  (1826),  pi.  i.  3;   Sclireiber,  "Die 
diem,  Streiltrile,"  Taf.  i.  13,  Taf.  ii.  14.  4  Diet.  Arch,  it  la  Oaule. 

i  «  Ait.  n.  h.  Tor*.,-  vol.  i.  Hett  i.  Tat.  iv.  49. 


86  WINGED  CELTS  AND   PALSTAVES.  [CHAP.  IV. 

A  long  and  narrow  example  of  this  type  *  was  found  at  Villeder,  near 
Floermely  Morbikan,  and  has  been  figured  by  Simonin.  There  are  speci- 
mens in  the  museimis  at  Bouen  and  Tours.  Some  have  a  loop  on  one 
face.  A  specimen  from  Escoville  is  in  the  museum  at  Caen.  Several  with 
and  without  loops  have  been  found  in  the  Swiss  lake-dwellings,f  the 
type  being  tenned  the  Hache  Troyon  by  Desor.J 

A  beautiful  palstave  of  the  same  character  is  preserved  in  the  Antiken 
Cabinet  at  Vienna.  Its  sides  are  ornamented  with  four  small  sets  of  con- 
centric circles  and  a  pattern  of  dotted  lines,  punched  in  after  the  instru- 
ment was  fashioned.     The  form  has  also  been  found  in  Italy. § 

Palstaves  without  loops,  but  of  which  no  detailed  description  is  given, 
are  recorded  to  have  been  found  at  the  following  places : — The  Thames,  || 
near  £[ingston ;  Drewsteignton,^  Devonshire ;  Cundall  Manor,**  North 
Biding,  Yorkshire;  Aspatria,tt  Cumberland;  Ackers  Common,  J  J  near 
Warrington,  Lancashire ;  Bushbury,  §§  Brewood,  Handsworth,  and  a 
barrow  on  Morridgo,  Staffordshire ;  near  Llanvair  Station,  ||  ||  Bhos-y-gad, 
Anglesea. 

Palstaves  of  which  it  is  not  specified  whether  they  were  provided  with 
a  loop  or  no,  have  been  found  in  the  Thames,  ^^  near  London ;  the  old 
Biver,  Sleaford,***  Lincolnshire ;  Canada  Wharf  ,ttt  Botherhithe ;  Wol- 
vey,  Jf  {  Warwickshire ;  and  near  Corbridge,  §§§  Grlamorganshire  (?) 

Plain  palstaves  without  loops  have  frequently  occurred  with  other  forms 
of  instruments  in  hoards  of  bronze  objects.  The  following  instances  may 
be  cited.  Several  were  found  with  unfinished  socketed  celts,  fragments  of 
swords  and  spears,  a  socketed  chisel,  and  lumps  of  metal,  at  Bomf ord,  {|  ||  || 
Essex.  At  Nettleham,^^^  near  Lincoln,  one  was  found  with  looped  pal- 
staves, socketed  celts^  spear-heads,  and  a  tube,  most  of  which  will  be  men- 
tioned in  subsequent  pages.  In  the  hoard  at  Battlefield,****  near  Shrews- 
bury, a  palstave  without  loop,  a  flat  wedge-shaped  celt,  and  three  curious 
curved  objects  were  found  together.  Other  instances  are  given  in 
Chapter  XXII. 

The  palstaves  which  are  provided  with  a  loop  on  one  side 
present  as  many  varieties  as  those  without  the  loop.  The  same 
character  of  ornamentation  occurs  on  the  instruments  of  both 
classes.  Indeed,  for  some  length  of  time  both  forms  appear  to 
have  been  contemporaneous  and  in  use  together. 

Some  of  them  are,  however,  entirely  devoid  of  ornament,  as  will  be 
seen  from  Fig.  73.  This  represents  a  palstave  in  n\y  own  collection 
found  near  Dorchester,  Oxfordshire.  The  loop  has  unfortunately  been 
broken  off.     At  the  stop  the  metal  is  1^  inch  thick,  but  the  diaphragm 

♦  "La  Vie  Souterraine,"  "  Mat^riaux,"  vol.  iii.  p.  100. 

t  KeUer,  6ter  Bericht,  Taf.  vii.  30;  7tcr  Bcr.,  Taf.  ix.  30. 

^  "  Lc8  Palafittes,"  fig.  40. 

]  Bull,  di  ralet.  Ifal.,  vol.  i.  p.  10,  Tuv.  I.  9. 

II  Arch.  Journ.f  vol.  v.  p.  327.  11  Arch.  Journ.j  vol.  xxix.  p.  9fi. 

*♦  Arch.  Assoc.  Journ.j  vol.  xiv.  p.  346.    ft  Arch.  Journ.,  vol.  xvii.  p.  1G4. 

Xi  Arch.  Journ.,  vol.  x>iii.  p.  158.  {§  Plot's  "  Nat.  Hist,  of  Stuffordsh.,"  p.  403. 

nil  Arch.  Journ. f  vol.  xiii.  p.  85.  ^1F  Arch.  Journ.,  vol.  x.  p.  63. 

♦*♦   Arch.  Journ.,  vol.  x.  p.  73.  fft  Froc.  Hoc.  Ant.,  2ii(i  S.,  vol.  ii.  p.  412. 

XXX  Froc.lSoc.  Ant.,  2nd  S.,  vol.  iii.  p.  129. 

6§§  Arch.  Journ.,  vol.  x.  p.  248.  i|||||  Arch.  Journ.,  vol.  ix.  p.  302. 

tIHII  Areh.  Journ.,  vol.  xviii.  p.  159.  ♦*♦*  Froc.  Hoc.  Ant.,  2nd  S.,  vol.  ii.  p.  251. 


LOOPED   PALSTAVES. 


betweeo  the  two  recesses  for  the  haft  ia  only  |  inch  thick.  This  specimen 
is  shorter  than  usual  in  the  blade,  which  not  improbably  has  been  con* 
sidenibly  worn  away  by  use. 

A  somewhat  larger  instrument,  but  of  precisely  the  same  type,  found 
at  Bamsbury,*  Wilts,  ia  engraved  in  the  Salisbury  volume  of  the  Arclueo- 
logical  Institute.  The  Itev.  James  Beck,  F.S.A.,  has  one  (6}  inches)  of 
oaiTower  proportions,  foimd  at  Pulborough,  f  Sussex.  I  have  seen 
another  from  near  Wallingford,  Berks. 
Stokeley  has  engraved  a  somewhat  simi- 
lar palstave  found  near  Wiadsor4 

In  some  the  bottom  of  the  recesses, 
instead  of  being  square,  is  rounded  more 
or  leas  hke  Fig.  52,  and  there  is  a  pro- 
jecting bead  round  ita  mar^.  I  have 
a  narrow  specimen  of  this  kind  5|  inches 
long  and  1^  inch  broad  at  the  edge, 
found  in  the  neighbourhood  of  Dor- 
chester, Oxen. 

A  number  of  palstaves  of  this  kind 
vers  discovered  in  1861  at  Wilmington,! 
Sussex,  in  company  with  socketed  celts, 
fragments  of  two  daggers,  and  a  mould 
for  socketed  celts.  The  whole  of  these 
are  now  in  the  Lewes  Museum. 

In  the  hoard  found  near  GiulsfieM,|| 
Montgomeryshire,  were  some  instru- 
ment«    of    this    kind,    associated  with  Fig.  ts.— Do 

socketed  celts,  gouges,  swords,  scab- 
bards, spear-heads,  &c.  Others  from  Strettou,^  Staffordshire  (5|  inches), 
and  Lancashire  **  (5  J  inches)  are  engraved,  though  badly,  in  the  Arehao- 
logia.  Two  others  of  this  character  (5  inches)  were  found  on  Hangletoa 
liown.tt  n**""  Brighton,  and  another  at  Glangwnny,  JJ  near  Caernarvon. 
I  have  seen  others  found  at  Sutton,  near  Woodbridge,  SuiJolk. 
A  larger  example  of  the  same  type,  found  near  Wdlingford,  and  com- 
municated to  me  bv  Mr.  H.  A.  Davy,  is  shown  in  Fig.  74.  In  this  the 
blade  is  flat  and  wiuiout  ornament.  The  short  specimen  shown  in  Fig.  73 
may  originally  have  resembled  this ;  as  such  instruments  must  have 
been  liable  to  break,  and  would  then  have  beiin  drawn  out  and  sharpened 
in  a  curtuled  condition;  or  if  not  broken  would  become  eventually 
"stumped  up"  by  wear.  In  the  British  Museum  and  elsewhere  are 
many  palstaves  and  celts  which  have  been  worn  almost  to  the  stump  by 


re-sharpeni 
Nearly  tl 


ling. 


Neany  thirty  palstaves,  mostly,  I  believe,  of  this  type,  were  found  with 
about  twelve  socketed  celts,  like  Fig.  116,  and  lumps  of  rough  metal, 
near  Worthing,  in  1677.  The  whiue  had  been  packed  in  an  urn,  of 
coarse  earthenware. 

,,  vol.  iv.  p.  442. 


•  p.  112,  Eg.  37. 

•  "  It.  Cur"'  Cent.,  ii.  pi.  icvi. 

t  Proc.  Soc.  Anl.,  N.S., 

i  Sua.  Arek.  Coll.,  vol.  liv.  p.  1 

.71 ;  Arch.  Joum..  vol.  Ji.  p.  19! 

1  Frtm.  Bee.  AhI.,   2nd  %.,  vol. 

ii.   p.  251;   Arch.  Cami.,  3cd 

'Montgoro.  CoU„-  vol.  iii.  p,  437. 
IVJ.V.  p.  113. 

••  Ibid. 

ft  Siat.  Arch.  Coll.,  vol.  Wii.  p. 

268.              I;  Areh.,  vol.  Vli.  p. 

88  WINQED   CBLTS   AND   PALSTAt'ES.  [CHAP.  IV. 

Looped  palstaves  of  Uie  type  of  Fig.  74  are  occasionally  found  in 
Treland.  One  with  a  email  bead  nmning  down  tt©  centre  of  the  blade 
found  in  Weet  Meath  is  engraved  in  the  Arehaologia.* 

One  from  Grenoble,t  Is^e,  is  engraved  by  Chantre. 

Some  palstaves  of  much  the  same  general  character  have  a  median 
ridge,  occasionally  almost  amounting  to  a  rib,  running  down  the  blade 
below  the  stop.  One  of  this  kind  from  Stanton  Harcourt,  Oxfordshire,  is 
shown  in  Fig.  75.  On  tho  face  of  the  recess  there  are  some  slightly 
raised  ribs  running  down  to  the  stop,  which  are  not  shown  in  the  cut. ' 


P«.  T4.— WallinEtDrd.       t 


Two  (6|  inches)  were  found  near  Bolton  Percy,  Yorkshire,  one  of  which 
is  in  Canon  Qreenwell's  coUeetion,  and  the  other  in  the  British  Museum. 

Mr.  John  Brent,  F.8.A.,  has  an  example  of  nearly  tho  same  ty])e  from 
Blean,  near  Canterbury,  Another  from  Buckland,  near  Dover  (fit  inches), 
is  in  the  Mayer  Collection  at  Liverpool.  Due  from  Omberslcy,  J  Worcester- 
shire, appears  to  be  of  the  same  kind.  I  liave  also  a  largo  specimen 
{6J  inchea)  from  Bottisham,  Cambridge. 

In  the  palstave  engraved  as  Fig.  76,  the  central  rib  down  the  blade  is 
much  more  fully  developed.  It  was  foiind  at  Bras.siugton,  near  "Wirks- 
worth,  Derbyshire,  and  is  in  my  own  collection.  It  is  considerably  under- 
cut at  the  stop,  so  as  to  keep  the  handle  preesL-d  against  the  central 
diaphragm  of  motul. 

•  Vol.  in,  p.  84,  111.  iii,  I.  t  "Alliuni,"  pi.  ii.  4.  ;  Allice,  p.  108,  pi.  iv.  3. 


LOOPED   PALOTAVE8   WITH    RIBS   ON    BLADE. 


89 


A  palrtave  of  the  same  cliaracter  from  Llanidan,*  Auglesea,  has  been 
figured.  It  ia  said  to  have  been  found  with  another  without  a  loop. 
Anodier  from  Boston,!'  Lincolnshire,  ie  engraved  in  the  Archteologia. 
Others  with  the  ribs  veiy  distinct  were  found  in  a  hoard  at  Wallin^ton, 
NMihumberland,  and  are  in  the  possession  of  Sir  Charles  Trevelyau. 

I  have  seen  others  of  the  same  general  character  which  were  found  at 
Downton,  near  Salisbuiy  (5j  inches),  and  at  Aston  le  Walla,  Northamp- 
tJ^Dshire. 

One  with  a  narrower  and  more  distinct  midrib,  found  at  Nymegen, 
Guelderland,  Holland,  ia  in  the  museum  at  Leyden. 

In  Fig.  77  is  shown  another  Tariely  which  has  two  beads  running  down 
the  ndes  of  the  blade,  in  addition  to  the  central  rib.  I  bought  this  Bpecimea 


»t  Bath,  but  I  do  not  know  where  it  was  discovered.  It  is  much  like  one 
which  was  fotrnd  on  the  Quantock  Hills,  J  in  Somersetshire,  and  is  engravwl 
m  the  Arehaologia.  The  side  flanges  are,  however,  in  that  case  more 
iMBnge  ahaped,  and  project  to  obtuse  points  about  half  an  inch  above 
|«  (top.  Two  palstaves  and  two  torques  were  on  that  occasion  found 
hnried  tt^ether,  as  has  already  been  mentioned.  One  of  the  same  type 
•  (Si  inches)  from  Elsham,  Lincolnshire,  is  in  the  British  Museum. 

One  of  narrower  form  (6i  inches)  but  of  the  same  character,  found 
Wth  socketed  celts  {some  of  them  octagonal  at  the  neck)  at  Hazey,  Lin- 
wlnahire,  is  in  the  collection  of  Canon  Greenwell,  F.R.S. 


■  Arch.  Camb.,  3rd  S„  vol.  j 


i.  p.  102. 


90  WIXOED   CELTS   AND   PAI^TATBS.  [CHAF.  IV. 

I  hare  nuotlier  of  Uie  same  type,  but  imperfect,  which  was  found  with 
ft  plain  bronze  bracelet,  and  Tvhat  from  the  description  must  hare  been  a 
tjiiiaU  ribbuii-lil;e  gold  torque,  at  Winterhaj  Oreen,  near  Ilmineter.  I 
have  a  smaller  specimen  (5  inches)  from  the  Cam.bi'idge  Fens. 

The  unfLnishou  casting  for  a  palstave  of  the  type  Fig.  77  (5J  inches) 
was  found  with  four  looped  palstaves,  and  one  without  a  loop,  and  a 
spear-head  like  Fig.  4U9  at  Sherford,*  near  Taunton,  in  1B79.  Some  of 
the  palstaves  have  a  raised  inverted  chevron  below  the  stop-ridge  by 
vay  of  ornament. 

Palstaves  of  the  same  character,  but  without  the  loop,  have  already 
been  described  under  Fig.  63.  The  looped  type,  like  Fig.  77,  occurs  also 
in  Ireland,  t 

In  the  Museum  of  the  Society  of  Antiquaries  of  London  is  a  heavy 
narrow  looped  palstave  (8  inches  by  2  inches)  with  this  ornamentation, 
found  in  Spain. 

The  central  rib  running  down  the  blade  is  in  many  cases  connected  with 
some  ornament  below  the  atop-ridge.  The  ornament  consists  usually  of 
raised  ribs,  either  straight  and  converg- 
ing, as  on  Fig.  78,  or  curved  so  as  to 
form  a  semi-elliptical  or  ehield-aha^jed 
loop,  as  on  Fig.  79. 

The  origin^  of  Fig,  78  was  found  on 
Oldbuiy  mil.  Much  Marde,  Hereford- 
shire, and  is  in  my  own  collection.  I 
have  a  smaller  example  of  the  same  type 
(6f  inches)  found  at  Hammerton,  Hun- 
tingdonshire, as  well  as  one  from  the 
Cambridge  Fens  (6  inches). 

One  (6^  inches)  found  at  Danesfield,^ 
near  Bangor,  has  been  figured.  I  have 
seen  one  found  near  Chelmsford  (6} 
inches)  with  much  the  same  ornament. 
One  (6^  inches)  in  the  Uuseum  of  the 
Society  of  Antiquaries,  found  in  North- 
amptonshire, has  the  middle  rib  large, 
and  the  converging  riba  much  slighter. 
There  are  some  wMeh  have  only  a  slight 
central  ridge  on  the  blade,  and  are  orna- 
mented wiA  an  indented  chevron  below 
the  stop-ridge.  I  have  one  such  from 
the  Cambridge  Pens,  and  I  have  seen 
Fig. 78.-oidbuii nui.      i  one   (ej   indies)   which  was    found    at 

Broomswell,  near  Woodbridge,  Suffolk. 
A  palstave  of  this  character  6  inches  long,  found  near  tlie  Upper 
"Wuodliouse  Farm,  Knighton,  liadnorshire,  is  engraved  in  the  Archaotogia 
<'ambren'iii.%  The  loop,  owing  to  a  defe<^t  in  t-astiug,  is  filled  with  metal. 
Six  otliei-8  (6  inches  long),  api>arently  of  the  same  character,  were  found 
with  some  rough  castings  of  flanged  celts  ut  Iiho8nesney,||  near  Wrexham. 
Two  otlters  (C  inches)  were  found  with  a  chisel  and  a  sjwar-head,  like 

"  Pring,  "The  Urit.  and  Rom.  on  tlic  aitu  of  TaiintoD,"  p.  "G,  pi.  iii. 

t  WildL'.  "CuUl.  Mua.  R.  I.  A.,"  p.  381,  fiR.  27a. 

I  Arch.  Cmb.,  3rd  S.,  vol.  H.  p.  liiO.      4  4lh  ^er.,  vol.  vi.  p.  29.      |t  Il.id.,  p.  71. 


PALSTAVES  WITH    SHIELD-LIKB   ORNAMBKTS. 


91 


Fig.  407,  at  Broxton,  Cheshire,  and  are  in  the  collection  of  Sir  P.  de 
)1.  Grey  Egerton,  Btirt. 

The  type  is  found  npon  the  continent.  One  from  Normandy*  has  been 
engraved  by  the  Abb§  Cochet.  I  have  an  example  from  the  neighbour- 
hood of  Abbeville,  . 

One  from  near  GiesBen,  in  the  museum  at  Dannatadt,  is  figured  by 
lindensclimit.t 

That  with  the  shield-Bhaped  ornament  below  the  stop-ridge,  shown  in 
Kg.  79,  is  in  my  own  collection,  and  was  found  near  Boss.  The  central 
rib  runs  only  part  of  the  way  up  the  shield.    In  a  specimen  from  the 


Fig.  TV.-BDU.       i 

Cambridge  Fens  (5|  inches)  it  stops  short  on  joining  the  ridge  forming  the 
•liield. 

Id  others  it  forms  a  heraldic  pale  running  through  the  shield,  as  in  five 
found  at  Waldron,!  Sussex. 

A  smaller  variety,  in  which  the  vertical  rib  does  not  extend  into  tlie 
eliield,  is  shown  in  Fig.  SO.  This  specimen  was  found  at  Houington, 
Suftolk. 

In  some  the  shield-shaped  ornament  consists  of  m<^re1y  two  triangular 
depresrions.  A  palstave  of  this  class,  rather  narrow  at  the  stop-ridge,  and 
*ith  almost  triangular  blade,  is  shown  in  Fig.  81.  The  original,  which 
is  of  more  yellow  metal  than  ordinary,  was  found  in  the  neighbourhood  of 

2'"  ,  and  is  in  the  collection  of  Ur.  Marshall  Fisher,  who  has  kindly 
ired  me  to  figure  it.  In  one  such  from  Downton,  near  Salisbury,  in 
tW  Blackmore  Muaeum,  the  faces  of  the  diaphragm  between  the  recesses 
tot  the  handle  have  raised  ridges  or  ribs  rumiing  along  nearly  the  whulu 


93  WINGED  CELTS   AND    PAUSTAVXS.  [CHAP,  iV. 

length,  five  on  one  face  and  sis  on  the  other.  These  are  lon^r  than  in 
the  Nottingham  specimen  shortly  to  he  mentioned. 

In  one  found  at  Hotham  Can*  (SJ^  inches),  Yorkshire,  and  now  in 
Canon  Oreenwell's  collection,  there  is  a  bead  running  down  the  blade 
between  the  two  depressions. 

This  shield-shaped  ornament  belov  the  atop-ridge  is  well  shown  in  a 
palstave  from  Bottisham  Lode,  Cambridge,  engraved  as  Fig.  82.  What 
may  be  called  the  field  of  the  shield  is  on  one  face  nearly  flat ;  on  the 
other  there  are  indentations  on  either  aide  of  the  central  ridge.  As  will 
he  Been,  the  extremities  of  the  cutting  edge  are  recurved,  both  in  this  and 
the  specimen  from  Eobb  shown  in  Fig.  79.  It  does  not,  however,  appear  that 
the  instrumentB  were  originally  east  in  this  form,  but  the  wide  segmental 


Fig.  a:.— Bottubsm. 

I,  together  with  the  recurved  ends,  seem  to  be  the  result  of  a  constant 
hammeriug  out  of  the  blade,  in  order  to  renew  or  harden  the  edge. 
Though  the  hammer  was  thus  freely  used,  the  whetstone  was  employed 
both  to  polish  the  sides  of  the  blade  and  to  perfect  the  cutting  edge. 

I  have  a  French  palstave  found  near  Abbeville,  almost  identical  with 
this  in  size  and  form.  The  shield  ornament  is,  however,  replaced  by  two 
triangular  de]»rosaions  with  a  rib  left  between  them,  like  that  on  Fig.  81. 

In  some  specimens  the  ornamentation  consists  of  a  ^eater  or  less 
number  of  parallel  ribs  below  the  stop-ridge,  as  in  that  from  Nottleham.* 
Lincolnshire,  sliown  in  Fig.  83.     With  this  were  found  two  others  and 


cA.  Jeum.,  vol.  i 


it.  p.  160,  irhence  this 


IB  roproduued. 


FALCTATBS  WITH   VERTICAL    RIBS   ON    BLADE.  93 

a  fourth  without  loop,  two  peculiar  socketed  celts,  two  apear-heads,  and  a 
ferrule,  which  will  be  suDSoqueiitly  mentioned.  They  ore  now  in  the 
British  Museum. 

A  nearly  similar  discovery  was  made  in  I860  uear  Nottingham,*  where 
>  palstave  was  found  similarly  ornamented,  but  also  having  three  ribs  on 
the  diaphragm  above  the  stop-ridge.  It  was  accompanied  by  sixteen 
Bocfceted  celts,  four  spear-heada,  a  tanged  knife,  fragments  of  swords,  a 
ferrule,  &c. 

In  Mj.  Brackstone's  collection  was  a  palstave  of  the  same  tj^e,  found 
neap  mieskelf,!  Yorkshire,  in  1849,  with  two  socketed  celts,  one  of  them 
of  the  peculiar  type  ahown  in  Fig.  158. 

I  have  a  palstave  found  near  Dorchester,  Oxfordshire,  of  the  same  kind 
Bs  Fig.  83,  with  three  ribs  below  the  atop-ridge.     There  are  also  side 


Fig.  M.— >'clt 


flaages  at  that  part  of  the  blade  of  the  same  length  and  character  as  the 
ribs  in  the  middle  of  the  blade,  so  as  virtually  to  make  five  nbe. 

Canon  Glreenwell  hasspecimensof  this  type  (6^  inches)  from  Llandysilio, 
Denbighshire,  and  (6  inches)  from  TJbbeston,  Suffolk.  One  (6J  inches) 
from  Keswick,  Cumberland,  in  the  same  collection  has  the  ribs  IJ  inches 
long.    Another  (64  inches)  was  found  at  Vronheulog.J  Merionethshire, 

I  have  a  veiy  fine  and  perfect  specimen  (6J  inches)  from  the  Cambridge 
Fens,  on  whim  the  three  ribs  stand  out  in  high  relief  and  converge  so  as 
to  fonn  a  triangle  below  the  stop-ridge  something  like  that  on  Fig.  78. 

"  Proe.  Soe.  Ant.,  2nd.  S.,  vol.  i.  p.  332, 

t  Arth.  Joara.,  vol,  i-iii.  p.  99,  and  PriTSto  Plate. 

;  Arek.  Cami.,  4tli  S.,  vol.  viii.  p.  209, 


94  WTKOBD   CELTS    AND   PALSTAVES.  [CHAF.  IV. 

A  palBtave,  having  a.  series  of  riba  upon  the  diaphragm  as  well  as 
below  the  stop-ridge,  is  Bhown  in  Fig.  84.  In  this  instance  the  upper 
series  of  ribs  extends  nearly  to  the  top  ot  the  instrumeat.  It  was  probably 
thought  that  they  assisted  in  making  the  haft  firm  to  the  blade.  This 
specimen,  which  has  been  much  cleaned,  is  in  the  British  Museum,  and 
as  it  formed  part  of  the  late  Mr.  Lichfield's  collection  it  was  probably 
found  in  the  neighbourhood  of  Cambridge. 

The  form  of  palstave,  so  common  in  France  and  Germany,  with- 
out stop-ridge,  and  with  the  side  wings  hammered  over  so  as  to 
form  a  kind  of  semi-cylindricnl  socket 
on  either  side  of  the  blade,  is  rare  in 
England.  A  specimen  from  the  great 
find  of  Carlton  Rode,*  Norfolk,  is  shown 
in  Fig.  85.  There  is  usually  at  the  top 
of  the  blade  a  sort  of  dovetailed  notch, 
which  may  possibly  have  been  made  of 
service  in  hafting  the  tool.  It  originates, 
however,  in  there  having  been  two  run- 
ners by  which  the  metal  was  conducted 
into  the  mould,  which  when  broken  off 
left  two  projections  at  the  top  of  the 
blade.  These  being  hammered  so  as  to 
round  the  external  angles  and  flatten  the 
ends  have  come  over  towards  each  other, 
and  made  what  was  a  notch  with  parallel 
FiB.ss—CM-iionHodf.  i  sides  into  one  which  is  dovetailed. 
In  this  hoard  were  found  numerous  socketed  celts,  gouges,  chisels, 
hammers,  pieces  of  metal,  &c.  It  seems  to  have  been  the  stock  in 
trade  of  a  bronze-founder.  Some  other  specimens  from  the  same 
hoard  will  subsequently  be  described. 

Another  palstave  of  the  same  character  vas  found,  with  many  socketed 
celtii,  fragments  of  swords  and  daggers,  and  rougli  metal,  at  Cumberiow,t 
near  Baldock,  Herts. 

Three  others  were  found  in  1806,  with  two  socketed  celts,  afragmentof 
a  sworil,  throe  lumps  of  raw  copper,  and  four  gold  armlets,  on  the  boHch 
near  Eastbourne,  J  immediately  under  Beachy  Head.  They  passed  with 
the  Payne  Knight  collection  into  the  British  Museum. 

That  found  ■■  in  an  old  wall,  in  Purbeck,"  S  with  the  socket  "  douiU  or 
rf/r/iferf  Sy  a  partition"  as  described  by  Mr.  Hutchins  in  a  letter  to 
Bishop  Lj-ttelton  in  1768,  must  probably  have  been  of  this  kind. 

A  good  specimen  of  the  same  character  but  bent  (5J  inches),  as  well 

rol.  ii.  p.  80;  Areh.   Aitw.  Jsurn.,   vol.   i. 
"  Catiil.  Korwich  Mus.,"  No.  9. 

1  Areh.,  vol.  xvL  p.  363,  pi.  livi{{. 

"'  ■^"■-""    **  pi.  XK.  6. 


IRON   PALSTAVES   IMITATED   FROM   BRONZE.  95 

•s  part  of  another,  was  found  at  Wickham  Park,  Croydon,  together  with 
Beveral  socketed  celts.     They  are  now  in  the  British  Museum. 

The  upper  part  of  a  palstave  of  this  character  was  found  with  socketed 
celts,  gouges,  &c.,  in  the  Hundred  of  Hoo,*  Kent.  It  has  been  thought 
that  this  was  cast  hollow  to  receive  a  central  prong,  but  the  cavity  is  pro- 
bably due  to  defective  casting.  A  broken  instrument  of  this  kind  was 
found  with  socketed  celts  and  metal  on  Kenidjack  Cliff, f  Cornwall. 

Palstaves  of  this  type,  both  with  and  without  loops,  are  much  more 
abundant  on  the  Contment  than  in  Britain.  Nimierous  examples  have 
been  found  in  France,  in  Bhenish  Prussia,  and  in  the  Lake  habitations 
of  Savoy  and  Switzerland. 

A  Danish  example  is  engraved  by  Worsaae,  J  and  several  from  Germany§ 
by  lindenschmit. 

Iron  palstaves  with  and  without  loops,  some  of  them  closely 
approximating  to  the  fonn  of  Fig.  85,  but  others  more  like  the 
ordinary  Italian  form  of  palstave,  with  a  broad  chisel-Iike  blade, 
have  been  found  in  the  cemetery  of  Hallstatt.  II  In  a  specimen  in 
my  own  collection  the  side  flanges  are  ornamented  with  transverse 
ribs,  precisely  like  those  on  some  of  the  bronze  palstaves  from  the 
same  locality.  In  one  instance  the  upper  part  with  the  flanges  is 
of  bronze,  and  the  lower  part  of  the  blade  of  iron  or  steel. 

This  form  of  instrument,  with  a  section  in  the  form  of  the  letter 
H  above,  though  easily  cast,  must  have  been  extremely  difficult  to 
forge;  and  though  we  can  readily  trace  its  evolution  in  cast 
bronze,  it  so  ill  accorded  with  the  necessary  conditiofls  for  the 
profitable  working  of  malleable  iron  that  it  seems  soon  to  have 
disappeared  when  iron  came  into  general  use.  The  fact  of  the 
form  occurring  at  all  in  iron  shows  that  the  iron  instruments  were 
made  in  imitation  of  those  in  bronze,  and  not  the  bronze  in 
imitation  of  the  iron.  The  same  observation  holds  good  with  the 
iron  socketed  celts,  spear-heads,  and  swords  from  the  same 
cemetery. 

Looped  palstaves,  without  sufficient  details  being  given  of  their  tyjies, 
are  recorded  to  have  been  foimd  in  Harewood  Square,  London,^  Oxford,** 
DevonBhire,tt  ^^^  with  socketed  celts,  near  Kidwelly,  J  J  Caermarthen. 

A  looped  palstave  rather  Hke  Fic'.  75  is  said  to  have  been  foimd  in  a 
barrow  near  8t.  Austell,  §§  Cornwall,  in  1791,  but  no  details  are  given. 

Palstaves  provided  with  a  loop  on  either  side  are  of  rare  occurrence  in 
the  British  Islands. 

A  specimen  found  in  1871  at  Penvores,||{|  near  Mawgan-in-Meneagc, 

•  Arch.  Cant.,  toI.  xi.  p.  123.  f  Joum.  Roy,  Inst,  of  Comw.,  No.  21. 

J  Oldeager,  fig.  1S4.  i  "Alt.  u.  h.  V.,"  vol.  i.  Heft  i.  Taf.  ir. 

I  Von  Sacken,  "Das.  Grab.  v.  Hallst.,"  Taf.  vii. 

^  Arek.  Joum.f  toI.  vi.  p.  188.  ♦♦  Arch.  Assoc.  Joum.,  vol.  ix.  p.  186. 

tf  Arch.  Jaum.f  vol.  xiii.  p.  86.  XX  Arch.  Assoc.  Joum.,  vol.  xii.  p.  90. 

\\  Borlaoe,  **  Neil.  CJom.,"  p.  188.  ||||  Proc.  Soe.  Ant.,  2nd  R.,  vol.  v.  p.  398. 


WINGED   CELTS   AKD   PAI.STAVES, 


Cornwall,  is  en^BTed  as  Fig.  86 
from  Bra«Biiig:toii,  Fig.  76,  flie  i 


£cHAP.  TV. 


losely  reBemblea  that 
siBting  in 


loop.  This  specimen,  with  another  from  Cornwall  and  two  from  Ireland, 
i  exhibited  to  the  Society  of  Antiquaries  in  1873,  and  is  now  in  the 
Kritish  Museum.  In  the  same  collection  is  another,  6  J  inches 
long,  somewhat  lighter  below  the  stop-ridge,  and  having  the 
central  rib  less  fully  developed  on  the  blade.  It  was  found  in 
Somersetahire  in  1868,  in  making  the  Cheddar  Valley  line  of 
railway.  Another  found  in  1842,  near  South  Petherton,*  in  the 
eame  county,  is  in  the  possession  of  Mr.  Norris  at  that  place. 

Another  example,  shown  in  Fig.  87  was  found  at  Weat 
Buckland.t  Somersetshire,  and  is  ia  the  collection  of  Mr. 
W.  A.  Sanford.  With  it  were  discovered  a  torqiie(Fig.  468.) 
and  a  bracelet,  (Fig.  481,)  and  also  some  charcoal  and  burnt 
bones,  but  there  was  no  sign  of  any  tumulus.  Iriah  speci- 
mens will  be  subsequently  mentioned. 

Another  two-looped  instrument  of  a  different  character  was 

found  at  Bryn  Criig,J  near  Carnarvon,  in  company  with  a 

tunged  knife  and  a  pin  with  three  holes  through  its  flat  head 

(Fig.  450).     It  is  shown  in  Fig,  88,  copied  on  a  reduced 

BrjTi'Crti.  )     Bcale  from  the  Arehaological  Journal.    It  resomblce  a.  flanged 

•  Arch.  Journ.,  vol.  ii.  p.  3S7  :  vol.  jl.  p.  247  ;  vol.  iivii.  p.  231). 
t  Arch.  Jouru.,  vol.  xxxvii.  p.  107.     For  tho  use  of  thia  cut  1  um  indcbti^  to  the 
Council  of  the  Royal  Archwological  Inrtitute.  J  Arch.  Jmira.,  vol.  iiv.  p.  2*6. 


PAL8TAVBS   WITH    TWO   tOOPS. 


97 


««h  except  in  having  that  part  of  the  blade  wluch  lies  between  the  side 
loops  raised  to  the  level  of  the  flanges. 

In  Franc©  these  double-looped  palstaves  are  of  rare  occurrence,  hut  I 
have  seen  one  much  like  Fig.  86  which  was  found  in  the  Department  of 
Haute  Aridge,  and  is  now  in  the  Toulouse  Museum.  One  from  Tarbes* 
w  in  the  £xposition  des  Sciences  Anthropologiques,  _ 

■t  Fsria   in    1S78.   Another  was   found  at  Langoiran 
(Gironde). 

The  form  is  much  more  abundant  in  Spain,  but  in 
most  cases  both  the  blade  and  the  tang  are  long  and 
Barrow  in  their  proportions.  An  engraving  of  one  from 
Andalusia  is  given  in  the  Arckceological  Journal,^  and  is 
lure  by  permission  reproduced  as  Fig.  89.  I  have  one 
like  it  from  a  mine  in  the  Asturiaa.  One  rather  broader 
tnm  the  Sierra  de  Baza,^  Andalusia,  has  also  been 
figured.  A  broken  and  unfinished  double-looped  pal- 
stave from  Oriedo,  now  in  the  British  Museum,  has  a 
cnp-ahaped  projection  at  the  butt  end  which  has  been 
filled  with  lead,  possibly  in  old  times,  but  for  what 
purpose  it  is  impossible  to  say.  An  engraving  of  one 
much  like  it  has  been  published. §  There  are  several 
I  such  in  the  Kuseums  at  Madrid,  with  the  head  of  metal 
left  on  the  a 


A 


The  forms  of  celts  and  palstaves  treated  of  in 
this  chapter  are  found  also  in  Scotland,  though 
perhaps  less  frequently  than  those  of  the  flat  and 
flanged  forms  described  in  the  previous  chapter. 

Many  so  closely  resemble  English  specimens 
that  it  is  needless  to  give  representations  of  them, 
as  a  reference  to  the  figures  in  the  preceding  pages 
will  sufficiently  indicate  their  character.  A^ffi^     l 

In  the  Antiquarian  Museum  at  Edinburgh  is  a  winged  celt  4i  inches 
long  much  like  Fig.  56,  which  was  found  on  the  top  of  a  hill  called  Lord 
Aithnr's  Cairn,  in  the  parish  of  Tullyne3slo,||  Aberdeenshire.  Another. 
S  inches  long,  with  the  wings  somewhat  curved  inwards,  was  found  at 
Kenwell,^  in  the  parish  of  Camwath,  Lanarkshire.  Another  winged 
tdt,  4  incheelong,  was  ploughed  up  on  the  estate  of  Barcaldine,**  Argyle- 
iltire. 

In  the  same  Museum  are  also  winged  celts  (5  inches)  from  Birrens- 
vark,  Ihimfrieeshire,  and  from  the  neighbourhood  of  Peebles,  much  like 
^t  from  Beeth  (Fig  56). 

A  chisel-shaped  celt,  in  character  much  like  Fig.  55,  but  having  a  slight 
*>p-ridge,  was  found  in  Burreldale  Moss, ft  Keith  Hall,  Aberdecn.shirc, 

•  "  JUtirisui,"  vol.  liv.  p.  192. 

t  Gangais  j  Hsrtiiiez,  "  Ant.  preh.  c 

I  ArtA.  Jaum.,  vol.  xxTii.  p.  230. 

j  Pnc.  Sot.  AM.  Sat.,  vol.  v.  p.  30  ;  WilsoD'a  ' 

'  Artk.  Anot.  Jaum.,  vol.  ivii.  p.  21 .  •■ 

tf  Aw.  Snt.  Ant.  Seal.,  vol.  zi.  p.  163. 


S»(.,  vol.  vi.  p.  lOi. 


98  WINOED   CELTS  AND   PAIBTAVTS.  [cHAP.   IV. 

imd  haa  been  Migraved  by  the  Socie^  of  Antiquaries  of  Scotland,  to 
whom  I  am  indebted  for  the  use  of  Fig.  00. 

Ins  palstave  (6}  inches)  from  Kilnotrie,*  Croeemichael,  Kircudbriffht, 
the  lateral  flanges  are  continued  below  the  stop-ridge,  and  tliere  le  a 
median  ridge  down  the  blade. 

In  Bomepaletaves  in  th,e  British  Museum,  found  between  Balcarry  and 
Eilfillaa,  Wigtonshire,  the  stop-ridges  inutoad  of  being  at  right  angles  to 
the  face  of  the  blade  shelve  outwards.  One  of  them  is  engraved  as  Fig. 
91.  The  sides  are  hammered  into  V-shaped  depressions  forming  a  kind 
of  fern-leaf  [wttem  along  them. 

Two  of  these  palstaves  are  Bgured  on  a  larger  scale  in  Hie  ^i/r  and 
Wigton  CoUeciion».\ 

Another  palstave  from  Windshiel,  near  Dunse,  in  the  Antiquarian 
Uuseum  at  Edinburgh,  has  also  the  flanges  somewhat  hammered  over. 


A  palstave  without  loop,  nnd  which  from  the  engraving  appears  to  have 
a  well-marked  stop-ridge  and  to  have  the  side  flanges  mucfi  hammered 
over,  is  said  to  have  been  found  near  Tintot-top,l  in  Clydesdale.  The 
description,  however,  says  that  it  has  no  stop,  otherwise  the  figure  would 
abfflost  justify  an  attribution  of  the  inHtrument  to  Southern  Germany 
rather  than  to  Scotland.  Another  of  much  the  same  character,  liut  with- 
out iiJiy  stop-ridge,  baa  been  figured  from  Baron  Clerk's  §  collection  as 
having  lieeii  found  in  Scotland. 

Palstuvea  witli  a  side  loop  have  been  said]|  to  be  common  in  Scotland; 

•  Wilson's  "  Proh.  Ann.  of  Scot.,"  vol.  i,  |).  3!C2,  %.  SO ;  "  Cut.  Ant.  Jlim.  Kd.,"  E. 
48.  __  t  Vol.  ii.  pli.  8  and  9. 

I  Arfh.,  Tol.  T.  p.  1)3,  pi.  viiL  No.  2 ;  Gough's  "Cnuidpn,"  vol.  i.  p.  ccvi. 

{  Uorilon'B  "Itin.  Sopteot.,"  p.  llli,  pi.  1.  6. 

I  Areh.  Aiaac.  Joam.,  vol.  ivii,  p.  ai ;  Wilson,  "Preli.  Ann.  of  tit'ot.,"'  vol.  i.  p.  383, 


SCOTTISH  PALSTAVES. 


99 


but  this  can  hardly  be  the  case,  as  in  the  Museum  of  the  Society  of 
Aotiquaries  of  Scotland  there  are  no  authenticated  examples. 

One  from  Aikbrae,*  Lanarkshire  (6}  inches),  like  Fig.  77,  has  been 
figured.  Wilson  gives  another  example  like  Fig.  78,  but  does  not 
f^j  where  it  was  found.  The  **  spade  "  he  gives  as  his  Fig.  59  is  in  all 
piobability  Italian. 

A  palstave  rather  like  that  from  Balcarry,  Fig.  91,  but  with  u  loop,  is 
figured  by  Gk)rdonf  as  having  been  found  in  Scotland. 
What  may  be  classed  as  a  celt  with  two  side  loops, 
or  possibly  as  a  chisel,  is  said  to  have  been  found 
intneyear  1810  in  a  barrow  near  Pettycur,J  Ftfe- 
akire.  It  is  described  as  very  strong,  and  the  bend 
in  the  upx>er  part,  as  seen  in  Fig.  92,  is  thought  to 
be  aoddentaL  Wilson  describes  it  as  a  crowbar  or 
lerer,  but  as  its  total  length  is  only  7^  inches  it  can 
hardly  be  classed  among  such  instruments. 

A  somewhat  similar  tool,  but  without  holes  in  the  ||  'i 

side  stops  (7}  inches),  is  in  the  Museum  of  the  Boyal 
Irish  Academy.§ 

Turning  now  to  the  instruments  of  this  class 
discovered  in  Ireland,  I  may  observe  that  it  is 
80  di£Bcalt  to  draw  the  line  between  the  flanged 
celts,  tapering  both  ways  from  a  central  ridge, 
and  those  which  have  a  slight  projecting  stop- 
ridge  upon  them,  that  some  Irish  instruments 
of  the  latter  class  have  already  been  mentioned 
m  the  preceding  chapter,  to  which  the  reader 
is  referred  for  the  more  highly  ornamented 
varieties.  Other  Irish  types  have  also  been  in- 
cidentally cited. 

Some  of  the  Irish  palstiives  mucli  resemble 
English  and  Scottish  types,  but  generally  speak- 
ing there  are  sufficient  peculiarities  in  their  forms 
to  enable  a  practised  observer  to  recognise  their 
origin.  For  several  other  varieties  of  form,  besides  those  men- 
tioned in  the  following  pages,  the  reader  is  referred  to  Wilde's 
Catalogue. 

Winged  celts  without  a  stop-ridge,  like  Fig.  53,  have  ooea- 
:uonaIIy  been  found  in  Ireland,  and  one  is  figured  by  Wilde.  ||  I 
have  one  (5^  inches)  from  Annoy,  Co.  Antrim.  The  wide-spreading 
celt  with  a  slight  stop-ridge  and  segmental  band  upon  the  blade, 

•  AreM.  Asnoe.  Joum.,  vol.  xvii.  p.  21.     f  "  Itin.  Septent.,"  p.  116,  pi.  1.  4. 
;  jirek.  Journ,,  vol.  vi.  p.  377 ;  "  C*t.  Muh.  Arch.  Inst.  Ed.,*'  p.  27 ;  Wilwm,  "  Preh. 
Ann.  Scot./*  vol.  i.  p.  386. 
k  "CktaL,"  p.  621,  fig.  394.  ||  "  Catal.  Mua.  R.  I.  A.,"  p.  373,  fig.  2J8. 

H  2 


Fig.  92.— Pettycur. 


100  WINGED   CELTS   AND   PALSTAVES.  [CHAP.  IV. 

like  Fig.  50,  also  occurs.  A  remarkably  fine  specimen  from  West- 
meath  with  punctured  oroaments  on  the  wings  and  at  the  lower 
margin  of  the  band  has  been  engraved  by  Wilde.'  Some  are 
without  the  segmental  band. 

The  type  of  Fig.  64  has  also  been  found.  I  have  a  specimen 
(6  inches)  from  Ballinamallard,  near  Enniskillen. 

PfllataveB  without  a  etop-ridge,  and  with  broad  lozenge-shaped  winga, 
like  Fig.  56,  are  of  rare  occurrence.  One  of  nearly  the  eome  type,  but 
hannK  a  low  projecting  ridge  between  the  wings,  is  shown  in  Fig.  93. 


I  have  another  from  Annoy,  Co.  Antrim  {6  inches),  with  a  still  slighter 
transverse  ridge,  which  forms  the  upper  boundary  to  a  shield-shaped  pro- 
jection on  the  blade,  on  which  is  a  central  vertical  ridge  with  two  others 
on  each  side  leas  definitely  marked.     The  base  of  the  shield  is  pointed. 

A  not  uncommon  type  has  a  very  high  stop-ridge  coming  up  to  the 
level  of  the  side  wings,  the  blade  above  the  stop-ridge  being  somewhat 
thinner  than  it  is  below.     An  example  is  shown  in  Fig.  94. 

I  have  another  from  County  Antrim,  in  wliich  the  lower  part  of  the 
binde  has  a  slight  median  vertical  ridge. 

In  a  palstave  in  the  Museum  of  the  Eoyal  Irish  Academy,!  with  ellip- 
tical wings,  a  long  fusiform  boss  has  been  cast  in  the  centre  of  the  blade. 
•  "  Catal.  Mus.  E.  I.  A,,"  p.  373,  fig.  262.  t  Op.  eil.,  p.  373.  fig,  259. 


IRISH    PALSTAVES. 


m 


In  another  instrument    in  the  same  collectjou  the  whole  bUde  ia 
thickened  out  bo  aa  to  form  the  stop-ridge,  as  will  be  seen  in  Fig.  95. 

In  other  cases  the  ridge  of  the  vinge  is 
continued  as  a  moulding  on  the  face  of  the 
Uadfl,  so  as  to  enclose  a  space  below  the  stop- 
ridge.  From  the  base  of  this  there  sometimes 
proceeds  a  vertical  rib,  as  seen  in  Fig.  96. 

Inverted  chevrous  by  way  of  ornament 
below  the  stop-ridge  are  not  uncommoa, 
•ometimes  with  a  vertical  rib  in  addition. 

Such  compartments  are  often  seen  on  the 
winged  celts,  with  only  a  slight  stop-ridge. 
Tig.  97  shows  an  example  from  Lanes- 
borough,  Co.  Longford,  now  in  the  collection 
of  Canon  Oreenwell,  F.B.S.  The  compart- 
ment is  ornamented  with  vertical  punch 
marks.  The  outside  of  the  wings  is  faceted 
after  a  fashion  not  unusual  in  Ireland,  but 
there  ia  here  a  slight  shoulder  at  the  base 
of  the  central  facet  which  may  have  assisted 

m  nonring  the  blade  to  the  handle.     On  a  Fig.  b5.— ireiud.      i 

(pedmen  at  Dublin  there  ate  on  the  otber- 

wiw  flat  sides   elevated  transverse  ridges,  which,  as  Sir  W.  Wilde* 
hu  pointed  out.  may  have  served  "  to  keep  the  tying  in  its  place." 


102  WIKOED   CELTS  AND   PALSTAVES.  [CHAP.  IV. 

The  sides  of  other  specimenB  of  much  the  same  type  are  otherwise 
fashioned  and  ornamented.     Xn  Fig.  98  is  shown  a  celt  from  Trillick,  Co. 

Tyrone,  on  the  sides  of  which  a  kind  of 

^^^^B  A  fem-Ioaf  pattern  has  been  hammered, 

^^^H^  ^ft        or  rather  punched,  not  unlike  the  canr- 

^^^^H  ^H       ing  on  one  of  the  stones  in  the  great 

^^^^D  ^^H       chambered   tumulus    of  New   Grange. 

^^^^H  ^^H      The  shield  plate  has  two  vertical  hol- 

^^^HH  i^^H      lows  worked  on  it. 

^^^H|  ^^H         The  aide  of  a  celt  ornamented  in  the 

^^^^|h  ^^^I     same  manner  is  engraved  by  Wilde.* 

^^^^^H  ^^^m         A  smaU  palstave,  with  two  vertical 

^^^^^HB  ^^^m       grooves  in  the  blade,  is  shown  in  Fig.  99. 

^^^^^^ft  ^^V  Another  form  of  winged  celt,  with  a 

^^^^^^^&  ^B         low  stop-ridge  and  with  a  vertical  rib 

J^^^^^^^^^L  H  passing  through  an   inverted  chevron 

^^^^^^^^^^         H         "'^  ^^  blade,   is  shown  in  Fig.   100. 

J^^^^^^^^^^        11  The  original  is  in  the  collection  of  Hr. 

(^^^^^^^^       H  Bobert  Day,  F.S.A. 

^^^^^^^^^^^        W  The  same  style  of  ornament  occurs 

"  on  palstaves  of  other  forms-t 

tw.  wt-Tnihck.      !  j^;^  ^^g  iuBtanceB,    there  is  in  the 

centre  of  the  stop-ridge  a  kind  of  bracket  on  the  blade,  and  the  side  wings 

are  hammered  over  so  as  to  form  an  imperfect  socket.    A  small  examjile 


of  the  kind  is  shown  in  Fig.  101.    I  have  a  larger  specimen  {■IJ  inoliu^', 

from  Trillick,  Co.  Tyrone.     VallanceyJ  engraves  a  palstave  of  this  type. 

•  "  Cutal.  Mus,  li.  I,  A,."  p.  379.  Sg.  270,  t  Vallancey.  vol.  iv.  pi,  i.  7. 


LOOPED    IKISM    PAL8TA\'E8. 


103 


Othen  vitli  flat  blades  am]  no  brackets  linre  the  Bide  flsngee  hammered 
OKT  in  the  same  manner. 

_  A  fine  example,  in  which  tho  conical  bracket  dies  into  the  etop-ridge  and 
»do  flanges,  is  in  the  British  Museum. 

Palstarea  with  a  loop  at  the  side  are  ant  of  such  froquont  occurrence  in 
InUnd  as  those  without,  Wilde  "  has  engraved  a  specimen  (6|  inches)  like 
Rg.  77  as  well  as  that  t  which  I  have  here  shown  on  a  larger  scale  as 
^.  102.  This  latter  has  the  wings  well  hammered  over  at  the  base,  bo 
la  to  form  a  hind  of  socket  on  each  side  of  the  blade.  It  differs,  however, 
from  the  Rnglinh  and  foreign  specimens  like  Fig.  85  in  having  a  well- 
nuuked  shoulder  or  stop  on  the  blade  between  the  winge. 

fUstaves  of  nearly  the  same  character,  but  without  the  loop,  have 
lintAy  been  mentioned  as  found  both  in  Ireland  and  Scotland.     Others, 


Fia.  IOt.-IreItuid.       (  Fig,  103.— Ireluia.       J  Fly.  iw.— IreLmd.       t 


vith  loops  like  Fig.   103,  have  a  bracket   on  the  blade   between    the 

A  remarkable  form  with  slight  side  flanges  and  no  stop-ridge,  from  tlie 
Dublin  Museum,  is  shown  in  Fig.  104.  It  is  No.  630  in  Wilde's  Cata- 
]ogue.  The  sides  have  deep  diagonal  nott^hcs  upon  them  and  the  upper 
part  of  each  face  is  clieiiiiered,  perhaps  in  order  to  assist  in  steadying 
the  blade  in  its  handle. 

Another  noteworthy  palstave,  found  at  Miltown,  Co.  Dublin,  is  shown 
in  Fig.  105.  In  this  the  side  wingw  are  not  hammered  over,  and  the  stop  is 
supported  by  a  conical  bracket.  The  ehoidders,  instead  of  being  nearly 
square  to  the  midrib,  are  inclinc<IupwardBat  an  angle  of  nearly  45°,  soas  ti> 
form  receptacles  in  which  the  wedge-shaped  ends  of  the  split  handle  would 
)>e  held  tight  against  the  blade.  These  inclined  stops  have  been  observed 
in  othnr  palstaves  of  different  foniia,  and  Sir  W.  Wilde  J  lias  called  atten- 
tion to  them  in  conne<>tion  with  a  palstave  much  like  that  now  under 
i.-un.tideration,  but  without  any  pn>jection  or  loop  on  the  side.  The  most 
remarkable   feature  in   the   Miltown  example  is  a  projec-ting,  slightly 

•  P.  381.  fig.  273,       '■  P.  379,  lig.  26o.       J  "  Catal.  JIub,  R.  I.  A.,"  p,  a77.  fig.  2S8. 


104  TVINOKD   CELTS   AMD   PALOTAVES.  [cHAP.   IV. 

curved  apike  or  neb  placed  near  the  top  of  the  blade  rather  above  tke 
poBition  usually  c«!ciipied  by  the  loop.  At  first  sight  it  looks  like  an 
imperfect  loop,  but,  on  examination,  it  is  evident  that  the  castinK  is  per- 
fect ;  and,  on  consideration,  it  seems  clear  that  this  projection  wotud  serve 
quite  as  well  as  a  loop  for  receiving  a  cord  to  hold  the  blade  back  upon 
ite  haft,  while  for  the  actual  tying  it  would  be  more  convenient,  as  Ihe  COTd 
would  have  merely  to  be  paisBed  over  a  hook,  and  not  to  be  threaded 
through  a  loop.  In  a  some^^iat  similar  palstave  (3f  inches)  in  the  Museum 
of  the  Hoyal  Irish  Academy*  there  is  also  a  projecting  neb,  but  aore 
semicircular  in  oumne.  I  am  not 
sure  that  it  was  intended  for  the 
same  purpose.  A  looped  palitave 
of  this  type,  but  with  the  bottom  of 
tho  side  socket  more  circular,  is  en- 


tho  Bologna  hoard  have  curved  nebs 
on  each  ude  instead  of  rings.  In- 
stnunents  of  the  same  charicter, 
also  from  Italy,  have  been  engraved 
by  De  Bonstetten,!  ScliTeiber,§  and 
CayluB.II 

Double-looped  palstaves,   with  a 

loop  on  either  side,  and  in  character 

like  Fig.  86,  are  almost  or  quite  as 

rare  in  Ireland  as  in  England.    The 

only  specimon  engraved  by  Wilde  H 

is  m  the  collection  of  Lord  Talbot 

de  Malaliide.    It  is  6}  inches  long: 

with  the  loops  not  quite  symmetrical. 

It  was  supposed  to  be  unique,     I 

have,  however,  another  specimen  of 

this  type  (6|  inches)  found  at  Bal- 

Fig.  i<«.-MUt™TL      i  lincolLg,**  Co.  Cork,  in  1854,  which 

was  formerly  in  the  collection  of  the 

Eev.  Thomas  Hugo,  P. 8. A.     It  so  closely  resembles  Kg.  86  that  it  is  not 

worth  while  to  engrave  it. 

Another  remarkable  and  indeed  unique  instrument,  in  the  Uuseum  of 
the  Boyal  Irish  Academy.ft  Is  shown  in  Fig.  106.  It  is  like  a  flat  celt, 
but  has  grooves  and  stops  at  the  side  like  a  palstave  with  a  transverse 
edge.  Below  the  stops  are  two  loops.  The  sides  below  the  stops  are 
ornamented  with  transverse  hues,  and  on  the  face  here  shown  there  is  a 
dotted  kind  of  cartouche  below  tho  stops,  and  a  square  compartment 
chequered  in  lozenges  above  them.  This  latter  is  wanting  on  the  other 
fiico,  but  the  corresponding  cartouche  below  is  divided  into  small  lozeugew 
uUeniatcly  hatched  and  ])lain. 

ij.  433,  No.  an.  f  Vol.  iv.  pi.  X.  1. 

cI'Autiq.  SuiB8i«,"  pi.  ii.  6.     Sco  nliio  jirc/i.  Juurii.,  vol.  vi.  p.   377;  vol 
XXI.  p.  100. 
t  "DiceliiT.  Streilkeilp,"  Taf.  ii.  8. 
H  ■'  CttUl.  Ma*.  R.  1.  A.,"  p.  3H2,  llg.  271 
"  Pror.  AV.  ^nl.,  vol.  iii.  p,  222. 
tt  "Cata!.."p.  621,  flg.  3')3;  Arri.  J„ur„..  v,.l.  viii.  p.  »1,  pi,  Sn.  I. 


IRISH    PALSTAVES   WTTU   TRAKS^'BRSE  EDGE. 


Anotlier  Irisli  instrument  of  nearly  the  aame  form,  but  without  the 
giooTe*  and  stops  at  the  eidee,  Ib  in  the  Bell  Collection  in  the  Antiquarian 


ng.  100.— Irduid.       ( 


Fift.  lOT.— Ireluid.       i 


e  of  finding  is  uncertain.     It  it 


Idueom  at  Edinburgh  ;  but  its  exact  pli 

■hoTD  in  Fig.  107,  and,  like 

that  last  described,  has  each  of 

iufscas  ornamented  in  a  dif- 
ferent manner, 
The  palstaTes  with  a  traiu- 

Tcmeedgfl  are  of  more  common 

occurrence  in  Ireland  than  in 

England,  but  are  even  there 

Teiy  rare.     That  engraved  as 

Fig,  108  waa  formerly  in  the 
coUection  of  the  Rev.  Thomas 
Hugo,  F.8.A.*  A  similar  tool 
is  figured  by  Vallaneey-f 

I^e  smaller  specimen  shown 
in  Fig.  109  was  found  near 
Ballymena,  Co.  Antrim,  and  in 
in  the  collection  of  Mr.  Robert 
Day,  F.8.A-  I  have  one  from 
the  North  of  Ireland  (4  inches] 

with  the  stops  lees  diatinct.  Fig.  lUO.— IrelmnU.    (         Fig.  km,— llgUj-iueuB.  i 

Another  Iriah  specimen  (3 
inches]  is  tn  the  British  Miiseum.    In  the  Museiun  of  the  Boyal  Irish 
Academy  are  several  varying  in  length  from  '2g  inches  to   5}    inches. 
They  are  classed  by  Wilde*  among  the  chisels. 

t  Vul.  iv,  pi.  I.  8. 


106  WINGED   CELTS   AND   PALSTAVES.  [cHAP.  IV. 

In  describing  the  various  forms  illustrated  by  the  figures,  I  have 
from  time  .to  time  called  attention  to  the  analogies  which  thej 
present  with  other  European  forms,  and  it  is  hardly  necessary  to 
make  any  broad  comparison  of  British  palstaves  and  winged  celts 
with  those  of  other  European  countries.  It  would  indeed  be  a 
difficult  task  to  attempt,  as  in  each  country,  if  not  in  several  dis- 
tricts in  each  country,  the  instruments  of  this  kind  are  characterised 
by  some  local  peculiarity. 

Perhaps  it  will  be  more  instructive  to  mention  certain  conti- 
nental forms  which  are  conspicuous  by  their  absence  in  Britain. 

We  have  not,  for  instance,  the  southern  French  form  with  a 
kind  of  contracted  waist  and  broad  side  flanges  or  rounded  wings 
in  the  middle  of  the  blade ;  nor,  again,  the  long  narrow  form 
almost  resembling  a  marrow  spoon  ;  nor  that  with  the  almost 
circular  blade,  much  like  an  ancient  mirror.  Nor  have  we  the 
German  form,  with  the  V-shaped  stop- ridge,  nor  that  in  which  the 
stop-ridge  forms  a  circular  collar  above  a  blade  with  headings 
along  the  sides.  Nor  have  we  the  common  Italian  form,  with  the 
blade  like  a  long  spud ;  nor,  again,  the  narrow  Scandinavian  form, 
which  is  often  highly  decorated. 

And  yet,  in  comparing  the  instruments  described  in  the  present 
chapter  with  those  of  neighbouring  countries,  and  especially  of 
France,  it  will  at  once  be  remarked  that,  as  might  have  been 
reasonably  expected,  the  closest  analogies  are  to  be  observed 
between  some  of  those  of  England  and  France,  while  in  the  more 
peculiarly  Scottish  and  Irish  types  the  resemblances  are  more 
remote.  It  must,  however,  be  borne  in  mind  that  there  is  good 
evidence  in  the  shape  of  moulds  and  bronze-founders'  hoards,  such 
as  will  subsequently  be  mentioned,  to  prove  that  these  instruments 
were  cast  in  various  parts  of  this  country  ;  so  that,  though  some 
palstaves  may  be  of  foreign  origin,  yet,  as  a  rule,  it  was  the 
fashion  of  the  objects  rather  than  the  objects  themselves  for  which 
the  inhabitants  of  Britain  were  indebted  to  foreign  intercourse. 
Even  in  the  area  now  embraced  by  France  there  does  not  appear 
to  have  been  any  single  centre  of  manufacture,  but,  taken  as  a 
group,  the  palstaves  of  the  South,  the  North,  and  the  North-west 
of  France  present  some  distinguishing  characteristics.  The  same 
is  the  ease  with  the  socketed  celts  of  that  country,  the  English 
representatives  of  which  will  be  discussed  in  the  next  chapter. 


CHAPTER  V. 

SOCKETED     CELTS. 

TuE  class  of  celts  cast  in  such  a  manner  as  to  have  a  socket  for 
receiving  the  haft  is  numerously  represented  in  the  British  Isles. 
In  this  form  of  instrument  the  haft  was  actually  imbedded  in  the 
blade,  whereas  in  the  case  of  the  flat  and  flanged  celts,  and  of  the 
80-called  palstaves,  the  blade  was  imbedded  in  the  handle,  so  that 
the  terms,  "  the  recipient  **  and  '*  the  received,"  originally  given 
to  the  two  classes  by  Dr.  Stukeley,  are  founded  on  a  well-marked 
dbtinction,  and  are  worthy  of  being  rescued  from  oblivion. 

Tliat  the  recipient  class  is  of  later  introduction  than  the  received 
is  evident  from  several  considerations.     In  the  first  place,  a  flat 
blade  not  only  approaches  most  nearly   in    form  to    the    stone 
hatchets  or  celts  which  it  was  destined  to  supersede,  but  it  also 
requires  much  less  skill  in  casting  than  the  blade  provided  with  a 
socket.     For  casting  the  flat  celts  there  was,  indeed,  no  need  of  a 
mould  formed  of  two  pieces  ;  a  simple  recess  of  the  proper  form 
cut  in  a  stone,  or  formed  in  loam,  being  sufiieient  to  give  the  shape 
to  a  flat  blade  of  metal,  which  could  be  afterwards  wrought  into 
the  finished  form  by  hammering.     And  secondly,  as  will  subse- 
quently be  seen,  a  gradual  development  can  be  traced  from  the  flat 
celt,  through  those  with  flanges  and  wings,  to  the  palstave  form, 
with  the  wings  hammered  over  so  as  to  constitute  two  semi-cir- 
cular sockets,  one  on  each  side  of  the  blade  ;  while  on  certain  of  the 
socketed  celts  flanges  precisely  similar  to  those  of  the  palstaves  have 
been  east  by  way  of  ornament  on   the  sides,  and  what  was  thus 
originally  a  necessity  in  construction  has  survived  as  a  superfluous 
decoration.     There  is  at  least  one  instance  known  of  the  inter- 
mediate  form  between   a  palstave  with   pocket-Uke  recesses   on 
each  side  of  a  central  plate  and  a  celt  with  a  single  socket.     In 
the  museum  at  Trent  *  there  is  an  instrument  in  which  the  socket 

♦  •*  Matcriaux/'  vol.  iii.  p.  395. 


108  SOCKETED  CELTS.  [gHAP.  V. 

is  divided  throughout  its  entire  length  into  two  compartments 
with  a  plate  between,  and^  as  Professor  Strobel  says,  resembling  a 
palstave  with  the  wings  on  each  side  united  so  as  to  form  a 
socket  on  each  sida  The  evolution  of  the  one  type  from  the 
other  is  thus  doubly  apparent,  and  it  is  not  a  Uttle  remarkable  that 
though  palstaves  with  the  wings  bent  over  are,  as  has  already  been 
stated,  of  rare  occurrence  in  the  British  Islands,  yet  socketed  celts, 
having  on  their  faces  the  curved  wings  in  a  more  or  less  rudimentary 
condition,  are  by  no  means  unfrequently  found.  The  inference 
which  may  be  dra\vn  from  this  circumstance  is  that  the  discovery 
of  the  method  of  casting  socketed  celts  was  not  made  in  Britain  but 
in  some  other  country,  where  the  palstaves  with  the  converging 
wings  were  abundant  and  in  general  use,  and  that  the  first  socketed 
celts  employed  in  this  country,  or  those  which  served  as  patterns 
for  the  native  bronze-founders,  were  imported  from  abroad. 

Although  socketed  celts,  with  distinct  curved  wings  upon  their 
faces,  are  probably  the  earliest  of  their  class,  yet  it  is  impossible  to 
say  to  how  late  a  period  the  curved  lines,  which  eventually  became 
the  representatives  of  the  wings,  may  not  have  come  down.  This 
form  of  ornamentation  was  certainly  in  use  at  the  same  time  as 
other  forms,  as  we  know  from  the  hoards  in  which  socketed  celts 
of  different  patterns  have  been  found  together.  As  has  already 
been  recorded,  the  socketed  form  has  also  been  frequently  found 
associated  with  palstaves,  especially  with  those  of  the  looped 
variety. 

The  form  of  the  tapering  socket  varies  considerably,  the  section 
being  in  some  instances  round  or  oval,  and  in  other  cases  present- 
ing every  variety  of  form  between  these  and  the  square  or  rect- 
angular. There  is  usually  some  form  of  moulding  or  beading 
round  the  mouth  of  the  celt,  below  which  the  body  before  expand- 
ing to  form  the  edge  is  usually  round,  oval,  square,  rectangular, 
or  more  or  less  regularly  hexagonal  or  octagonal.  The  decora- 
tions generally  consist  of  lines,  pellets,  and  circles,  cast  in  relief 
upon  the  faces,  and  much  more  rarely  on  the  sides.  Not  unfre- 
quently there  is  no  attempt  at  decoration  beyond  the  moulding  at 
the  top.  The  socketed  celts  are,  almost  without  exception,  devoid 
of  ornaments  produced  by  punches  or  hammer  marks,  such  as  are 
so  coniiiion  on  the  solid  celts  and  palstaves.  This  may  be  due  to 
their  being  more  liable  to  injury  from  blows  owing  to  the  thinness 
of  the  metal  and  to  thoir  being  hollow.  Tliey  are  nearly  always 
provided  with  a   loop  at  one  side,   though  some  few  have  been 


HEIR   EVOLUTION    FROH    PALSTAVES. 


lOf) 


east  without  loops.  These  are  usually  of  Bmall  size,  and  were 
probably  used  as  chisels  rather  than  as  hatchets.  A  very  few  have 
■  loop  on  each  side. 

The  types  are  so  Tarious  that  it  is  hard  to  make  any  proper 
dusificatioQ  of  them.  I  shall,  therefore,  take  them  to  a  certain 
extent  at  hazard,  keeping  those,  however,  together  which  most  nearly 
^roxioiate  to  each  other.  I  begin  with  a  specimen  showing  in  a 
very  complete  manner  the  raised  wings  already  mentioned. 

This  inBtniment  formed  part  of  a  hoard  of  colts  and  fragments  of  metal 
foimd  at  High  Boding,  Essex,  and 
now  in  the  British  Museum,  and  is 
represented  in  Fig.  110.  With  it 
Tfts  one  with  two  raised  pellets 
beneath  the  moulding  round  the 
mouth,  and  one  with  three  longi- 
tudinal  ribs.      The   others   were 

Another  (4  inches),  with  a  treble 

moulding  at  the  top,  from  Water- 

ingburj,  Kent,  was  in  the  Douce 

■nd  Meyrick  CollectionB,  and  is 

now  also  in  the  British  Uoseum. 
I  have  a  German  celt  of  this 

^pe,   but   without    the    pellets, 

loand  in  ThurinKia.      Others  are 

engraved  by  liindenschmit,*  Mon- 
ism,! and  Cbantre.^    I  have  a 

good  example   from  Lutz   (Eure 

et  Loir). 
On  man;  French  celts  the  wings 

are  shown  by  depressed  lines  or 

grooves  on  the  faces.    I  have  spe- 
cimens   from  a  hoard    found   at 

Dreuil,    near    Amiens,    and  from 

lAisancj,    near    Bheims.     Others 

Tith  the  curved  lines  more  or  less 

distinct  have    been  found  in  va- 
liooB  parts  of  France. 

There  is  an  example  from  Mauhn  in  the  Museum  at  Namur,  and  a 
Dutch  example  is  in  the  Museum  at  Assen. 

In  Fig.  in  is  shown  a  larger  celt  in  my  own  collection,  found  in  the 
neighbourhood  of  Dorchester,  Oxou.  The  wing  ornament  no  longer  con- 
sists of  a  solid  plate,  but  the  outlines  of  the  wings  of  the  palstave  are 
^lown  by  two  bold  projecting  beads  which  extend  over  the  sides  of  the 
celt  as  well  as  the  faces.  The  socket  is  circular  at  the  mouth,  but  the 
neck  of  the  instrument  below  the  moulding  is  eubquadrate  in  section.  In 
the  socket  are  two  small  projecting  longitudinal  ribs,  probably  intended 


Roding- 


•  ■'  Alt.  a.  h.  v.,"  vol.  i.  Heft  ii.  Taf.  ii.  6. 
t  "Cong,  pttk.,"  Bologn*  vol.  p.  S93. 


"  Age  da  Br.,"  ptie.  i.  p.  • 


110  ROCKETED   CEl.TB  [cHAP.  V. 

to  aid  ill  Btpailying  the  haft.     8uch  projectionn  are  not  very  uncommon,, 
and  are  aometimee  more  than  two  in  number. 

A  celt  ornamented  in  a  similar  maimer,  but  with  two  raised  bands  near 
the  mouth,  was  found  with  several  other  socketed  celts  and  some  pal- 
staves n-ith  the  wings  bent  over  at  Cumberlow,*  near  Baldock,  Herts. 
Some  of  these  are  in  the  British  Museum. 

Aiioth«?r  with  two  small  nelleta  between  the  curred  lines  was  found 
in  a  hoard  at  Beddinglon,t  biirrey. 

Fi^.  112  represento  another  celt  of  much  the  same  character,  but  with  a 
balder  moulding  at  top,  and  a  slight  projecting  bead  all  round  the  instru- 
ment juat  below  the  two  curved  linos  representing  the  palstaTe  Tings, 
wliivfa  on  those  celts  have  just  the  appearance  of  heraldic  "flanches." 
___^  On  the  face  not  shown  there  is 

/^l^^^  a  triangular  projection   at  the 

^H^^^^^B  ^^^^^         top  like  a  "pUo  in  diief "  be- 

WQ^^^^^H  ^^^^^^k        tween  the  flanches.    Inside  tJie 

nH^^^V  ^^^^^^^K       socket  there  are  two  longitudinal 

^^^^^^  ^^^^^^Iv       pivjections  as  in  the  last.    The 

^^^^^^^^  original  of  this  figure,  which  has 
been  broken  and  repaired  with 
the  edge  of  another  celt,  is  in 
the  Blackmoro  Uuseum  at  Salie- 
buTj,  and  was  probably  found 
inWUts. 

In  the  British  Museum  is  an 
example  of  this  type  (4  inchos) 
which  has  on  one  face  only  a 
pellet  in  the  upper  part  of  the 
compartment  between  the  two 
"flanches."  It  was  found  at 
Hounslow. 

Another  (4    inches)  &om  the 

Ileathery  Bum  Gave,  Durham,  is 

now  in  the  collection  of  Canon 

Greenwell,  F.E.S.     I  have  one 

with  the  pattern  less  distinct  from 

a  hoard  found  in  the  Barking 

— HdTty.      i      Marshes,  Essex,  in  1862.   A  celt 

much  of  the  same  pattern,  but 

without  the  transverse  Uno  below  the  flanchee,  was  found  on  Plumpton 

Plain,  t  near  Lewes. 

The  same  type  occurs  in  France.  I  havo  examples  from  a  hoard  found 
at  Dreuil,  near  Amiens.  The  same  ornament  is  often  seen  on  Hungarian 
celts,  though  usually  without  the  lower  band. 

In  Fig.  113  is  shown  one  of  the  celts  from  tlio  hoard  discovered  in  the 
Isle  of  Harly,§  Kent,  to  which  I  shall  have  to  miike  frequent  reference. 
Besides  eight  more  or  l*«s  perfect  unomaiuouted  aocketod  celts,  various 


•  Joati 


"Cmydon  Prah.  nml  11 


WITH  CURVED  1 


111 


hunmerB,  toub,  and  moulds,  five  celts  of  this  type  were  found.  Although 
BO  cloael;  resembling  each  other  that  they  were  probably  cast  in  the  eauie 
mould,  in  fact  in  that  which  was  found  at  the  same  time,  there  is  a  con- 
eider&ble  difference  observable  among  them,  especially  in  the  upper  part 
above  the  loop.  In  the  one  shown  in  the  figure  there  are  three  distinct 
headed  mouldings  above  the  loop,  and  above  these  again  is  a  plain,  some- 
what expanding  tube.  In  one  of  the  otliers,  however,  there  are  only  the 
two  lowest  of  me  beaded  mouldings,  and  the  upper  half-inch  of  tli»  cett 
first  mrationed  is  absolutely  wanting.  The  three  otJiers  show  very  little 
of  th^  plain  part  above  the  upper  moulding.  As  will  subsequently  be 
explained,  the  variation  in  length  appears  to  be  connected  witli  the 
method  of  casting,  and  to  have  arisen  n'om  a  greater  ]mrt  of  the  mould 
having  been  "stopped  off"  in 
one  caae  than  another.  It  will 
I«  noticed  that  the  "flanches" 
on  theee  celts  are  placed  below 
the  loop  and  not  close  under  the 
cap-moidding.  The  beads  which 
form  them  are  continued  across 
the  eidee.     Running  part  of  the 

way  down  inside  the  socket  are 

two  longitudinal  ridges  which  are 

in  the  same  line  as  the  runners 

by  which  the  metal  found  its  way 

into  the   mould.    The   verticil 

ridge  above  the  topmost  moulding 

shows  where  there  is  a  channel  in 

the  mould  for  the  metal  to  pans 

by.    If  the  celts  had  been  skil- 
fully oast  so  that  their  top  was 

lerel  with  the  upper  moulding, 

netraces  of  this  would  have  boon 

risible. 
In  Fig.    114  is  shown  one  of 

the  plain  socketed  celts  from  the 

Mme  hoard.   The  mould  in  wliich 

it  was  cast  was  found  at  the  same 

time,  as    well  as  the  half  of  a 

mould  for  one  of  smaller  sine. 

The  five   other  plain  celts  front 

(he  same  hoard  were  all  rather  lesn  than  the  one  which  is  figured,  and 
appear  to  have  been  cast  in  three  different  moulds,  as  the  beading 
round  the  top  varies  in  character,  and  in  some  is  double  and  not  single. 
The  two  projections  within  the  socket  are  in  these  but  short,  though 
strongly  marked. 

In  the  British  Museum  is  a  celt  of  this  kind,  4  inches  long,  found  at 
Newton,  Cambridgeshire,  which  on  its  loft  face,  as  seen  with  the  loop 
towards  the  spectator,  has  a  small  projecting  boss  \}j  inch  below  the  top. 

Five  socketed  celts  of  this  plain  chnmctor  ('2J^  inclioH  to  3J  inches)  were 
found  togethor  at  Lodge  Hill,  Waddesdou,   Bucks,  in  lH-5.5,  and  were 
lithographod  on  a  private  pinto  by  Mr.  Kdward  Rione. 
The  outline  and  general  character  of  tlie  celt  shown  in  Fig.  115  may  be 


112  SOCKETED   CELTS.  [cHAP.  V. 

taken  as  ropreeentative  of  one  of  the  most  common  forms  of  English 
tiObket«d  celt.  This  particular  specimen  differs,  however,  from  the  ordi- 
nary form  in  having  a  ridge  or  ill-defined  rib  on  each  face  which  adds 
materially  to  the  weight  and  somewhat  to  the  strength  of  the  instm- 
ment.  It  was  found  near  Dorcheeter,  Oxon. 
A  nearly  similar  oelt  found  in  Mecldeaburg  has  been  figured  by  Lisch,* 

A  larger  celt  of  the  same  general  chanicter,  found  with  s  hoanl 

of  bronze  objects  in  Reach  Fen,  Burwell  Fen,  Cumbridge,  is  sliown 

in  Fig.  116.    This  may  also  be  regarded  as  a  characteiistic  specimen 

of  the  socketed  celts  usually 

«  found  in  England,  though  the 

second  moulding  is  often  ab- 
sent,  and    thero   is  a  consi- 
derable range  in  size  and  in 
. .  the  proportion  of  the  width 

IU^t/KL         ^0  t,lie    length.     No    doubt 
^^^^^pi         much  of  this  range  is  due  to 
^^H^HI         some  instruments  having  been 
^^^^^  more   shortened  by   use  and 

^^^^^^ft         wear  than  others.      The  edge 
Ugj^^H  of  A  bronze  tool  must  have 

^^^^^1         been  constantly  liable  to  be- 
Vj^^^l  come  blunted,  jagged,  or  bent, 

^^^^1  nnd  when  thus  injured  was 

^^^^H  doubtless,  to  some  extent,  re- 

^^^^^K         stored  to   it.s  original   shape 
^^^^^^^      by  being  hammered  out,  and 
^^^^^^^        then  re-ground  and  sharpened, 
^■^^~'^"''  ^ii'^",™"        The  repetition  of  this  process 

would,  in  the  course  of  time, 
materially  diminish  the  length  of  the  blade,  until  eventually  it 
would  be  worn  out,  or  the  solid  part  be  broken  away  from  the 
socketed  portion. 

Celts  of  this  gonf-ral  character,  plain  with  the  exception  of  a  single  or 
double  heading  at  the  top,  occur  of  various  sizes,  and  Iiave  been  found  in 
considerable  numbers.  In  my  own  collection  are  apoeimens  (.3  inches) 
from  Westwick  Kow,  near  Gorhambury,  Herta,  found  with  lumps  of 
rough  motal ;  from  Burwell  Fen,  Cambridge  (!tj  inches),  found  also  with 
metal,  a  spear-head  like  Fig.  381  and  a  hollow  ring ;  from  Bottisham, 
Cambridge  (3  inches),  and  other  places. 

In  the  Reach  Fen  hoard  already  mentioned  were  some  other  celts  of 

•  "  Pfuhlbsuten,  in  M.,"  1865,  p.  78. 


PIAIN    WITH   A   BEADING    BOUND   THE    MOUTH.  113 

this  type.  They  were  associated  with  gouges,  chisels,  knives,  hammers, 
andotiber  articles,  and  also  with  two  socketed  celts,  one  like  Fig.  133,  and 
two  like  Fiff.  124,  as  well  as  with  two  of  the  type  shown  in  Fig.  117, 
with  a  small  bead  at  some  little  distance  below  the  principal  moulding 
round  the  mouth.  One  of  them  has  a  slightly  projecting  rib  running 
down  each  comer  of  the  blade,  a  peculiarity  I  have  noticed  in  other  speci- 
mens.    The  socket  is  round  rather  than  square. 

I  have  other  examples  of  this  type  from  a  hoard  of  about  sixty  celts 
found  on  the  Manor  Farm,  Wymington,  Bedfordshire  (3 J  inches) ;  from 
BurwellFen,  Cambridge  (4  inches) ;  and  from  the  hoard  found  at  Carlton 
Bode,  Norfolk  (4  inches).  This  last  has  the  slightly  projecting  beads 
down  the  angles. 

Socketed  celts  partaking  of  the  character  of  the  three  types  last  described, 

and  from  2  inches  to  4  inches  in  length,  are  of  common  occurrence  in 

England.     Some  with  both  the  single  and  double  mouldings  were  found 

in  company  with  others  having  vertical  beads  on  the  face  like  Fig.  124, 

and  a  part  of  a  bronze  blade  at  West  Halton,*  Lincolnshire.    I  have  seen 

others  both  with  the  single  and  double  moulding  which  were  found  with 

some  of  the  ribbed  and  octagonal  varieties,  a  socketed  knife,  pcurts  of  a 

sword  and  of  a  gouge,   and  lumps  of  metal,  at  Martlesham,  Suffolk. 

These   are    in    the    possession  of    Captain    Brooke,   of    Ufford    Hall, 

near  Woodbridge.      Another,  apparently  with  the  double   moulding, 

was  found  with  others  (some  of  a  different  type),  seven  spear-heads,  and 

Dortions  of  a  sword,  near  Bilton,t  Yorkshire.     These  are  now  in  the 

Bateman  Collection.     Another  wilh  the  single  moulding  was  found  near 

Windsor.  J    Others  with  the  double  moulding,  to  the  number  of  forty,  were 

found  with  twenty  swords  and  sixteen  spear-heads  of  different  patterns, 

about  the  year  1726,  near  Alnwick  Castle,  §  Northimiberland.     Some  also 

occurred  in  the  deposit  of  nearly  a  hundred  celts  which  was  found  with  a 

quantity  of  cinders  and  lumps  of  rough  metal  on  Earsley  Common,  ||  about 

12  miles  N.W.  of  York,  in  the  year  1735.    A  socketed  celt  with  the  single 

moulding  was  found  with  spear-heads,  part  of  a  dagger,  and  some  small 

whetstones,  near  Little  Wenlock,^  Shropshire.    Four  socketed  celts  of  this 

cla«8  with  the  double  moulding  were  found,  with  a  socketed  gouge  and 

about  30  pounds  weight  of  copper  in  lumps,  at  Sittingboume,**  Kent,  in 

1828.    They  are,  I  believe,  now  in  the  Dover  Museum.    One  (4J  inches), 

obtained  at  Honiton,ft  Devonshire,  has  a  treble  moulding  at  me  top,  that 

in  the  middle  being  larger  than  the  other  two.     The  socket  is  square. 

A  plain  socketed  celt,  2  J  inches  long,  was  foimd  in  digsnixg  gravel 
near  Caesar's  Camp,  J  J  Coombe  Wood,  Surrey.  It  is  now  in  the  Museum 
<rf  the  Society  of  Antiquaries.  In  the  collection  of  Messrs.  Mortimer,  at 
Fimber,  is  a  celt  with  the  double  moulding  (3  inches  long),  found  at 
Frodingham,  near  Driffield,  which  has  four  small  ribs,  one  in  the  centre 


of  each  side  running  down  the  socket.     Another,  with  the  double  moulding 
(4  inches),  and  with  a  nearly  round  m 


~     ,  .-       —  -  %^ 

mouth  to  the  socket,  was  found  at  Tun 


•  Areh,  Joum,,  vol.  x.  p.  69. 

t  Areh.  Auoe,  Joum.,  vol.  v.  p.  349  ;  Bateman,  Catal.  M.  60,  p.  76. 

t  Btukeley,  "It.  Cur.,"  pi.  xcvi.  2nd.  §  Arch.,  vol.  v.  p.  113. 

11  Arch.,  vol.  V.  p.  114. 

S  Hartuhome's  "Salopia  Antiqua,"  1841,  p.  96,  No.  9. 

••  Smith's  "  Coll.  Ant.,"  vol.  i.  p.  101. 

ft  Engraved  in  Areh.  Joum.,  vol.  xxvi.  p.  343. 

XX  Pfitc,  Soe,  Ant,,  vol.  i.  p.  67  ;  2nd  S.,  vol.  i.  p.  83. 

I 


114  SOCKETED    CELTS  [CUAF.  T. 

Hill,  near  Devizes,  and  b  in  tlie  Blackmore  Museum,  where  is  also  one 
found  nenr  ISath  (3J  inehee)  with  the  moiJdings  more  uniform  in  size. 

A  aocketed  celt  without  any  moulding  at  the  top,  which  is  hollowed  and 
elopes  away  from  the  side  on  which  is  the  loop,  is  said  to  have  been  found 
in  a  tumulus  near  the  King  Barrow  on  Stowborough  Heath,*  near 
Wareham,  Dorset. 

Socketed  celts  of  this  character  occur  throughout  the  whole  of  France, 
but  are  most  abundant  in  the  northern  parts.  They  are  of  rare  occur- 
rence in  Germany. 

The  same  form  is  found  among  the  Lake  habitations  of  Switzerland. 
Dr.  Gross  has  specimens  from  Auvemier  aud  Moerigen.f  which  closely 
resemble  English  examples. 

A  celt  of  the  same  general  character  as  Fig.  114,  but  of  peculiar  form, 

narrowing  to  a  central  waist,  is  shown  in  Fig.  118.     The  original  wa« 

found  at  Canterbuiy,  and  was 

kindly  presented  to  me  by  Mr. 

John  Brent,  F.S.A. 

Broad  socketed  celt«  nearly 
circular  or  but  slightly  oval  at 
the  neck,  and  closely  resembling 
the  common  Irish  type  (Fig.  167) 
in  form  and  character,  are  occa- 
sionally found  in  England.  That 
shown  in  Fig.  119  is  stated  to 
have  been  discovered  at  the 
CasUe  Hill,  Usk,  Monmouth- 
shire. 

I  have  seen  another  (3} 
inches)  in  the  collection  of  Mr. 
R.  Fitch,  F.S.A.,  whidi  was 
found  at  Hanworth,  near  Holt, 
Norfolk. 

Among  those  found  at  Gulls- 
field,!     Montgomerj-shire,    waa 
Fig.  lis.— u«k.  )  one  of  somewhat  the  same  cha- 

racter,   but   having    a    double 


Fig.  lis.— Cmterbuij.    1 


vith  a  nearly  square  socket,  has  above 
)  moulding  round  the  mouth,  hke  that  on 
I  looped   palstaves,  gouges,  spears. 


moulding  at  the  t«p.  Another,| 
a  double  moulding,  a  cable  mc 
Fig.  172.  In  the  same  board  i 
swords,  scabbards,  &c. 

Another,  that,  to  judge  from  a  bad  engraving,  had  no  moulding  at 
the  fop,  which  was  oval,  is  said  to  have  been  found  und<>r  a  supjixised 
Druid's  altar  near  Keven  Hirr  Vynidd,||  on  the  borders  of  Brecknockshire. 

Another  varietj-,  with  n  nearly  square  socket  and  Ion";  narrow 
blade  is  shown  in  Fig,  120,  the  original  of  which  was  found  at 
Alfriston,  Sussex.     The  loop  is  imperfect,  owing  to  defective  cast- 

•  "Tlio  Burrow  Digftprs,"  p.  74. 

t  GrosB.  '■Df:ii:(  Stations,  ic,"  pi-  ■-  l-'i  '8. 

t  A.el,.  Ciiui.,  3nJ  S.,  vol.  i.  p.  211,  No.  4  ;  ■•  Montg.  CoU.,"  vol.  iii.  p.  137. 

i  Arch.  Camb.,  ubi  tup.  Ko.  3.  ||  Areh.,  vol.  iv.  p.  21,  pi.  i.  fl. 


OF   A    GAULISH   TVFE. 


115 


ing.      The  socket  is  very  deep,  and  extends  to  within  an  inch  of 
the  edge.     Instruments  of  this  type  are  principally,  if  not  solely, 
found  in  our  southern  counties.     The  type  is  indeed  Gaulish 
rather  than  British,  and  is  very  abundant  in   the  north-western 
part  of  France.      It  appears  probable  that  not  only  was  the  type 
originally  introduced  into  this  country  from  France,  but  that  there 
was  a  r^ular  export  of  such  celts  to  Britain.     For  I  have  in  my 
coUection  a  celt  of  this  type,  4}  inches  long,  that  was  found  under 
the  pebble  beach  at  Portland,  and  in  which 
the  core  over  which  it  was  cast  still  tills  the 
socket,  the  clay  having  by  the  heat  of  the 
metal  been  converted  into  a  hrick-Iike  terra- 
cotta.   It  could,  therefore,  never  have  been 
in  use,  as  no  haft  could  have  been  inserted. 
U  is  waterwom  and  corroded  by  the  action 
of  the  sea,  the  loop  having  been  almost  eaten 
and  worn  sway,  so  that  it  is  impossible  to 
say  whether  the  surface  and  edge  were  left 
as  they  came  from  the  mould.     In  the  large 
hoard,  however,  of  bronze  celts  of  this  type 
which  was  found  at  Moussaye,  near  Pl^n^e- 
Jugon,  in  the  Cotes  du  Nord,  the  bulk  were 
left  in  this  condition,  and   with  the   burnt 
clay  cores  still  in  the  sockets. 

I  have  another  celt  of  the  same  size  and 
fonn  as  that  from  the  Portland  beach,  which 
was  found  near  Wareham,  Dorset,  and  ap- 
pears to  have  been  in  use. 

Two  found  with  many  others  in  the  New 
Forest*  (3  and  5  inches  lonf;)  are  engraved  in 
the  ArehiBolagia.  The  larger  has  a  rib  3  inches 
long  running  down  the  face  and  terminating  in 
ttn  annulet. 

Others  of  the  same  type  have  been  foimd  at  HoUingbury  HiU,t  and 
near  the  church  at  Brighton, :[  SuBse:i. 

Among  the  celts  found  at  Kam  Brc,  Cornwall,  in  1744,  were  some  of 
this  chajract«r,  but  expanding  more  at  the  cuttinf;  edge.  Others  were 
more  lite  Fig.  124,  though  longer  in  proportion.  With  them  are  said  to 
hare  been  found  several  Boman  coins,  some  as  late  as  the  time  of 
Conetantius  Chlorus.     Others  (5  inches  long)  seem  to  have  formed,  part 


Fig.  ISO.— AUriibni. 


•  ^re*.,Tol.T.p.  l»,pl.  viii.  9,  10:  Gough's 
t  Sun.  Arek.  Call.,  vol.  ii.  p.  268,  fig.  7. 
X  Ibid.,  flg.  12. 


'  Camden,"  vol.  i 


116 


SOCKETED   CELTS 


[chap. 


of  the  hoard  found  at  Maw^n,*  CornwaU,  in  which  there  was  alao 
a  fine  rapier.  Another,  from  Badi,t  is  in  the  Duke  of  Northumberland's 
museum  at  Alnwick.     Another  has  been  cited  from  Comwall-t 

Celts  of  this  form  are  of  rare  occurrence  in  the  North  of  England, 
but  one,  said  to  have  been  disinterred  with  Boman  remains  at  Cheeter- 
le-8treet,§  Durham,  is  in  the  Museum  of  the  Society  of  Antiquaries  of 
Ne  wcastle-on-T jne . 

Celts  like  Fig.  120  are  of  very  frequent  occurrence  in  Northern  France; 
large  hoards,  consisting  almost  entirelr  of  this  t?pe,  have  been  found. 
A  deposit  of  sixty  was  discovered  near  Lunballe  ||  (Cotes  du  Nord),  and 
one  of  more  than  two  hundred  at  Moussaye,  near  Fl4nee-Jugan,  in  the 
same  department.  Most  of  the 
colts  in  both  these  hoards  had 
never  been  used,  and  in  a  large 
number  the  oore  of  burnt  clay  was 
still  in  the  socket.  A  hoard  of 
about  fifty  is  aaid  to  have  been 
found  near  Bevay,^  Belgium. 

Plain  socketed  celts  nearly  square 
at  the  mouth  have  occasionally 
been  found  in  Qermany.  One  from 
Fomerania**  is  much  like  Fig.  120 
in  outline. 

The  form  of  narrow  celt,  which  I 
regard  as  of  Gaulish  derivation,  is 
not  nearly  so  elegant  as  that  of  a 
more  purely  EngBsh  type  of  which 
an  example  is  shown  in  Fig.  121. 
The  origmal  was  found  in  the  Cam- 
bridge Fens,  and  is  in  my  own  col- 
lection. Within  the  socket  on  the 
centre  of  each  side  is  a  raised  nar- 
row rib  running  down  2  inches 
from  the  mouth,  or  to  within  J  inch 
uf  the  bottom  of  the  socket. 

The  type  is  rare  ;  but  a  specimen 
(5  inches)  of  nearly  the  same  form  as 
the  figure  was  found,  with  palstaves, 
sickles,  &c.,  near  Taunton,  Somer- 
ECt.ft  There  is  also  a  resemblance 
to  the  Barringfon  celt,  Rg.  148. 
I  have  already  mentioned  a  celt  with  a  moulded  top,  which,  on  one  of 
its  faces,  is  ornamented  with  a  small  projecting  oohb.  In  Fig.  122 
is  shown  an  example  witli  two  pellets  beneath  the  upper  moulding.  It 
was  found  with  others  at  High  Eoding,  Essex,  and  is  now  in  the  British 
Uuseuni.     Another  with  three  such  knobs  on  each  face,  placed  near  the 

"  ^ri-iS.,  vol.  ivii.  p.  337.  t  jtrcA.  Joimi.,  vol.  ivii.  p.  7fi. 

*     '   -'      '  '  ■       i.  p.  172.  i  Arch.  Joiirii.,  vol.  irii,  p.  7.5. 


CUnbridge 


Uigb  BodiDS- 


J  •'  Miitcriaui,"  vol.  i 

H  LiiidcnBchniit,  "  Alt.  u.  h,  Vore., 

••  "Ziitsth.  fiirEth, 

+t  A,el,.  Jam;,.,  vol. 


Taf.  i 


vol.  i 


Il.ttii.  Taf.  ii.  4. 


WITH    VERTICAL  RIBS  OK    THE    FACES. 


117 


top  of  the  iiutrument,  is  shown  in  Fi^.  133.  The  original  is  in  the 
Britiah  Museum,  and  was  found  at  Chnshall,*  Eseex,  where  also  Bereral 
plain  celts  with  single  or  double  mouldings  at  the  top,  some  spear-beads, 
ind  a  portion  of  a  socketed  knife  were  dug  up. 

A  laigB  brass  ooin  of  Hadrian,  much  defaced,  is  said  to  hare  been 
fonnd  at  the  same  time.  Aa  in  other  iastances,  the  evidence  on  this 
point  is  unsatisfactonr,  aud  if  it  could  be  sifted,  would  probably  cany 
the  case  no  farther  than  to  prove  that  the  Boman  coins  and  the  bronze 
cdta  VOTe  found  near  the  same  spot,  and  possibly  by  the  same  man,  on 
the  same  day.  In  illustration  of  this  collection  of  objects  of  different 
dates,  I  may  mention  that  I  lately  purchased  a  fifteenth-century  j'elon 
u  having  been  found  with  Merovingian  gold  ornaments. 


•     # 


Fig.  IM.-Hc«di  Fhl        i  Fig,  ias.-Biirriiigton.    1 

Some  of  the  Breton  celts,  in  form  like  Fig.  120,  have  two  or  three 
knobe  on  a  level  with  the  loop. 

Another  and  common  kind  of  ornament  on  the  faces  of  socketed 
celts  consists  of  vertical  lines,  or  ribs,  extending  from  the  moulding 
round  the  mouth  some  distance  down  the  faces  of  the  blade.  They 
vaiy  in  number,  but  are  rarely  less  than  three.  In  some  instances 
the  ribs  are  so  slight  as  to  be  almost  imperceptible,  a  circumstance 
which  suggests  the  probability  of  celts  in  actual  use  having  served 
as  the  models  or  patterns  from  which  the  moulds  for  casting  others 
were  made,  as  in  each  successive  moulding  and  casting  any  promi- 
nences such  as  these  ribs  would  be  reduced  or  softened  down.  On  any 
■  Neville's  "  Sepolcbm  Expoaita,"  p.  3. 


118  SOCKETED   CELTS  [CHAP.  V. 

other  supposition  it  is  difficult  to  conceive  how  an  ornamentation 
so  indistinct  as  almost  to  escape  observation  could  have  originated. 
There  are  some  celts  which  on  one  face  arc  quite  smooth  and  plain, 
while  on  the  other  some  traces  of  the  ribs  may  just  be  detected. 
The  same  is  the  case  with  some  of  the  celts  which  have  the  slightest 
possible  traces  of  the  "  flanches,"  such  as  seen  on  Fig.  111.  The 
smearing  of  metal  moulds  with  clay,  to  prevent  the  adhesion  of 
the  castings,  would  tend  to  obliterate  such  ornaments. 

A  celt  with  the  vertical  ribs  from  the  hoard  of  Eeach  Fen,  Cambridge, 
is  shown  in  Fig.  124.  There  are  slight  projecting  beads  running  down 
the  angles.  The  three  ribs  die  into  the  face  of  the  blade.  Another  of 
nearly  the  same  type,  but  with  coarse  ribs  somewhat  curved,  is  shown  in 
Fig.  125.  It  has  not  the  beads  at  the  angles.  This  specimen  was  found 
in  company  with  a  celtvlike  Fig.  116,  and  with  a  gouge  like  Fig.  204,  at 
Barrington,  Cambridge,^  and  is  in  my  own  collection. 

Celts  of  wider  proportions,  and  having  the  three  ribs  farther  apart, 
have  been  frequently  found  in  the  Northern  English  counties.  I  have 
one  (3J  inches)  from  Middleton,  on  the  Yorkshire  Wolds,  which  was 
given  me  by  Mr.  H.  S.  Harland ;  and  Canon  Greenwell,  F.R.8.,  has 
several  from  Yorkshire.  The  celt  which  was  foimd  near  Tadcaster,*  in 
that  coimty,  and  which  has  been  so  often  cited,  from  the  fact  of  its  having 
a  large  bronze  ring  passing  through  the  loop,  on  which  is  a  jet  bead, 
is  also  of  this  type.  There  can  be  Httle  doubt  that  the  ring  and  bead, 
which  not  improbably  were  foimd  at  the  same  time  as  the  celt,  were 
attached  to  it  subsequently  by  the  finder,  in  the  manner  in  which  they 
may  now  be  seen  in  the  British  Musemn.  A  celt  with  three  ribs,  from 
the  hoard  found  at  Westow,!  in  the  North  Riding,  has  been  figured,  as 
has  been  one  from  Cuerdale,J  near  Preston,  Lancashire,  and  one  (4^ 
inches)  from  Rockboum  Down,§  Wilts,  now  in  the  British  Museum. 
One  (3 J  inches  long)  was  found  near  Hull,||  in  Yorkshire;  and  five  others 
at  Winmarloy,^  near  Garstang,  Lancashire,  together  with  two  spears, 
one  of  them  having  crescent-shaped  openings  in  the  blade  (Fig.  419). 

Another  was  found,  with  other  bronze  objects,  at  Stanhope,**  Durham. 

The  celts  found  with  spear-heads  and  discs  near  Newark,  and  now 
in  Canon  Greenwell's  collection,  are  of  this  type,  but  of  different  sizes. 
That  found  at  Cann,ftne£ir  Shaftesbury,  with,  it  is  said,  a  human  skeleton 
and  two  ancient  British  silver  coins,  had  three  ribs  on  its  face. 

Several  others  were  found  in  the  hoard  at  West  Halton,JJ  Lincoln- 
shire, already  mentioned.  Others  were  discovered  in  company  with  a 
looped  palstave,  some  spear-heads,  ferrules,  fragments  of  swords,  and  a 
tanged  knife,  near  Nottingham,  §§  in  1860.  Seven  or  eight  such  celts, 
and  the  half  of  a  bronze  mould  in  which  to  cast  tliem,  were  found  with  a 
socketed  knife,  spear-heads,  and  nimierous  other  objects,  in  the  Heathery 

•  Arch.f  vol.  xvi.  p.  362,  pi.  liv. ;  Arch.  Journ.y  vol.  iv.  p.  6. 
f  Arch.  Assoc.  Journ.^  vol.  xx.  p.  107,  pi.  vii.  6 ;  see  also  vol.  iii.  p.  58. 
J  Op.  cit.f  vol.  viii.  p.  332,  pi.  xxxvii.  1 ;  I*roc.  Soc.  Ant.,  vol.  ii.  p.  304. 
J  "  ilora)  Ferales,"  pi.  v.  7.  li  Arch.  Assoc.  Jottrn.,  vol.  ix.  p.  185. 

^  Op.  cit.,  vol.  XV.  p.  235.  ♦•  Areh,  jEUana^  vol.  i.  p.  13,  pi.  ii.  8. 

ft  Evans'  "  Anc.  lirit.  Coins,"  p.  102.  JJ  Arch.  Journ.^  vol.  x.  pp.  6i),  70. 

§§  Froc.  So€.  Ant.,  2nd  S.,  vol.  i.  p.  332. 


WITH    VERTICAL   RIBS  ON    THE   FACES. 


119 


Bum  Cave,*  near  Stanhope,  Durham,  of  vhich  further  mention  will 
eubaequently  be  made.  Many  have  also  been  found  in  Yorkshire  and 
Northumberland. 

The  type  is  not  confined  to  the  Northern  Counties,  for  specimens 
otcnrred  in  the  great  find  at  Carlton  Eode.f  near  Attleborough,  Norfolk. 
I  have  seen  another,  4  inches  long,  which  waa  found  with  many  other 
■ocketed  celts  and  other  articles  at  Martteshom,  Suffolk,  in  the  hoard 
already  mentioned  (p.  113).  I  hare  one  (3$  inches)  from  lilandysilio, 
Denbighshire.  Another,  with  traces  of  the  three  ribs,  was  found  at  Pul- 
borongh,!  Sussex.  This  apecimen  is  in  outline  more  like  Fig.  130.  A 
socketed  celt  of  this  kind  (5  mcheslong),  withthreeparallelribson  the  flat 
surface,  was  found  nearIiaunceBton,§ComwaU. 
Some  long  celts  of  the  same  kind  were  found 
at  Kam  Bre,  in  the  same  county,  as  already 
mentioned. 

In  some  celts  with  the  three  ribs  on  their 
faces,  found  in  Wales,  the  moulding  at  the  top 

IB  hrve  and  heavy,  and  forms  a  sort  of  cornice 

round  the  celt,  die  upper  surface  of  which  ia 

flat.     That  engraved  as  Fig.  126  was  found  at 

Uynydd-y-Qlos,  near  Hensol,  Glamorganshire, 

and  is  now  in  the  British  Museum.     In  the 

same  collection  is  another  of  much  the  same 

character,  but  of  ruder  fabric,  4J  inches  long, 

with  a  square  socket,  found  in  1849  with  others 

aimilar,  in  making  the  South  Wales  Hailway, 

in  Great  Wood,||  St.  Fagan'a,  Glamorganshire. 

The  loop  is  badly  cast,   being  filled  up  with 

Canon  GreenweU  has  a  colt  of  this  typo  (4 
inehee),  found  at  Llandysilio,  Denbighshire, 
with  two  others  having  three  somewhat  con- 
verging ribs  (3^  inches  and  3}  inches),  a  socketed 
knife,  and  part  of  a  spear-head. 

Two  others  (5^  inches  and  4f  inches)  wero 
found  with  part  of  a  looped  palstave  %  and  a 
waste  piece  from  a  casting,  and  lumps  of  mctnl, 
on  Kenidjack  Cliff,  Cornwall.  Another  (4 
inches)  from  Cornwall  is  in  the  British  Mu- 
seum. One  from  Sedgemoor,  Somersetshire,  ia 
in  the  Taunton  Museum. 

The  three-ribbed  type  occurs  occasionally  in  France.  Examples  are  in 
the  Muaeums  of  Amiens,  Toulouse,  Clermont  Ferrand,  Poitiers,  and  other 
towns.  Three  vertical  ribs  are  of  common  occurrence  on  celts  from  Hun- 
gary and  Styria. 

In  some  rare  examples  the  three  ribs  converge  as  they  go  down  the 
blade.  One  such  is  shown  in  Fig.  127.  The  original  is  in  the  possession 
of  Sir  A.  A.  Hood,  Bart.,  and  was  found  with  twenty-seven  other  socketed 


.— llTiifild.jf-Obu.  I 


•  Proc.  See.  Ant.,  2nd  S., 
;  Siui.  Anh.  Call.,  vol.  ix 
I  -  HonB  Fot»Io«,"  pi.  V.  I 


i  Prac.  . 
V  Jeura 


Rog.  Init.  Con.,  No.  206. 


120 


SOCKETED   CELTS 


[CHAF.  ' 


celts,  some  of  oval  and  some  of  square  Beotion,  two  palstaTee,  tro  ffonges, 
two  daggers,  twelve  spear-heads,  and  numerous  &agmeuta  of  oelts  and 
leaf-shaped  swords,  as  well  as  rough  metal  and  the  refuse  jets  from  cast- 
ings. The  whole  lay  together  about  two  feet  below  the  sarface  at  Wick 
Park,*  Stogursey,  Somerset. 

in  other  rare  instances  there  is  a  transverse  bead  ruimiiig  across  the 
blade  below  the  three  vertical  ribs.  The  celt  shown  in  Fig.  1 28  was  found 
near  Guildford,  Surrey,  and  is  in  the  colloctioii  of  Mr.  B.  Fitch,  F.B.A. 

On  other  celts  the  vertical  ribs  are  more  or  less  than  three  in  number. 


Tig.  127.— Btognr«y. 


A  Specimen  with  four  ribs,  also  in  Mr.  Fitch's  collection,  is  engraved  as 
Fig.  129.     It  was  found  at  Prettenham,  Norfolk. 

Others  with  four  ribs  occurred  in  the  find  at  West  Halton,t  Lincoln- 
shire, already  mentioned.  One  was  also  found  at  the  Castle  Hill,| 
Worcester,  and  another  at  Broust  in  Andreas,?  Isle  of  Man.  Examples 
with  three  and  four  ribs  from  Kirk-patrick  and  Kirk-bride,  Isle  of  Man, 
are  in  the  collection  of  Mr.  J.  K.  Wallace  of  Uistington,  "WTiitehayen. 

One  (4  J  inches)  irith  five  ribs  was  found  in  the  hoard  at  Mortlesham, 
Suffolk,  also  already  mentioned. 

One  {3f  inches)  with  six  small  vertical  ribs  on  the  faces,  found  at 
Downton,  near  Salisbury,  is  in  the  Dlackmore  Museum.     In  a  celt  with 

•  Froe.  Soc.  Ant.,  2nd  S.,  vol.  v.  p.  *27.  pi-  i-  3.  t  -ireh.  Journ.,  vol.  i.  p.  69. 

;  Allies,  "Wore.,"  p.  IB,  pi.  i.  1.         j  ■•  Ist  Eep.  Arch.  Comin.  I.  of  M..'^  pi.  iv.  I. 


WITH    RIBS   ENDING    IK    PELLETS. 


121 


•qnm  locket  from  the  Carlton  Eode  find  there  are  traces  of  six  ribs  on 
one  of  the  faces  only.  This  speinmen,  in  my  ova  collection,  is  in  good 
Koditiou,  and  the  probability  is  in  favour  of  this  almost  complete  oblito- 
ntion  of  the  pattern  being  due  to  a  succession  of  moulds  having  been 
fanned,  each  rather  more  indistinct  than  the  one  before  it,  in  which  the 
nodd  that  served  for  the  mould  was  cast. 

Celts  doMlj  resembling  Fig.  129  are  in  the  museoma  at  Nantes  and 
Kirbonne.* 

Aa  an  instance  of  a  celt  having  only  two  of  these  vertical  ribs  upon  it, 
I  may  mention  a  larfi;e  one  in  my  own  collection  (4  J  inches)  found  in  the 


Fig.  lao.— Bir- 

lale  (rf  FortUnd.  The  mouth  of  the  socket  is  oval,  but  the  external  faces 
are  flat,  the  aidee  being  rounded.  The  ribs  run  about  2^  inches  down  the 
faces,  but  the  metal  la  too  much  oxidised  to  see  whether  they  end  in 
pelleta  or  no. 

It  is  not  nnfrequently  the  case  that  the  riba  thus  terminate  in  roundels 
or  pelletB.  That  from  the  Fens,  near  Ely,  which  has  been  kindly  lent  me 
by  Mr.  Karshall  Fisher,  and  is  shown  in  Fig.  130,  is  of  this  kind,  though 
the  pellets  are  bo  indistinct  as  to  have  escaped  the  eye  of  the  engraver. 
This  celt  is  remarkable  for  the  unusually  broad  and  heavy  moulding 
at  the  top.  The  notches  in  the  edge,  which  the  engraver  has  reproduced, 
are  of  modem  origin. 

The  celt  from  Gaston,  Norfolk,  shown  in  Fig.  131,  has  also  the  three 
•  " Matfrinnx,"  vol.  v.  pi.  ii.  H. 


122  SOCKETED   CET.T3  fcHAP.  V. 

ribs  ending  in  pelletn,  but  there  are  short  diagonal  lines  branching  in 
eac)i  direction  from  the  central  rib  near  the  top. 

I  have  another  of  the  same  kind,  but  longer,  and  without  the  di^onal 
lines,  from  Thetford,  Suffolk. 

A  celt  of  this  type  is  in  the  Stockholm  Museum. 

In  Pigs,  132  and  133  are  shown  two  celts  of  this  class,  one  with  five  short 
ribs  ending  in  pellets,  from  the  Carlton  Bode  find,  and  the  other  with  five 
longer  ribs  ending  in  larger  roundels,  from  Fomham,  near  Buiy  St. 
Edmunds.  The  latter  was 
bequeathed  to  me  by  my 
valued  friend,  the  late  Mr. 
J.  W.  Flower,  F.G.8. 

It  will  be  observed  that 
in  the  Fomham  celt  the 
first  and  last  ribs  fonn 
headings  at  the  an^ea  of 
the  square  shaft.  In  the 
other  none  of  the  beads 
come  to  the  edge  of  the 
face.  I  have  a  oelt  like 
Fig.  133,  but  shorter  (4 
incheB),  from  the  hoard 
found  in  Beach  Fen,  al- 
ready mentioned.  Another 
(4^  inches),  in  all  respects 
like  Fig.  133,  except  that 
the  outer  ribs  are  not  at  the 
angles,  was  found  at 
Urough,*  near  Castleton, 
Derbyshire,  and  is  in  the 
Bateman  Collection,  where 
is  also  another  (4^  inches) 
from  the  Peak  Forest,  Der- 
byshire. Canon  Oreenwell, 
F.E.S.,  has  one  {4i  inches) 
from  Broughton,  near  Mal- 
ton,  on  one  face  of  which 
there  are  only  four  ribs, 
and  in  the  place  where 
the  central  nb  would  terminate,  a  ring  omauiont.  The  other  face  of 
the  celt  has  only  four  ribs  at  regular  inter\'(il8,  ending  in  pellets. 
Another,  similar  (5  inches),  was  found  in  the  Thames,  near  Erith.f  I 
have  seen  another  rather  more  hexagonal  in  eoctiou,  which  was  found 
in  the  Cambridge  Fens. 

Colts  with  vertical  ribs  ending  in  pellets  are  occasionally  found  in 
France.  One  from  Lutz  (Euro  et  Loir)  is  in  the  museum  at  Chateaudun  ■ 
otljers  are  in  that  of  Toulouse.  Another  with  four  ribs,  found  at 
Cascastel,  is  in  the  museum  at  Narbonuo.  Canon  Urocn\v(<ll  has  one 
from  rOrieut,  Brittanj-. 

I  havo  a  RmaU  oue  like  Fig.  120  in  form,  but  barely  3  tucbes  long, 

•  Batemau'B  "  Calaloguc,"  p.  74;  Marriolt's  "Ant.  of  Lvme"  (ISlOl  ii  3m 
t  Arfh.  Ju»r«.,  vol.  iviii.  p.  137.  ''  '  ' 


Fig.  13V,— Caribju  Rode.    { 


Pig.  las.— Fornhftin.    \ 


WITH    RIBS   AND   PELLETS   ON    TIIE    FACES. 


123 


found  near  Saumnr  (Heine  et  Loire).  It  has  fire  ribs,  arranged  aa  on 
Kg.  133. 

Ad  example  with  a  far  larger  array  of  vertical  ribs  than  usual  is  shown 
b  Fig.  134.  The  ribs  are  arranged  in  groups  of  three,  and  each  termi- 
nilea  in  a  small  pellet.  The  outer  lines  are  so  close  to  the  angles  of  the 
cdt  as  almost  to  merge  in  them.  This  instrument  was  found  at  Fen 
Citton,  Cambridge,  andis  now  in  the  collection  of  Canon  Greenwell,  F.E.8. 

On  some  celts  there  is,  besidee  the  row  of  roundels  or  pellets  at  the  end 
of  the  ribs,  a  second  row  a  little  higher  up,  as  is  shown  in  Fig.  135, 
vhich  represents  a  specimen  in  the  British  Museum,  from  Bottisbam 


Lode,  Cambridge.  The  sides  of  this  celt  are  not  flat,  but  somewhat 
ridged,  so  that  in  it«  upper  part  it  presents  an  irregular  hexagon  in 
section.  There  are  ribs  running  down  the  angles,  with  indications  of 
terminal  pellets. 

In  the  Warrington  Museum  is  a  curious  variety  of  the  celt  with  the 
three  vertical  ribs  ending  in  pellets,  which  by  the  kindness  of  the  trustees 
of  the  museiim  I  have  engraved  as  Fig.  136.  It  will  be  seen  that  in 
addition  to  the  vertical  ribs  there  is  a  double  series  of  chevrons  over  the 
upper  part  of  the  blade.  The  metal  is  somewhat  oxidised,  and  the  pattern 
is  mat^  rather  more  distinct  in  the  engraving  than  it  is  in  the  original. 


124  SOCKETED   CBLT9  [cHAP.  V. 

This  celt  has  already  been  fif^ured  on  a  emaUer  acftle,  and  waa  found  at 
Winwick,*  near  Warrmgton,  Ijancashire. 

An  omamentatioa  of  nearly  the  same  character,  but  witiiout  pellets  at 
the  end  of  the  ribs,  occurs  on  a  socketed  celt  from  Kiew.t  Buesia. 

The  vertical  ribs  or  lines  occasionally  end  in  ring  ornaments  or 
circles  with  a  central  pellet,  like  the  astronomical  symbol  for  the 
sun  O.  Next  to  the  cross  this  ornament  is,  perhaps,  the  simplest 
and  most  easily  made,  for  a  notched  flint  could  be  used  as  a  pair 
of  compasses  to  produce  a 
circle  with  a  well-marked 
centre  on  almost  any  ma- 
terial, however  hard.  We 
find  these  ring  ornaments 
in  relief  on  many  of  the 
coins  of  the  Ancient  Bri- 
tons, and  in  intaglio  on 
numerous  articles  formed 
of  bone  and  metal,  which 
belong  to  the  Bomas  and 
Saxon  perioda  On  Ita- 
lian palstaves  they  are 
the  commonest  orna- 
ments. But  though  so 
frequent  on  metallic  anti- 
quities of  the  latter  part 
of  the  Bronze  Age,  it  is 
remarkable  that  the  orna- 
ment is  of  very  rare  oc- 
currence on  any  of  the 
pottery  which  is  kno  vn  to 
belong  to  that  period. 

A  good  example  from  Kingston,  Surrey,  of  a  celt  with  ring  ornaments 
at  the  end  of  the  ribs  is  in  the  Britiah  Museum,  and  is  shown  in  Fig.  137. 
Canon  Greonwell  possesses  a  nearly  similar  celt  (5  inches)  from  Seamer 
Carr,  Yorkshire,  ttie  angles  of  which  are  ribbed  or  beaded.  A  socketed 
celt  with  the  same  ornamentation,  but  with  pellets  having  a  central  boss 
instead  of  the  ring  ornaments,  is  in  the  museum  at  Nantes. t  It  was 
found  in  Brittany. 

Some  of  the  Brittany  celts  like  Fig.  120  have  one  ring-ornament  on  each 
face,  composed  of  two  concentric  circles  and  a  central  pullet. 

•  Arch.  Alloc.  JoiirH.,  vol.  XT.  pi.  iiiv.  7,  p.  236;  Arrh.  Jonrn.,  vol.  xv.  p.  168. 
t  Chaotro,  "  Age  du  Bronze,"  2ine  pBrtio,  p.  284,  fig.  81 ;  Mem.  da  AnI.  du  KorJ. 
1872— 7,  p.  116. 
X  Chantre,  "  Age  du  Bronze,"  2mc  partic,  p,  292,  Gg.  13S. 


ng.  137.— Elngaton. 


WITH    RIBB   AND    KING    OKXAMSNTS. 


125 


On  a  celt  found  at  Cayton  Carr,  Yorkshire,  and  in  the  collection  of 
Canon  Greenwell,  F.R.8.,  there  is  a  douhle  tow  of  rin^  ornaments  at  the 
end  of  the  three  ribs.  Below  the  principal  moulding  at  the  top  of  the  celt 
is  a  band  of  four  raised  beads  bv  way  of  additional  ornament  It  te 
shown  in  Fig.  138.  A  nearly  sim^ar  specimen  is  in  the  Museum  of  the 
Society  of  Antiquaries  of  Newcastle-on-Tyne. 

In  a  very  remarkable  specimen  from  Lakenheath,*  Suffolk,  preserved 
in  the  British  Museum  and  engraved  as  Vig.  139,  there  are  three  lines 
fotmed  of  rather  oval  pellets,  terminating  in  ring  ornaments,  and  alter- 
nating  with  them  two  plain  beaded  ribs  ending  in  small  pellets.  There 
are  traces  of  a  cable  moulding  round  the  neck  above. 


In  another  variety,  also  in  the  Britieh  Museum,  and  shown  in  Fig.  140, 
the  three  ribs  ending  in  ring  ornaments  spring-  from  a  transverse  bead, 
between  which  and  the  moulding  round  the  mouth  are  two  otlier  vertical 
beads,  about  midway  of  the  spaces  between  the  lower  ribs.  It  is  probable 
that  Uiis  celt  was  found  in  the  Thames. 

Another  of  remarkably  analogous  character  was  certainly  found  in  the 
Thames  near  Kingston,!  Bn*^  i^  now  in  the  Museum  of  the  Society  of 

•  Frot.  Soe.  Ant.,  and  S.,  vol.  i.  p.  106. 

t  Fnt.  Soc.  ArU.,  vol.  U.  p.  101 ;  2nd  a.,  vol.  i.  p.  S3.  See  sbo  Arrk.,  vol.  xii. 
p.  4VI;  and  Fret.  S«t.  Anl.,  vol.  i.  p.  21. 


126  SOCKETED   CELTS  [  CHAP.  V. 

Antiquaries.  It  is  shown  in  Fig.  141,  On  it  are  only  two  descending 
ribs,  ending  in  ring  ornaments,  tlie  pellets  in  the  centre  of  which  are 
almost  invisible;  but  above  the  transverse  bead  are  three  ascending  ribs, 
which  alternate  with  those  that  descend.  All  these  ribs  are  double 
instead  of  single. 

In  some  rare  iostances  there  are  ring  ornaments  both  at  the  top  and  at 
the  bottom  of  the  vertical  lines,  as  is  seen  on  one  of  the  fbces  of  the 
curious  celt  shown  in  Fig.  142,  where  the  usual  ribs  are  replaced  by  rows 
of  two  (M-  three  slightly  raised  lines.  On  the  other  face  it  will  be  seen 
that  the  ornamentation  is  of  a  different  character,  with  one  ring  orna- 


Flg.142.— KiDgiloa.  i 


ment  at  top  and  tliree  below,  the  two  outer  of  wliich  aro  connected  with 
ribs  diverging  from  two  curved  linoa  above.  The  original  was  found, 
with  three  others  less  ornniuonted,  at  Kingston,*  Surrey,  and  is  in  tlio 
BritiBh  Museum. 

A  nearly  similar  celt  from  Scotland  is  dcHCribed  at  page  137. 

In  another  very  rare  specimen  the  vortical  lines  are  replaced  by  two 
double  chevi-ons  of  pellets,  the  upper  one  reversed.  Tliere  is  still  a  ring 
ornament  at  the  base,  and  lines  of  pellets  running  down  the  raai^ins  of 
the  blade.  This  spocimpn.  shown  in  I'ig.  14a,  was  found  in  the  Thames,! 
and  is  in  tlie  coll.'ction  of  Mr.  T.  Laj-ton,  F.S.A. 


•  P^ngraved  aleo  in  "Hora)  Ferales,"  pi.  i 


+  Prae.  Sat.  AnI.,  2nd  fi., 


.  p.  4^S 


VARIOrSLY   OBNAMENTED, 


la  Another  equally  rare  form  there  is  a  treble  ring  ornament  at  the 
Imttom  of  a  single  central  beaded  rib,  and  at  the  t^  two  "  flanchea," 
represented  hy  double  lines,  as  eliovn  in  Fig.  144.  Tbe  neck  of  this  celt 
is  in  Bection  a  flattened  hexagon.  It  wua  found  at  Givendale,  near 
Pocklington,  Yorkshire,  E.  E.,  and  is  now  in  the  British  Muaeum. 

In  the  celt  shown  in  Pig.  145  the  central  rib  terminateB  in  a  pellet, 
snd  there  are  three  curved  ribs  on  either  side.  In  this  case  the  section  of 
the  neck  of  the  blade  is  nearly  circular.  The  specimen  is  in  the  British 
Museum,  and  was  probably  found  near  Cambridge,  as  it  formed  part  of 
the  Ut«  Mr.  Lichfield's  collection.  A  celt  ornamented  in  the  same  manner, 
but  without  the  central  rib,  was  found  noaj-  Mildenhall,  Suffolk,  and  is 
in  the  collection  of  Mr.  H.  Prigg. 

Another  (4  inches),  also  in  the  British  Museum,  has  two  ribs  on  each 


#    #    •• 


margin,  parallel  to  the  sides,  as  seen  in  Fig.  146.  It  was  found  near 
filandfoi^,  Dorsetshire,  in  company  with  unfinished  gouges,  and  ia 
remarkable  on  account  of  its  having  been  cast  so  thin  that  it  seems 
incapable  of  standing  any  hard  work. 

It  seems  probable  that  the  instruments  from  Blandford,  now  in  the 
British  Museum,  formed  part  of  a  large  hoard,  for  in  the  collection  of  the 
late  Mr.  Medhurst,  of  Weymouth,  were  a  dozen  or  more  of  much  the  same 
ontline  and  character,  liie  section  at  the  neck  is  a  dattened  hexagon. 
8ome  have  a  straight  rib  on  each  of  the  sloping  sides,  as  well  as  two 
curved  lines  on  the  flat  face.  Others  have  three  lines,  one  straight  and 
two  cuiT'ed,  on  the  fiat  face,  each  ending  in  a  pellet ;  and  others  again 
have  merely  a  central  line  on  the  flat  face. 

A  celt  of  nearly  the  some  outline  as  Fig.  146  (4J  inches),  found  at 
Gembling,    Tork^ire,  E.  B.,  has  slight  flutings  down  the  angles  for 


128  SOCKETED   CELTS  [CHAP.  V. 

about  two-thirds  of  its  length.  It  is  in  the  collection  of  Canon  Green- 
TFell.  F.R.8. 

Another  of  these  instrumenta,  ornamented  in  the  same  manner,  but 
havinK  a  ctirred  edge,  is  shown  in  Fig.  147,  from  an  original  in  the 
Briti^  Uuseum.  It  formed  part  of  the  Cooke  Collection  from  Paraona- 
town,  King's  Counfy,  but  I  doubt  ita  being  really  Irish. 

A  rare  form  of  socketed  celt  is  shown  in  Fig.  148.  The  original  was 
foiuid  in  the  Fens,  near  Barrington,  Cambridge,  and  is  in  my  own  col- 
lection. It  has  at  the  top  of  the  blade,  below  the  moulding,  a  shield- 
shaped  ornament,  of  mui^  the  same  character  as  that  on  the  palstaves, 
like  Fig.  60,  but  in  this  case  formed  by  indented  lines  cast  in  the 
metaL 


#11^ 


m 


IrSandt    |  Bami 


I  noiuulon.     i 


Another,  of  unusiially  narrow  form,  found  at  Thames  Ditton,*  is  in 
the  Museum  of  the  Society  of  Antiquaries. 

A  broader  celt,  ornamented  with  a  rereraed  chevron,  formed  of  three 
raised  ribs,  and  with  short  single  ribs  on  each  side,  is  shown  in  Fig.  149. 
It  was  found  at  Hounslow,  with  a  flat  celt,  a  palstave,  and  a  socketed 
cult  like  Fig.  U2,  and  is  now  in  the  Britisli  Museum. 

A  more  common  form  has  a  circular  socket  and  moulded  top,  below 
which  the  neck  of  the  blade  is  an  almost  regular  octagou.  That  shown 
in  Fig.  150  is  in  my  own  collection,  and  was  found  at  Wallingford,} 
Berks,  in  company  ■with  a  socketed  gouge,  a  tangf^l  cliiael  (Fig.  193),  a 
socketed  knife,  and  a  two-edged  cutting  tool  or  razor  (Fig.  2fi9). 

■.  AnI.,  vol.  iv.  303. 


■    OCTAGONAL   SECTION. 


129 


One  nearly  sinular,  suppoBed  to  have  been  fouud  in  Yorkshire, 
t(^;«ther  with  the  mould  in  which  it  was  cast,  is  eneraved  in  the  Arckao- 
Itgia.*  The  mould  was  regarded  as  a  case  in  which  the  instrument  was 
kept.  Another  of  the  same  bind  seems  to  have  been  found,  with  other 
telts  and  fragments  of  swords  and  spears,  at  Biltan,t  Torkehiro.  I  have 
Men  another,  4  inches  long,  from  the  hoaid  found  at  Martlesham,  Suffolk, 
■Iresdy  mentioned.  A  broken  specimen,  found  with  a  socketed  gouge 
ud  an  article  like  Fig.  493,  at  Bosebeny  Topping,^  in  CQev^aud, 
ToAshire,  appears  to  be  of  this  kind.  Another  (5  inches  long),  found 
it  Ifinster,  Kent,  is  in  the  Mayer  Collection  at  Liverpool.  I  have  also 
one  from  the  Cambridge  Fens. 

In  the  coUectioQ  of  Canon  Groonwell,  F.E.S.,  are  three  socketed  celta 
■ith  octagonal  necks,  which  were  found  with 
lAiiers,  txrth  plain  and  having  three  ribs  on  tho 
lace,  together  with  a  looped  palstave,  at  Hoxey, 
Lincolnshire.  Two  of  these  are  of  the  usual  tjrte, 
bat  the  third  (3^ -inches)  is  shorter  and  broader, 
resembling  in  outline  the  common  Irish  form, 
Fig.  167.  A  celt  apparently  of  tlie  type  of  Fig.  150, 
but  with  a  double  bead  round  the  top,  was  found 
in  the  Severn,  at  Holt,§  Worcestershire.  In  the 
FauBsett  Oollection,  now  at  Liverpool,  is  a  celt  of 
this  kind,  with  the  angles  engradod  or  "milled." 
This  was  probably  found  in  Kent. 

A  celt  of  this  type,  found  at  Orgelet,  Jura,  is 
figured  by  Chantre,  ||  as  well  as  one  from  the  Lac 
ia  Boniget.^  They  have  also  been  fouud  in  the 
Department  of  La  Manche.**  I  have  one  from  tho 
bend  found  at  Dreoil,  near  Amiens,  the  neck  of 
vhit^  is  decagonal. 

N«aily  the  same  form  has  been  found  in  Swe- 

Another  example,  more  trumpet-mouthed,  is 
shovn  in  Fig.  151,  from  the  eoUeotion  of  Canon 
OreanweU,  F.B.S.  It  was  found  in  1868  in  drain- 
ing at  Newham,  Northumberland.  I  have  another 
of  nearly  the  same  form  (4}  inches),  fromCoveney, 
in  the  Isle  of  Ely.  Another,  found  at  Stanhope.^ 
Durham,  without  loop,  and  with  two  holes  near 
the  top,  was  regarded  as  an  instrument  for  sharpen-  Fig.  ifti.-NBi.hiuii.  i 
tog  spear-heads. 

Occasionally  the  neck  of  the  blade  is  hexagonal  instead  of  octagonal. 
In  one  found  at  'l^-Mawr,§S  on  Holyhead  Mountain,  Anglesoa,  the  hexa- 
gonal character  is  continued  to  the  mouth.  The  socket  is  of  an  irregularly 
Mjture  form.     It  was  found  with  a  socketed  knife,  a  tanged  chisel,  spear- 

•  Vol.  T.  l(»,pl.  vii,6. 

t  Arcli.  Auoe.  Jtvm.,  vol.  t.  p.  349  ;  Bateman's  Catal.,  p.  76,  No.  60. 

J  Areh.  Seat.,  vol.  W.  88  ;  Arch.  JfSliaiia.  vol.  ii.  p,  213. 

S  Allien  p.  H9,  pL  iv.  8.        II  "  AUram,"'  pi.  x,  *. 

^  Op.  cit.,  pi,  1».  8.  •"  iHm.  Soc.  Ani.  JVwflt.,  1827—8,  pi.  xvi.  I. 

'  ■   "  Cong.  OTih.,"  Bologna  vol.  j 
■re*.  JBWM,  '    ■    ■         ■-      ' 


i:  Arek.  JSlUnm,  vol.  i.  p.  13.  pi.  ii.  7. 
{}  Anh.  JimrH.,  vol.  zziv.  266,  pi.  fig.  'i. 


130  SOCKETED   CELTS  [cHAF.  V. 

beads,  &c.,  which  are  now  in  the  BritJah  Museum.  Thiafonaoccun  mora 
frequently  in  Ireland.  A  nearly  similar  celt  has  been  found  in  the  Lake 
of  Geneva.* 

Another  celt,  with  the  neck  irreg^ilarly  octa^nal,  but  with  a  series  of 
moulding  round  the  mouth  of  the  socket,  is  shown  in  Fig.  152.  The 
original  le  in  the  ooUection  of  Canon  Greenwell,  and  formed  part  of  the 
hoard  found  at  Westow,  in  the  East  Biding  of  Torkahire,  ateady  men- 
tioned at  p.  118. 

In  Fig.  153  is  shown,  not  on  my  usual  scale  of  one-half,  but  of  Dearly 
the  actual  size,  a  Teiy  remarkable  celt,  which  was  found  in  the  bed  of  the 


Fig.  162.— We<tow.   }         Fig.  163.— W«nd«worth. 


Thames  t  near  Wandsworth,  and  was  presented  to  the  Archteological 
Institute.  The  original  is,  unfortunately,  no  longer  forthcoming.  It  was 
4}  inches  long,  and,  besides  its  general  singularity  of  form,  presented  the 
peculiar  feature  of  having  the  hole  of  the  loop  in  the  same  direction  as  the 
socket  of  the  celt,  instead  of  its  being  as  usual  at  right  angles  to  the  blade. 
Socketed  celts  with  a  loop  on  the  face  instead  of  on  the  side  are  of  ex- 
ceedingly rare  occurrence  either  in  Britain  or  elsewhere.     That  shown  in 


WITH  THE  LOOP  ON   ONE  FACE.  181 

Fig.  154  is  in  the  Museum  at  Wisbech,  and  was  found  in  company  with 
three  socketed  celts,  two  gouges,  a  hammer,  and  a  leaf-shaped  spear- 
head at  Whittlesea.  The  socket  shows  within  it  four  vertical  ribs  at  equal 
distanceB,  with  diagonal  branches  from  them.  These  latter  may  have 
been  intended  to  facilitate  the  escape  of  air  from  the  mould.  I  am 
indebted  to  the  managers  of  the  Museum  for  the  loan  of  the  specimen  for 
cngraTing. 

The  type  has  occasionally  been  found  in  the  Lake-dwellings  of  Savoy. 
In  the  Museum  of  Chamb^ry  *  there  are  three  examples  from  the  Lac  du 
Bourget,  and  I  possess  another  specimen  from  the  same  locality.  Another 
(about  4  inches),  from  la  Balme,f  Is^e,  is  in  the  Museum  at  Lyons ; 
it  is  more  spud-shaped  than  the  En^sh  example.  Another,  of  different 
form,  was  in  the  Lamaud  hoard,  J  Jura.  One  has  also  been  found  at 
AaTemier,§  in  the  Lake  of  Neuchitel.  Another  (4  inches),  in  the  late 
H.  Troyon's  collection,  was  found  at  Echallens,  Canton  Yaud. 

One  with  curved  plates  on  the  sides,  like  Fig.  155,  but  having  the  loop 
on  one  face,  was  found  near  Avignon,  and  is  now  in  the  British  Museimi. 
It  has  a  round  neck  with  a  square  socket.  A  smaller  one,  of  nearly  the 
same  form,  was  foimd  in  a  hoard  at  Pontpoint,  near  the  River  Oise. 
Another,  with  curved  indentations  on  the  sides,  from  the  department  of 
Jura,||  is  in  the  museum  at  Toulouse.  Socketed  celts  with  a  loop  on  the 
face  have  been  found  in  Siberia.^ 

In  some  socketed  celts  the  reminiscence  of  the  ''flanches"  or  wings  upon 
the  palstayeB,  of  which  I  have  spoken  in  an  earlier  part  of  this  diaptor, 
lias  survived  in  a  peculiar  manner,  there  being  somewhat  hollowed  oval 
projections  upon  each  side  of  the  blade,  that  g^ve  the  appearance  of  the 
"flanchee"  on  the  face,  but  at  the  same  time  produce  indentations  in  the 
eitenial  outline  of  the  instrument. 

This  will  be  seen  in  Fig.  155,  which  was  foxmd  with  the  palstave 
(Fig.  88),  the  socketed  celt  (Fig.  157),  and  other  objects  at  Nettleham,** 
Bear  Lincoln,  as  already  described  (page  93).  Another  of  the  same  class  is 
laid  to  have  been  found  in  a  timiulus  on  Frettenham  Common, ff  Norfolk. 
Another,  shown  in  Fig.  156,  was  in  the  Crofton  Croker  Collection.  All 
thsae  are  now  in  the  British  Museum.  The  second  celt  from  Nettieham 
(Fig.  167)  shows  onW  the  indented  outline  without  any  representation 
of  ttie  oval  plates.  Ine  nearest  approach  in  form  to  these  celts  which  I 
have  met  with  is  to  be  seen  in  some  from  the  South  of  France.  These 
are,  however,  generally  without  loops.  I  have  two  from  the  departments  of 
Haute  Loire  and  Is^.  One  from  Eibiers,  in  the  department  of  the  Hautes 
Alpes,  is  in  the  museum  at  St.  Omer.    Another  is  in  the  museum  at  Metz. 

A  socketed  celt,  found  at  Aninger,  and  now  in  the  Antiken  Cabinet  at 
Vienna,  has  large  oval  plates  on  each  of  its  sides,  which  nearly  meet 
npon  the  foces. 

In  the  collection  of  the  late  Mr.  Brackstone  was  a  remarkable  celt,  exhi- 
biting a  modification  of  this  form.  It  is  said  to  have  been  found  with  a 
large  socketed  celt  with  three  mouldings  round  the  mouth,  and  a  looped 

•  Perrin,  "  Et.  pi^h.  de  la  Sav.,*'  pi.  x.  4,  5 ;  "  Exp.  Arch,  do  la  Sav.,**  1878,  pi.  vi. 
210;  Chantre,  '*  Aibam,"  pL  Iv.  3. 
t  Chantre,  "Album,"  pi.  x.  2.  J  Op,  eit.^  pi.  xl.  bis.  3. 

i  Orosa,  **  Deox  Stations,"  pi.  i.  17. 

q  '•  Hat^riaux,"  vol.  xiv.  pi.  ix.  10.  IF  **  Materiaux,"  vol.  i.  p.  463. 

••  Areh.  Joitm.,  vol.  xyiii.  p.  160,  whence  this  and  fig,  157  are  borrowed. 
ff  Arth,  A990C.  J<nirm.f  vol.  iv,  163 ;  Arch.  Inst.,  Norwich  vol.  p.  xxvi. 

K    2 


133  SOCKETED  CELTS  [cHAF.  V. 

palstave  with  tluee  ribs  below  tbn  atop-ndge,  near  Ulleskelf,  Torkihire. 


Fig.  IM.  -CiDka  CoUcctloii. 


ng.  1ST.— NctUAvB. 


Mr.  Brackstone  printed  a  lithographic  plate  of  the  three,  from  which  utd 
from  an  engraving  in  tlie  ArehttohgitA 
Journal*  Fig.  158  is  talcen.  It  wiU  be 
observed  that  this  celt  is  elaborately  ot- 
namentod,  even  on  the  ring,  either  by 
(ingraving  or  punching.  The  origjnal 
is  now  in  the  Blachmoro  Museum  at 
Salisbury. 

A  celt  of  closely  allied  charocter,  with 
the  lower  part  of  the  blade  and  the 
C-shapeil  flunchoB  similar  to  that  from 
Ulleskelf,  with  the  exception  of  the 
chevron  ornament,  is  said  to  have  been 
also  found  in  Torishire.  A  woodcut. 
from  a  drawing  by  M,  Du  Noyer,  will 
bo  found  in  the  ArehteoUyieal  Ji»tm^.\ 
Tho  iipper  part  is  rectangular  and 
plain,  without  any  moulding  round 
the  top,  and  there  is  no  loop.  The 
original  is  6  inches  long.  In  general 
appearance  and  character  this  celt  ap- 
proaches those  of  Etruscan  and  Italian 
origia ;  but  I  see  no  reason  why  it  may 
CTToncoualj  stated  to  bo  a>out  4  inchea  in  a  sub- 


Fig.  tM.— miMkclI. 


•  Vol.  Tiii.  p.  91, 

sequent  yoliimn  (vol.  j 

t  Vol.  viii.  91. 


WITHOUT  LOOPS. 


not  liftve  been  totind,  as  stated,  in  Britain,  though,  so  for  as  Z  baov,  it  is 
nnique  of  ita  kind. 

The  next  class  of  socketed  celts  which  has  to  be  noticed  consists 
of  those  in  vhich  tho  loop  is  absent.  No  doubt,  in  some  oases, 
this  absence  arises  either  A-om  defective  casting,  or  from  the  loop 
having  been  accidentally  broken  off,  and  all  traces  of  it  removed  ; 
but  in  many  instances  it  is  evident  that  the  tools  were  cast  pur- 
posely without  a  loop.  It  seems  probable  that  many  of  them 
irere  intended  for  use  as  chisels,  and  not  like  the  looped  kinds  as 
axes  or  h&tchets.  The  similarity  between  the  looped  and  the 
looplesB  varieties  is  so  great  that  I  have  thought  it  best  to  de- 
sCTibe  some  of  the  instruments  which  may  be  regarded  as  un- 
doubtedly chisels  in  this  place  rather  than  in  the  chapter  devoted 
to  chisels,  in  which,  however, 
snch  of  the  socketed  kinds  as  are 
nairow  at  the  edge,  and  do  not 
eipaad  like  the  common  forms 
of  edt,  will  be  found  described. 

The  Bmall  tool  ahown  in  Fig.  loO 
OUT  lafely  be  regarded  as  a  cliisel. 
It  doee  not  show  the  slightest  trace 
U  erer  having  been  intended  to  have 
a  loop,  and  is  indeed  too  light  for  a 
Iialch^t.  It  was  found  with  a  tanged 
chisel,  a  hammer,  numerous  socketed 
crlts,  and  other  articles,  in  the  hoard 
bom  Beach  Fen,  Cambridge,  already 
mentioned  at  p.  112.  I  have  seen 
toother,  2i  inches  long,  with  a 
somewhat  oval  socket  and  no  loop,  which  was  found  in  Mildenhall  Fen, 
ud  was  in  the  collection  of  the  Itev.  8.  Banks,  of  Cottenham. 

A  longer  celt  of  the  same  character  is  engraved  by  Dr.  Plot.*  It  was 
tent  to  nim  by  Charlea  Cotton,  Esq.,  and  according  to  Plot  "  seems  to 
We  been  the  bead  of  a  Boman  rest  used  to  support  the  lituus,  the 
tranbe-torte,  crooked  trumpet,  or  home  pipe  used  in  the  Boman  armies." 
Anotker  of  nearly  the  same  form  was  found  on  lieonHil],t  near  Camden, 
Qkincestershire. 

A  celt  or  chisel  of  this  character  found  at  Diiren,  in  North  Brabant,  is 
in  the  museum  at  Leyden. 

Another  was  found  at  Zaborowo,  J  in  Posen,  in  a  sepulchral  urn. 

A  celt  of  the  octagonal  form  of  section  and  without  a  loop  is  shown  in 
Kg- 160.  It  formed  part  of  the  great  hoard  found  at  Carlton  Bode,  near 
Attleborougb,  Norfolk,  of  which  some  particulars  have  already  been 
^Tm.    ^e  joint  marks  of  the  moulds  are  stilt  very  distinct  upou  the 


Carlton  Bode. 


"Kit.  Iliat.  Staff.," 


i.  23.  p.  118 


m  80CKETBD  CELTS  ,  [cHAP.  V. 

sides.  This  specimen  is  In  the  Norwich  Museum,  and  was  kindly  lent  by 
the  trustees  for  me  to  have  it  engraved.  A  nearly  similar  Scottish  celt  is 
shown  in  Fiff .  1 65 .  A  celt  from  the  hoard  of  Cumberlow,  near  Baldock,*  has 
been  figured  as  having  no  loop,  but  I  believe  that  this  has  arisen  from  an 
error  of  the  engraver,  as  in  a  drawing  which  I  have  seen  the  loop  is  present. 

One  of  hexagonal  section  and  socket  from  a  hoard  found  on  Earsley 
Common,t  Yorkshire,  in  1735,  is  engraved  as  having  no  loop. 

Celts  without  loops  are  not  imcommon  in  France,  and  are  often  found 
of  small  size  in  Denmark.  { 

Socketed  celts  have  rarely  if  ever  been  found  with  interments  in 
barrows  in  Britain.  Sir  R.  Colt  Hoare  mentions  **  a  little  celt "  as 
having  been  found  with  a  smaH  lance,  and  a  long  pin  with  a  handle, 
all  of  bronze,  near  the  head  of  a  skeleton,  in  a  barrow  on  Overton 
Hill,§  near  Abury,  Wilts.  The  body  had  been  buried  in  the  con- 
tracted attitude,  and  had,  as  was  thought,  been  enclosed  within  the 
trunk  of  a  tree.  It  appears,  however,  from  Dr.  Thumam's 
account,  II  that  this  was  a  flat  and  not  a  socketed  celt.  It  was  a 
celt  like  Fig.  116,  3  J  inches  long,  which  is  reported  to  have  been 
discovered  by  the  late  Rev.  R.  Kirwan  in  a  barrow  on  Broad  Down, 
Farway,Devonshire.ir  It  is  said  to  have  lain  in  the  midst  of  an 
abundant  deposit  of  charcoal  which  was  thought  to  be  the  remains 
of  a  funeral  pyre.  Mr.  Kirwan  informed  Dr.  Thumam  that  there 
was  every  reason  to  believe  that  the  celt  was  deposited  where  found 
at  the  time  of  the  original  interment.  No  bones,  however,  were 
actually  with  the  celt,  which  lay  1 8  inches  from  the  central  cist. 
A  socketed  celt  with  three  vertical  ribs,  like  Fig.  125,  is  also 
said  to  have  been  found  with  a  human  skeleton,  and  two 
uninscribed  ancient  British  coins  of  silver,  at  Cann,**  near 
Shaftesbury,  in  1849.  The  celt  and  coins  are  now  in  the 
collection  of  Mr.  Durden,  of  Blandford.  In  neither  case 
are  the  circumstances  of  the  discovery  absolutely  certain. 
A  curious  instance  of  the  survival  of  the  bronze  celt 
as  an  ornament  or  amulet  is  afforded  by  that  which  was 
found  in  a  barrow  at  Arras,  or  Hessleskew,tt  near  Market 
A^ki^^*  Weighton,  Yorkshire.  It  is  only  an  inch  in  length, 
and  is  shown  full-size  in  Fig.  161.  With  it  was  a  pin 
which  connected  it  with  a  small  light-blue  glass  bead.  It  accom- 
panied  the  contracted  body  of  a  w^oman  laid  in   a  grave,   and 

*  Journ.  Anth.  Irut.y  vol.  vi.  p.  196.  f  Areh.,  vol.  v.  pi.  viii.  7,  p.  114. 

X  Segcsted,  **  Oldsag.  fra  Broholm,"  pi.  zxiii.  8. 

§  "  Anc.  Wilts,"  vol.  ii.  p.  90.  |  Arek.,  vol.  xliii.  443. 

H   Trans.  Dtv.  Attoe,,  YOl.  iv.  p.  SOO,  pL  iL  I. 

*♦  Evans,  ••  Anc.  Britiah  Oofca^'  P,.ltI.L.- ,^  ■ 

ft  Areh.  Jourm.^  voL  XTiii»^||il|HMM|Mgmi^^^  p.  27. 


OF  diiunutiTe  size.  135 

laving  with  it  a  necklace  of  glass  beads,  a  large  amber  bead,  and 
k  brooch,  bracelets,  ring,  tweezers,  and  pin,  apparently  of  bronze, 
lome  of  them  ornamented  with  a  kind  of  paste  or  enamel  The 
natyority  of  the  objects  found  in  the  group  of  barrows  at  Arras, 
9f  which  this  was  one,  seem  to  belong  to  what  Mr  Franks  has 
termed  the  "  Late-Celtic "  period,  or  approximately  to  the  time 
>f  the  Roman  inva«on  of  this  country. 

Socketed  cetts  not  more  than  3  of  an  inch  in  length  have  been 
Found  in  Ireland,  but  with  sockets  large  enough  for  serviceable 
handles,  so  that  they  might  possibly  have  been  used  as  chisels, 
rhe  diminutive  celts,  about  2  inches  in  length,  which  have  been 
found  in  large  numbers  in  Brittany,  and  hare  been  r^arded  by 
French  antiquaries  as  votive  offerii^,  might  also  by  some  possi- 
bility have  served  as  tools ;  but  this  can  hardly  have  been  the 
case  with  the  Arras  specimen.  A  golden  celt 
found  in  Cornwall  is  said  to  have  been  in  i " 
possession  of  the  Earl  of  Falmouth,*  but  nothing 
is  known  of  it  by  the  present  Viscount  Fal- 
mouth, and  the  statement  in  the  "  Barrow  Dig- 
gers" is  probably  erroneous. 

It  will  be  well  to  postpone  the  account  of  the 
different  hoards  of  bronze  objects,  in  which 
socketed  celts  have  been  found  with  other  tools 
and  weapons,  until  I  come  to  treat  of  such  an- 
cient deposits,  though  some  of  them  have  al- 
ready been  mentioned.  kS^jHSt.    ^ 

Turning  now  to  the  socketed  celts  which  have 
been  discovered  in  Scotland,  we  6nd  them  to  present  a  considerable 
variety  of  types,  though  hardly  so  great  as  that  exhibited  by  those 
irom  Ei^luid,  and    the  recorded  instances  of  their  finding  are 
comparatively  few  in  number. 

In  Fie- 1 62  is  ahown  a  socketed  celt  of  the  plain  kind  wliich  was  found  at 
Bell's  Uills,!  on  the  Water  of  Leith,  Edinburgh,  in  company  with  those 
g^iven  OS  Figs.  164  and  165. 

A  celt  found  in  a  bog  between  Stranraer  and  Portpatrick,  Wiston- 
shire,}  like  Fig.  162,  but  with  a  bead  at  the  level  of  the  top  of  the  loop, 
has  been  figured. 

The  nearly  square-necked  celt  shown  in  Fig.  163  is  of  a  broader  type 
than  ueual,  and  was  found  at  North  Knapdale,§  ArgyleBhJre. 

■  "  Barrow  Digijers,"  1839,  p.  72. 

t  For  the  use  of  tlisae  cut*  I  am  mdebted  U>  the  Societ}'  of  AutiquwiM  of  Scotland. 

J  '.  Ayr  and  Wigton  CoU.,"  toI.  ii.  p.  10. 

}  Fr«t.  Soe.  Ant.,  2iid  S.,  toI.  tu.  p.  IBS. 


J  have  been  the 

9 


136  SOCKETED   CELTS  [CHAP.  V. 

Soclccted  celtB  with  oval  necks,  and  rsBembling  the  commcm  Irisli  type, 
Fig.  167,  in  form,  have  occasionally  been  found  in  Scotland.  One  (3J 
inches),  with  a  double  moulding  round  the  mouth,  was  found  on  Arthiir'a 
Seat,  Edinburgh.  Another  (3  in^ea)  was  found  wIUi  several  other  socketed 
celts  and  a  spear-head  near  the  Loch  of  Forfar.  One  of  these,  like  Fig. 
ISO,  has  a  round  socket  and  a  twelve-sided  neck. 

A  celt  with  a  long  socket  andnarrow  blade  was  found,  with  spear-heads, 
brouze  armlets,  and  aome  pieces  of  tin,  at  Achtertyre,*  Uorajshire. 

Anotlier  type,  which  appears  to  be  more  especially  Scottish,  has  the 
omamenied  moulding  placed  on  the  neck  of  the  blade  in  such  a  manner 
as  to  run  through  the  loop.  One  of  this  character,  dug  up  near  Samson's 
Bibs.l  Arthur's  Seat,  E^burgh,  has  been  figured  by  frofessor  Daniel 
Wilson,  A  second  {2i  inches),  with  three  raised  bands  passing  through 
the  loop,  was  found  in  the  Forest  of  Birse,^  Aberdeenshire. 


Kg.  i03,-Norlh  KnapiUle.    t  *■«■ 


A  tj'pe  wliich  is  also  common  to  England  is  shown  in  Fig.  164  from 
another  of  the  Boll's  Mills  specimens. 

Others  with  raised  lines  on  the  sides  are  preserved  in  the  museum  at 
Edinburgh.     One  of  these  was  found  near  the  citadel  at  Leith.§ 

One  (;i.^  inches),  ornamented  with  four  longitudinal  lines  on  eacli  face, 
was  found  in  the  parish  of  8outliend,||  Cantire.  Another  (4 J  inches), 
with  traces  of  five  ribs,  three  dowu  tlio  middle  and  two  at  tlie  margins  of 
ench  fn^io,  wns  found  at  Hangingsliaw,^  in  Culler  parish,  Lanarkshire. 

A  third  wit  from  Bell's  MiUs  is  shown  in  Fig.  1C5.  Tlitsis  of  the  variety 
without  the  loop,  and  closely  resembles  tliat  from  the  Carlton  Eode 
hoartl.  Fig.  160,  the  main  ditferenco  being  that  tlie  neck  is  of  decagonal 
iiisti'tiil  of  octHgiiual  Bt'ction. 

MouUIh  I'ur  L-oIta  of  other  patterns  have  also  been  fuund  in  Scutluuil, 


•    Pro.-.  &f.  ^t«t.S.ul.,  vol.  ix 

.  p.  m. 

t  '■  Piuh.  Ann 

J  j:  S.  vf.  S.,  vol.  ii.  p.  1.13. 

i  j:  .v.  .*.  s.. 

II   /'.  .S'.  J.  S.,  v.,1.  iv.  11.  396. 

1  Arfh.  Atsoe.  J-iini.,  vul.  x.\ 

i.pl.xi. 

.1..  111. 

FOCMD   IN    SCOTLAND.  137 

aa  vill  Bnbsequeatly  be  seen.  A  modem  cast  from  some  moulds  fouud 
■t  Boeskeeu,  BoBs-ahire,  has  been  engraved  by  Professor  D.  Wilson.*  It 
is  of  hexagonal  section,  and  is  ornamented  on  each  face  by  two  diverging 
ribs  starting  from,  an  annulet  close  below  tlie  moulding  round  tlie  mouth, 
and  ending  in  two  annulets  about  two-thirds  of  the  way  down  the  blade, 
irhich  expands  considerably,  and  has  a  nearly  flat  edge. 

For  the  use  of  Fig.  166  I  am  indebted  to  the  Councilf  of  the  Ayrshire 
and  WigtoDshire  Arclueological  Association.  The  original  was  found 
in  a  peat^mose  near  the  farm-house  of  Knock  and  Maize,  in  Leswalt 
pariah,  Wigtonshire,  and  is  now  in  the  cabinet  of  the  Earl  of  Stair.     Its 


lig.  iea.-L»nic       1 

analogies  with  that  found  at  Kingston,  Surrey  {Fig.  142),  are  very 
■thkiDg,  while  at  the  same  time  it  closely  resembles  tho  type  exhibit«kl  by 
the  mould  fima  Boss-shire  already  mentioned.  The  occurrence  of  instru- 
ments of  so  rare  a  form  at  such  a  distance  apart  is  very  remarkable ;  but 
it,  as  appears  probable,  the  celts  of  this  type  are  among  the  latest  whiclt 
were  manufactured,  and  may  possibly  belong  even  to  the  Late  Celtic 
period,  their  wide  dissemiuation  is  the  lees  wonderful. 

Socketed  celts  have  been  found  in  very  large  numbers  in  Ireland, 
upwards  of  two  hundred  being  preserved  in  the  Museum  of  the 
•  "l^'h.  Ann,  8ait.,"  vo).  i.  p.  384,  Bg.  61.  t  "  CuUctUonB,"  vol.  ii.  p.  U. 


138  SOCKBTBD  CELTS  [cHAP.  V. 

Royal  Irish  Academy  ;  and  numerous  specimens  are  to  be  seen  in 
other  collections,  hoth  pubhc  and  private.  Mr.  R  Day,  F.S.A.,  of 
Cork,  has  upwards  of  forty  in  his  own  cabinet.  The  Irish  celts 
vary  much  in  size,  the  largest  being  a  little  over  6  inches  long, 
and  the  smallest  less  than  an  inch.  The  most  common  form  is 
oval  at  the  neck,  and  expands  into  a  broad  cutting  edge.  There 
is  usually  some  kind  of  moulding  round  the  mouth,  giving  the  end 
of  the  instrument  a  trumpet-like  appearance.     The  effect  of  the 


Fig.  167.~I»Iuid. 


moulding  is  not  unfrequently  exa^^rated  by  a  hollow  fluting 
round  the  neck,  as  in  Fig.   167. 

Golte  of  this  and  some  of  the  following  types  have  been  figured  by 
Vallanoey.* 

In  that  shown  aa  Fig.  168  there  is  a  slight  shoulder  below  the  trumpet- 
shaped  part  of  the  moutli,  and  the  loop,  instead  of  springing  straight 
out  from  the  neck,  has  ita  ends  extended  into  four  ridges,  ruiming  over 
the  neck  of  the  celt  like  half- buried  roots. 

An  example  of  a  celt  with  the  loop  attached  in  a  similar  manner  h^g 
been  engraved  by  Wilde.j  Another  (3J  inchea)  is  in  the  coUection  of 
Mr.  E.  Day,  F.8.A. 


[.  1,  4, 


-V  p.  H3,  Bff.  aw. 


Tomm  IN  ISBLAHD.  139 

Hg-  169  shows  a  finely  patinated  celt,  with  a  triple  moulding 
below  the  expanding  mouth,  which  was  found  near  Belfast.  With 
it  are  said  to  have  been  found  a  set  of  three  gold  clasps,  or  so-called 
fibulffi,  with  discs  at  each  end  of  a  slug-like  half-ring  (see  Wilde, 
Figs.  594 — 598).  Curiously  enough,  I  have  another  set  of  three 
of  these  ornaments,  also  found  together  at  Craighilly,  near  Bally- 
meaa,  Co.  Antrim.  Mr.  Robert  Day,  F.S.A.,  has  a  specimen  which 
also  is  oDe  of  three  found  together  in  the  Co.  Down.     It  seems. 


therefore,  probable  that,  like  our  modem  shirt-studs,  these  orna- 
ments were  worn  in  sets  of  three. 

A  celt  with  four  bands  (Si  inches)  hae  been  engraved  by  Wilde.*  The 
midclle  member  of  the  triple  baud  is  often  much  ihe  lar^et. 

A  small  esample  of  tiie  same  fype,  but  with  a  single  band  at  tlie 
montli,  is  shown  in  Fig.  170.  One  from  Co,  Antrim,  Ig  inch  long  and  IJ 
indi  broad  at  the  edge,  is  in  the  British  Museum. 

These  oval-necked  celts  are  occasionally,  but  rarely,  decorated  with 
pttnu  cast  in  relief  upon  them.  One  of  them,  in  the  Museum  of  the 
Kml  Irish  Academy,!  '^  shown  in  Fig.  17 1 . 

uuide  tlie  sockets  of  most  of  the  instruments  of  this  class  there  are  near 
the  bottom,  where  the  two  sides  converge,  one,  two,  or  more  vertical 
riins,  pvobahly  destined  to  aid  in  steadying  the  haft, 
u  some  instances  the  upper  member  of  the  moulding  round  the  mouth 


tiriM^-i 


i.  Hoi.  B.  T.  A..,"  p.  383,  fig.  ZSO.    This  cut  is  kindly  lent  b;  Uie 


140 


SOCKETED  CELTS 


[OHAP.T. 


ia  cast  in  a  caHe  pattem.  Fiff.  172  bLowh  on  example  of  Uiis  kind  tram 
Athboy,  Oo.  Moam,  in  the  collection  of  Canon  Greenvell,  F.B.S.  Otlien 
ore  in  the  Museum  of  the  Boyal  Irish  Academy. 

Socketed  celts,  with  rerticu  ribs  on  the  faces,  are  of  rare  occtirrence  in 
Ireland.  A  specimen  from  Co.  Meath,  in  Canon  Oreenwell's  collection, 
is  engraved  aa  Fig.  173. 

One  (2|  inches)  found  near  Cork,  and  now  in  Mr.  Sobert  Day's  oollee- 
tion,  has  six  vertical  ribs  on  each  face,  three  on  either  margin.  Tliej 
are  placed  close  together,  and  vary  in  length,  the  outer  one  being  about 
twice  as  long  as  that  in  the  middle,  which  ie,  however,  nearly  iliroe  tinM 
as  long  as  the  innermost  of  the  three  ribs. 

I  hare  an  example  of  theBamekind(2S  indies),  from  Trillick,  Co. Tyrone,* 


1 

Fig.  178.-Atbboy.       ) 


in  which  there  are  five  equidistant  vertical  riha  on  each  face.  The  € 
has  been  much  hammered,  so  as  to  bo  considerably  recurved  at  the  eaSe 
Wildef  has  figured  a  much  larger  specimen  (-li  inches),  with  lliree  vertical 
ribs,  wliich  cross  a  ring,  level  with  the  top  of  the  loop,  and  run  up  to  the 
lip  moulding.  Another,!  with  rectangular  socket,  has  the  ribs  arranged 
iu  tlie  usual  manner.  In  a  few  instances  tlie  ribs  end  in  pellets,  and  ia 
one  inatancc  "Wilde  §  desrribes  them  as  "  ending  in  arrow  points," 

A  short  l)ut  broad  socketed  celt  in  the  Petrie  Collection  has  on  each  face 
six  vertical  ribs  terminating  at  each  end  iu  annulota. 

The  socketed  celts  with  an  almost  stjuare  socket  and  npck  are  not  bo 
common  in  Ireland  «» tlioso  of  tlie  broad  type  with  an  oval  neck,  but  are 

•  Kngmvva  iu  Jourii.  Roy.  llht.  and  Arrll.  Ambc.  of  Ireland,  1th  Sur.  vol.  v.  p.  269. 
t  l^'ig-  «8^.  {  FiR.  284.  i   I'.  <29. 


FOUND    IN    IRELAND. 


141 


yet  not  absolutelj'  rare.  Fig.  174  shows  a  good  Bpecimen  of  this  tj^ie. 
I  hare  another  (3^  inches),  from  the  neighbourhood  of  Belfast,  rather 
vider  at  the  edge,  and  with  three  flat  vertical  ribs  below  the  neck 
moulding. 

Fig.  175  shows  a  short  variety  of  the  same  type,  from  Newtown  Crom- 
mohn,  Co.  Antrim.  One  from  Trillick,  Co.  Tyrone  (2^  inches),  though 
DMriy  rectangular  at  the  neck,  has  an  oval  socket. 

Mr.  Robert  Day  has  an  example  (3i  inches),  from  Dunshaughlin,  Co. 
Heath,  with  two  bead«  round  it,  the  lower  one  at  the  level  of  the  bottom 
of  the  loop-  This  celt  ia  rectangular  at  the  neck,  though  the  socket  is 
oral. 

Some  few  have  grooves  running  down  the  angles.     One  from  London- 
derry (4i  inches)  is  in  Mr.  Day's  collection. 
The  long  narrow  celt  with  a  rib  ending  in  an  annulet  on  the  face, 

Xvod  by  Wilde  as  Fig.  283,  appears  to  me  to  belong  to  Brittany 
:  than  to  Ireland. 


Hg.  ITS.  Fig.  .._. 

H«vtawik  Cnnnmolln.    |      North  of  Ireland.    ) 


An  elegant  tyge  of  socketed  celt  of  not  uncommon  occurrence  in  Ireland 
i»diown  in  Fig.  176.  The  neck  is  octagonal  below  the  rounded  trumpet 
Oionth,  which  is  ornamented  with  a  scries  of  small  parallel  beads,  between 
Aich  a  number  of  minute  conical  depressions  have  been  punched,  making 
Uw  beads  appear  to  be  corded.  Around  the  loop  is  an  oval  of  similar 
pnch  marks.  A  nearly  similar  specimen  has  been  engraved  by  Wilde 
ICatel,,  Fig.  276),  who  also  gives  one  of  the  same  general  type,  but 
^th  two  plain  broad  beads,  altomating  with  three  narrow  ones,  round 
tJw  mouth  (Catal.,  Fig.  277).  It  has  a  hexagonal  neck.  A  celt  (4i  inches) 
fam  Ballina,  Co.  Mayo,  in  the  collection  of  Mr.  Robert  Day,  F.S.A., 
Me  an  octagonal  neck,  and  five  grooved  lines  round  its  circular  mouth. 

Canon  (^eenwell  has  one  of  the  tj-po  of  Fig.  176  {3J  inches),  with 
■Mugooal  neck  and  five  equal  beads  round  the  mouth,  from  Carlea,  Co. 


142  SOCKXTED   CSLT8,  [CH\F.  T. 

Longford,  and  (mother  (3}  iacheB),  with  ten  small  beads  round  a  Bome- 
vhat  ovai  niouth,  from  Arboe,  Co.  l^roue.  The  neck  of  this  latter  it 
nearly  rectangular.  I  have  a  celt  of  tida  type  from  Balbriggan,  Co. 
Dublin  (3^  inches),  with  a  hexagonal  neck  and  a  plain  moutti.  The 
loqp  has  root-Iike  excrescences  from  it,  as  already  described. 

There  is  one  more  Irish  type  of  looped  socketed  celts  which  it  will  be  well 
to  figure,  and  to  which  Wilde  has  given  the  name  of  the  axe-ahaped  socketed 
celt,  As  will  be  seen,  the  blade  is  expanded  considerably  below  ttie 
socketed  part,  and  assumes  a  form  not  uncommon  sjnong  iron  or  steel 
axes.  I  have  copied  Fig.  17?  from  Wilde'e  cut.  No. 
281,  on  an  enlarged  scale. 

A  socketed  celt  expanding  into  a  broad  axe-like 
edge  is  in  the  Pesth  Museum. 

An  analogous  but  narrower  form  is  found  in  France. 
I  have  seen  the  drawing  of  one  found  at  Fontpoint, 
OisoC?). 

Socketed  celta  without  loops  have  not  nnfreqneutlj 
been  found  in  Ireland.  One  of  this  type  has  been 
figured  by  Wilde,*  whose  cut  is,  by  the  kindness  of 
the  CouncU  of  the  Boyal  Irish  Academy,  here  repro- 
duced as  Fig.  178.  There  are  two  others  in  the  same 
collection.  Another  of  the  same  length  (2iV  inches),  but  wider  at  the 
edge,  was  found  in  the  Shannon, |  at  £eelogue  Ford.  A  longer  and 
narrower  instrument  (3j  inches)  of  the  same  kmd  has  also  been  engraved 
byWilde-t  Another  has  been  engraved  by  Vallancey.g  Others  (2  and 
m  inches)  from  Liebum  and  Ballymoney,  Co.  Antrim,  are  in  the  British 
Museum.  The  former  has  a  small  bead  on  s 
level  with  the  base  of  the  socket.  The  latter 
is  oval  at  the  neck,  but  oblong  at  the  mouth. 
A  bronze  instrument  of  this  form,  but 
wider  at  the  edge,  was  in  common  use  among 
the  ancient  Egyptians,  and  has  been  re- 
garded as  a  hoe. 
A  socketed  celt  without  loop,  but  with  two 

firojections  on  one  side,  from  the  Sanda  Val- 
ey,||  Yunan,  China,  has  been  figured  by 
Dr.  Anderson.  The  edge  is  very  oblique. 
An  example  brought  from  Tunan  by  the 
same  expedition  is  in  the  Christy  Collection. 
One  from  Cambodia,  U  without  loop,  but  in 
form  like  Fig.  1 1 9,  has  been  figured  by  Dr. 
Noulet. 

A  very  remarkable  socketed  celt  without 

Fig.  17S.— Kerish.      i  loop  from  Java  is  in  the  Cabinet  of  Coins  at 

Stuttgart.     It  expands  widely  at  the  edge 

and  has  three  facets  on  one  side  of  the  neck,  while  the  other  is  curved, 

so  that  it  was  probably  mounted  as  an  adze.    The  surface  of  the  socket 

is  not  flat,  but  there  is  a  V-shaped  depression  across  it. 

•  P.  384,  fig.  273.  t  FriK,  Soc.  Ant.  Seot.,  vol.  li.  p.  170. 

i  P.  621,  fig.  398.  4  Vol.  iv.  pi.  ii.  7. 

II  Bepoii  on  "  Expedit.  to  Western  Vunan,"  Calcutta,  1871,  p.  414. 
S  "Aich.  du  Mu9.  d'aist.  Nat  do  Toulouae,"  voL  i.  pi  vi.  6. 


MAINLY  OF   NATIVE  MANUFACTURE.  143 

Socketed  celts  with  two  loops  haye  not  as  yet  been  recorded  as  found 
nrithin  the  United  Kingdom,  though  a  stone  mould  for  celts  of  this  form 
Mras  found  at  Bulford  Water,  Salisbury.  In  Eastern  Europe  the  form  is 
nore  common.  The  specimen  shown  as  Fig.  179  was  found  in  the  neigh- 
[>ourhood  of  Kertch,*  and^is  now  in  the  British  Museum.  I  have  seen 
others  ornamented  on  the  faces,  brought  from  Asiatic  Siberia  by  Mr.  H. 
Seebohm.  Others  from  Siberia  f  have  been  figured.  One  of  these  is 
without  loops,  and  has  chevron  ornaments  in  relief  below  a  double 
oioidding. 

A  socketed  celt  with  two  loops,  and  apparently  hexagonal  at  the  neck, 
found  at  Ell,  near  Benfeld,  Alsace,  is  figured  by  Schneider.J 

I  have  elsewhere  described  a  two-looped  socketed  celt  from  Portugal  § 
'6^^  inches).  It  is  like  Fig.  120,  but  has  a  second  loop.  Another,  of 
ngantic  dimensions,  9i  inches  long  and  3^  inches  wide,  was  found  in 
Bstremadura,  Spain.  || 

A  two-looped  celt  with  square  socket  and  the  loops  at  the  jimction  with 
\he  flattened  blade  was  in  the  great  hoard  found  at  Bologna.  Only  one 
af  the  loops,  however,  is  perforated. 

In  the  museum  at  Stockholm  are  also  some  socketed  celts  with  two  loops. 

In  looking  over  these  pages,  it  will  have  been  observed,  that 
though  socketed  celts  occur  in  numbers  throughout  the  British  Isles, 
j^et  that  those  found  in  England  for  the  most  part  differ  in  form 
Erom  those  found  in  Ireland,  and  that  some  few  types  appear  to 
be  peculiar  to  Scotland.  Traces  of  continental  influence  are,  as 
might  have  been  expected,  most  evident  in  the  forms  found  in  the 
southern  counties  of  England,  and  are  barely,  if  at  all,  perceptible 
in  those  from  Ireland  and  Scotland.  Some  few  of  the  socketed  celts 
from  both  England  and  Scotland  are  of  the  type  Fig.  167 — a  type 
50  common  in  Ireland  as  to  be  characteristic  of  it — and  these 
ippear  for  the  most  part,  though  by  no  means  exclusively,  to 
iiave  been  found  in  western  counties.  Although,  therefore,  the  first 
jocketed  celts  in  Britain  were  doubtless  of  foreign  origin,  there 
was  no  regular  importation  of  them  for  use  over  the  whole  country ; 
3Ut  the  fashion  of  making  them  spread  through  local  foundries, 
md  different  varieties  of  pattern  originated  in  various  centres, 
ind  were  adopted  over  larger  or  smaller  areas  as  they  happened 
:o  commend  themselves  to  the  taste  of  the  bronze-using  public. 
rhe  use  of  socketed  celts  would,  from  their  abundance,  seem 
)0  have  extended  over  a  considerable  period ;  and  from  their 
laving  apparently  been  found  with  objects  belonging  to  the  Late 

*  Areh,  Joum.y  vol.  xiv.  p.  91.  For  the  use  of  this  cut  I  am  indebted  to  Mr. 
L  W.  Franks,  F.K.8. 

t  Proe,  Soe,  Ant.,  2nd  S.,  vol.  iv.  p.  13 ;  Arch.  Joum.^  vol.  xxxi.  p.  262;  Mem.  des 
int.  du  Nord,  1872—7,  p.  116,  &c. 

X  "Die  ehem.  Streitkeile,"  Taf.  ii.  12.         }   Trant.  Eihn.  Soe.,  N.  S.,  vol.  vii.  p.  45 

II  "  Cong,  pr^h."  Copenhagen  vol.  p.  352. 


144  SOCKETED    CELTS  [cHAP.  V. 

m 

Celtic  Period  they  must  have  been  among  the  last  of  the  bronze 
tools  or  weapons  to  be  superseded  by  those  of  iron.  A  socketed 
celt,  somewhat  like  Fig.  116  but  more  trumpet-mouthed,  is  stated 
to  have  been  found  in  company  with  a  looped  spear-head,  two 
pins  like  Figs.  4 5  #3  and  458,  a  bronze  bridle-bit,  and  some  por- 
tions of  buckles  of  a  late  Celtic  character  on  Hagboume  Hill, 
Berks.  These  objects  are  now  in  the  British  Museum,  and  there 
seems  reason  to  believe  the  account  of  their  discovery  given  in 
the  ArcluBologia*  Some  coins  of  gold  and  silver  are  said  to  have 
been  found  with  them,  but  these  are  not  forthcoming.  Socketed 
celts  have  also  been  found  associated  with  clasps  like  Figs.  504 
and  505  at  Dreuil,  near  Amiens,  while  at  Abergele  such  clasps 
accompanied  buckles  almost,  if  not  quite,  late  Celtic  iivQharacter. 

No  doubt  the  final  disuse  of  socketed  celts  was  not  contempo- 
raneous throughout  the  whole  of  the  country,  and  their  employ- 
ment probably  survived  in  the  north  and  west  of  Britain  and  in 
Ireland  to  a  considerably  later  date  than  in  the  districts  more 
accessible  to  Gaulish  influences.  The  chronology  of  our  Bronze 
Period  will,  however,  have  to  be  considered  in  a  subsequent 
chapter.  The  transition  from  bronze  to  iron  cannot  so  readily 
bo  traced  in  this  country  as  on  the  Continent ;  but  socketed 
celts,  &c.  formed  of  iron,  and  made  in  imitation  of  those  in  bronze, 
have  occasionally  been  found  in  Britain.  One  (4  inches)  with  a 
side  loop,  and  a  part  of  its  wooden  handle,  was  found  in  Merioneth- 
shire, and  is  now  in  the  British  Museum.  It  has  been  figured 
in  the  Archseologia  Cambrensis.t  Another  of  the  same  type  was 
found  in  North  Wales.  + 

I  have  one  (5^  inches)  with  a  rounded  socket  and  no  loop,  found 
at  Gray's  Tliurrock,  Essex. 

I  have  another  (4  inches)  with  a  square  socket,  from  Pfaffen- 
burg  in  the  Hartz ;  and  others  of  longer  proportions  with  round 
sockets  from  Hallstatt.  The  metal  has  been  carefully  w^elded 
together  to  form  the  sockets,  in  which  there  is  no  slit  like  those 
commonly .  to  be  seen  in  more  modem  socketed  tools  of  iron. 
There  are  ornaments  round  the  mouth  of  some  of  the  Hallstatt  § 
socketed  celts,  and  both  they  and  the  iron  palstaves  are  frequently 
provided  with  a  side  loop,  in  exact  accordance  with  those  on  their 
analogues  in  bronze.     Some   of  the  socketed  celts  in  iron  from 

*  Vol.  xvi.  p.  348.  t  3rd  S.,  vol.  i.  p.  250. 

X  Proc.  Soc.  Ant.y  2nd  S.,  vol.  iii.  p.  olft. 
§  Von  Sackcn,  "Grabf.  v.  Hallst.,"  Taf.  vii. 


FORMED   OF   IRON.  145 

the  cemetery  of  Watsch,*  in  Camiola,  are  also  provided  with  a 
loop. 

As  an  illustration  of  the  view  that  similar  wants,  with  similar 
means  at  command  with  which  to  supply  them,  lead  to  the  produc* 
tion  of  similar  forms  of  tools  and  weapons  in  countries  widely 
remote  firom  each  other,  I  may  mention  a  socketed  celt  (10^ 
inches)  found  in  an  ancient  grave  near  Copiapo,  Chili,  t  In  general 
fonn  it  is  almost  identical  with  some  of  the  Italian  bronze  celts, 
but  it  is  of  copper,  and  not  bronze ;  and  is  not  cast,  but  wrought  with 
the  hanuner.  The  socket  has,  therefore,  been  formed  in  the  same 
maimer  as  those  of  the  early  iron  celts  firom  Hallstatt,  with  which 
it  also  closely  corresponds  in  outline.  The  surface,  however,  has 
been  ornamented  by  engraving ;  and  among  the  patterns  we  find 
bands  of  chevrons,  alternately  plain  and  hatched,  closely  allied  to 
the  common  ornament  of  the  European  Bronze  Age.  What  is, 
perhaps,  more  striking  still  is  that  the  Greek  fret  also  occurs  as  an 
ornament  on  the  faces. 

The  method  in  which  socketed  and  other  celts  were  hafbed 
will  be  discussed  in  the  next  chapter. 

«  DeKhsuum  und  Hochstettor,  '*Piah.  Ansied.  a.  Begr.  statt.  in  Erain.,"  1879, 
Tk!.xTL 
t  St9.  Arch,f  Yd.  xziii.  p.  267|  pi.  Tiii. 


L 


CHAPTER  VI. 

METHODS   OF   HAFTING   CELTS. 

Any  account  of  the  various  forms  of  celts  and  palstaves  which 
have  been  discovered  in  this  country,  such  as  that  attempted  in 
the  preceding  chapters,  would  be  incomplete  without  some  observa- 
tions as  to  the  manner  in  which  they  were  probably  hafbed  or 
mounted  for  use,  and  some  account  of  the  discoveries  which  throw- 
light  upon  that  subject. 

In  a  previous  chapter  I  have  cited  numerous  opinions  of  the 
older  school  of  antiquaries  as  to  the  nature  of  these  instruments 
or  weapons,  and  the  i^ses  which  they  were  intended  to  serva 
Many  of  these  opinions  are  so  palpably  absurd  that  it  is  needless 
again  to  refer  to  them.  Others  which  regard  the  instruments  as 
having  been  mounted  in  such  a  manner  as  to  serve  for  axes  or 
adzes,  for  chisels,  or  for  spud-like  tools  or  weapons,  have  an 
evident  foundation  in  the  necessities  of  the  case.  There  can,  in 
the  first  place,  be  no  doubt  that  celts  and  palstaves  were  cutting 
tools  or  weapons.  There  can,  in  the  second  place,  be  but  little 
doubt  that  they  were  not  destined  for  direct  use  in  the  hand 
without  the  addition  of  any  shaft  or  handle.  In  fact,  with  the 
palstave  and  socketed  forms,  it  is  evident  that  special  provisions  are 
made  for  a  haft  of  some  kind.  In  the  third  place,  this  haft» 
whether  long  or  short,  must  either  have  been  straight  or  crooked. 
If  straight,  a  kind  of  chisel  or  spud  must  have  resulted ;  if 
crooked  or  L-shaped,  an  axe,  hatchet,  or  adze. 

It  is  possible  that  the  same  form  of  bronze  instruments  may 
have  been  mounted  both  with  straight  and  with  L-shaped  handles; 
but,  as  will  subsequently  be  seen,  the  probability,  judging  from 
what  few  ancient  handles  have  been  discovered,  is  that  the  great 
majority  were  moimted  with  elbowed  handles  as  axes.  At  the 
same  time,  from  the  form  and  small  size  of  some  celts,  especially 
of  some  of  those  of  the  socketed  variety,  it  is  probable  that  they 


AXES    OF   BRONZE.  147 

rere  used  as  chisels.  Indeed,  judging  from  the  analogy  of  some 
>ther  forms,  and  from  the  discovery  at  Everley,  mentioned  at 
).  163,  this  may  be  regarded  as  certain. 

As  the  discoveries  of  the  original  hafts  of  bronze  celts  have 
principally  been  made  upon  the  Continent,  I  shall,  in  treating^ 
)f  this  part  of  my  subject,  be  compelled  to  have  recourse  to  foreign 
rather  than  British  illustrations.  It  will  also,  in  speaking  of  the 
method  of  hafting,  be  desirable  to  make  an  attempt  to  trace  the 
successive  stages  of  development  of  the  socketed  celts ;  and,  in  con- 
nection with  this  part  of  the  subject  also,  foreign  examples  will 
lecome  of  service. 

And  first,  in  illustration  of  the  use  of  bronze  blades  as  axes, 
lather  than  as  spuds,  or  chisels  of  any  kind,  I  may  mention  an 
instrument  not  uncommon  in  Hungary,  and  occasionally  occurring 
in  other   parts   of  Southern   Europe,  which    is   perforated  and 
rimilar  in  general  form  to  our  modem  axe-heads  of  iron  and 
steel.     In   Scandinavia  also   other  varieties  of  these   perforated 
axe-heads  have  been  found.     The  common  axe-like  type  has  also 
been  discovered  among  Assyrian  antiquities.    Another  and  distinct 
fonn  which   has  been  found  in  Egypt  mounted  as  an  axe  or 
hatchet,  with  a  wooden  handle,  is  a  fiat  blade  not  unlike  the 
ordinary  flat  celt,  except  that  instead  of  tapering  at  the  butt-end 
it  expands  so  as  to  have  two  more  or  less  projecting  horns,  by 
which  it  was  bound  against  the  haft  in  a  shallow  socket  provided 
for  it     Egyptian  axes  mounted  in  this  manner  may  be  seen  in 
many  museums,  and  have  been  frequently  figured  in  works  on 
I^*ptian  antiquities.*     The  blade  of  an  axe  of  this  kind,  formerly 
in  tiie  collection  of  the  Rev.  Sparrow  Simpson,  D.D.,  F.S.A.,t 
and  by  him  presented  to  the  British  Museum,  bears  an  inscrip- 
tion in  hieroglyphics  upon  it,  with  cartouches  probably  containing 
the  name  of  a  shepherd  king  of  the  sixteenth  or  seventeenth 
dynasty.     In  my  own  collection  is  another  bronze  blade  of  the 
same  shape  and  size,  and  with  the  same  inscription,  except  that 
the  names  in  the  cartouches  are  difierent.     Unfortunately  this 
part  of  the  blade  is  corroded,  but  Dr.  S.  Birch  thinks  that  the 
cartouches  contain  the  name  either  of  Ramses  I.  or  of  a  subordinate 
Ramses  of  the  eighteenth  dynasty.     The  hieroglyphics  are  the 
same  on  both  faces  of  the  blade,  but  on  one  run  from  right  to  left, 
and  on  the  other  from  left  to  right.     A  hatchet  of  the  same  form, 

•  See  "Mat^riaux,'*  vol.  v.  p.  376. 

t  Arch.  Auoe,  Joum.,  vol.  xxiii.  p.  293,  pi.  zv. 

L  2 


148 


METHODS  OF  HATTING  CELTS 


[chap.  VI. 


still  bound  to  its  haft,  was  found  in  the  tomb  of  Queen  Aah-Hotep,* 
of  the  eighteenth  dynasty. 

Some  of  the  stone  hatchets  from  Ecuador,  in  South  America, 
are  also  provided  with  projecting  ears,  and  were  tied  against  their 
helves  in  the  same  manner. 

The  stone  axe,  said  to  be  that  of  Montezuma  II.,  preserved  in 
the  Ambras  Museum  at  Vienna,  and  shown  in  Fig.  180,  may  also 
be  of  this  kind.  Copper  or  bronze  blades  of  this  crescent  or 
cheese-cutter  form,  with  two  projecting  lugs  at  the  top  of  the 
narrow  part  of  the  blade,  have  been  found  in  Peru. 


Fig.  180.— Stone  Axe  of  Montenuna  IL 

Broad  blades  of  bronze,  in  form  more  like  the  ordinary  flat 
celts,  but  with  the  projections  at  the  top,  have  been  found  in  the 
same  country.  I  have  one  about  5  inches  long  and  3  inches 
wide,  with  strong  lugs  at  the  top  2  inches  long.  It  came  from 
Eastern  Peru. 

Some  blades  of  this  form  were  hafted  in  a  rather  different 
manner,  as  will  be  seen  by  means  of  Fig.  181. 


Fig.  181.— Aymara  Indian  Hatohet.       \ 


This  represents  an  iron  hatchet  used  by  the  Aymara  Indians,  of 
the  province  of  La  Paz,  Bolivia,  which  was  brought  from  that 
country  and  presented  to  me  by  my  friend,  the  late  Mr.  David 
Forbes,  F.R.S.  In  this  form  the  handle  is  split,  and  the  blade  is 
secured  by  a  leather  thong,  two  turns  of  which  pass  under  the  two 
lugs  of  the  blade,  and  thus  prevent  it  from  coming  forward ;  two 

*  «  Mat^riaiix,"  vol.  v.  p.  379,  pi.  xix.  7. 


IK  CLUB-LIKB   HANDLES.  149 

otiier  turns  pass  over  the  butt-end,  and  thus  prevent  it  from  being 
diireu  bot^vards  by  any  blow ;  while  all  the  coils  of  the  thong  hold 
the  cleft  stick  firmly  s^ainst  the  two  Jitces  of  the  blade.  Although 
no  celts  with  the  *r-8luiped  butt^nd  have  been  found  in  Britain, 
or,  indeed,  in  Western  Europe,  I  have  thought  it  worth  while  to 
engnve  this  curious  example  of  the  method  of  mounting  such 
blades,  especially  as  the  central  projections  of  the  Irish  form  of 
celt,  like  f^g.  45,  may  have  been  secured  by  thongs  in  a  somewhat 
analogous  manner. 

Tuniing  now  to  the  other  British  forms  of  celts,  of  which,  as 
already  obaerred,  the  flat  and  doubly  tapering  blades,  like  Fig.  2, 


nem  to  be  the  most  ancient,  it  is  probable  that  these  were  hafted 
by  the  butt-end  being  merely  driven  into  a  club  or  handle  of 
vood,  in  the  same  manner  as  many  stone  celts  appear  to  have 
been  mounted.  The  modem  iron  hatchet,  from  Western  Africa, 
shown  in  Fig.  182,  will  give  a  good  idea  of  the  manner  in  which 
tbe  bronze  celta  that  are  so  much  Uke  it  in  form  were  probably 
hafted.  Another  modem  A£ican  axe  has  been  engraved  by  Sir 
John  Lubbock.*  It  is,  of  course,  possible  that  some  of  the  ancient 
flat  celts  were  mounted  after  the  manner  of  spuds,  aa  is,  by  several 
German  and  Danish  antiquaries,  held  to  have  been  the  case  with 
those  of  the  palstave  form.  It  must,  however,  be  borne  in  mind 
*  "  Piek.  Timea,"  p.  29.     For  other  ezamplt*  lee  Klomin,  "  AUgem.  Cultnrwin.," 


150  METHODS  OF  HAFTINO  CELTS  [CHAF.  VI. 

that  as  a  rule  the  stone  celts,  which  the  earliest  of  those  in  bronze 
must  in  all  probability  have  supplanted,  were  mounted  after  the 
manner  of  hatchets.  Moreover,  the  few  stone  celts,  the  axis  of  the 
straight  handle  of  which  was  in  the  same  direction  as  the  blade, 
appear  to  have  been  hafted  with  short  handles  as  chisels,  and  not 
with  long  shafts  as  spuds.  Among  those  found  still  attached  to 
their  hafts  in  the  Swiss  lake  dwellings,  some  few  were  mounted  in 
short  stag's-hom  handles  as  chisels,  but  the  majority  were  fitted  for 
use  as  hatchets,  with  a  club-like  handle,  in  which  a  short  stag's-hom 
socket  was  mortised  as  affording  a  receptacle  for  the  stone,  harder 
and  less  liable  to  split  than  those  of  wood.  In  some  cases,  however, 
the  handles  were  made  from  a  bough  of  a  tree  with  a  short  pro- 
jecting branch,  which  was  cleft  to  receive  the  stone.     One  of 


Fig.  183.— Stone  Axe,  fiobenhausen. 

these,  from  Robenhausen,  is  shown  in  Fig.  183,  which  is  copied 
from  Dr.  Keller's  work.* 

In  Britain  the  traces  of  the  original  handles  of  bronze  celts  have 
been  not  unfrequently  found,  though  the  actual  wood  had  perished. 

In  a  barrow  in  the  parish  of  Butter  wick,  t  Canon  Greenwell, 
F.R.S.,  found  what  he  describes  as  "  an  axe-blade  of  bronze," 
engraved  as  Fig.  2,  which  lay  with  a  skeleton,  and  "  the  handle, 
which  had  been  under  two  feet  in  length,  could  be  plainly  traced 
by  means  of  a  dark  line  of  decayed  wood  extending  from  the  hips 
towards  the  heels  ;  moreover,  from  the  presence  of  decayed  wood 
on  the  sides  of  the  blade,  it  would  seem  as  if  the  axe  had  been 
protected  by  a  wooden  sheath.  To  all  appearance  the  weapon 
had  been  worn  slung  from  the  waist."  In  this  case  the  blade 
had  been  fixed,  apparently  after  the  manner  of  Fig.  182,  into 
a  solid  handle  to  the  depth  of  two  inches,  as  is  evident  from  the 
surface  of  the  metal  being  oxidized  on  that  part  of  the  blade 
differently  from  what  it  is  elsewhere. 

♦  **  Lake  Dwellings/*  Eng.  ed.,  p.  110,  pi.  x.  16.    See  also  xi.  2,  and  xxviii.  24 ;  and 
Lindenschmit,  *•  Hohunz.  Samml.,'*  Taf.  xxix.  4.  f  "  British  Barrows,"  p.  18b. 


AS  SEEN   IN    BARROWS.  151 

In  a  barrow  at  Shuttlestone/  near  Parwich,  Derbyshire,  Mr.  Bate- 
man  found  about  the  middle  of  the  left  thigh  of  a  skeleton  a  bronze 
celt,  of  "  the  plainest  axe-shaped  type.     The  cutting  edge  was 
tamed  upwards  towards  the  upper  part  of  the  person,  and  the 
instrument  itself  has  been  inserted  vertically  into  a  wooden  handle 
bj  being  driven  in  for  about  two  inches  at  the  narrow  end — at 
least,  the  grain  of  the  wood  runs  in  the  same  direction  as  the 
longest  dimension  of  the  celt.''  ''A  fact/'  adds  Mr.  Bateman,  "not 
unworthy  of  the  notice  of  any  inclined  to  explain  the  precise 
maimer  of  mounting  these  curious  implements."     It  may  be  re- 
marked, however,  that  no  part  of  the  handle  itself,  beyond  this 
grain  upon  the  bronze,  was  preserved,  and  that  this  direction  of 
the  grain  of  the  wood  would  be  quite  consistent  with  the  blade 
baving  been  mounted  in  a  side  branch  from  the  shaft,  after  the 
manner  of  the  Swiss  stone  celt  shown  in  Fig.  183. 

It  appears  to  me  possible  that  in  other  cases  where  the  marks 
of  the  grain  of  the  wood,  or  even  the  traces  of  the  wood  itself, 
bave  been  found  upon  celts,  running  along  and  not  across  the  blade, 
tbe  somewhat  hasty  conclusion  has  been  drawn  that  they  were 
attached  to  the  end  of  straight  shafts  instead  of  into  side  branches; 
and  that  possibly  this  opinion,  when  once  accepted,  may  have 
affected  insensibly  the  reports  of  the  position  of  the  blade  of  the 
celts  with  regard  to  the  bodies  with  which  they  were  foimd,  and 
to  the  traces  of  their  shafts. 

The  opinion  first  enounced  by  J.  A.  Fabricius  that  the  celt  was 
the  ancient  German  framea  or  spear  mentioned  by  Tacitus,  seems 
also  insensibly  to  have  affected  observers. 

There  is  an  account  given  by  Thorlaciust  of  the  discovery  in  a 
tomulus  near  Store-Hedinge,  in  Denmark,  of  a  palstave  with  the 
wooden  shaft  an  ell  and  a  quarter  long,  into  which  the  blade  was 
inserted ;  the  wood,  as  might  have  been  expected,  running  down 
between  the  side  wings  ;  at  the  other  end  of  the  shaft  there  was  a 
leather  strap  wound  round  for  about  a  quarter  of  an  eU.  The 
wh(^  was  so  decayed  that  not  the  least  part  of  it  could  be  taken 
ont  of  the  ground.  Although  nothing  appears  to  be  said  with 
legard  to  the  position  of  the  palstave  with  respect  to  the  shaft, 
this  has  been  cited  by  Lisch  X  and  others  in  evidence  of  this  form  of 
instrument  having  been  mounted  spud-fashion,  as  a  kind  of  chisel- 

•  "  Ten  Years'  Diggings,"  p.  36. 

t  Cited  in  Schreiber's  **I>ie  ehemen  Streitkeile,"  Freiburg,  1842,  p.  4. 

{  See  liflch,  **  Frederico-Francisceum,"  p.  38. 


153  METHODS  OF    HAFTING    CBLTB  [CUAP.  VI. 

ended  spear.  A  more  cosclusive  instAtice  is  that  addaced  by  Westen- 
dorp,*  who  has  figured  a  socketed  celt  without  a  loop,  found  in  a 
fen  in  the  province  of  Groningen,  Holland,  mounted  in  this  manner 
OD  a  str^ght  shaft.  I  have,  however,  already  remarked  that 
some  of  the  socketed  celts  of  this  character  were  probably  used  as 
chisels. 

Whatever  reliance  may  be  placed  upon  the  older  discoveries,  all 
those  of  more  recent  times  are  in  &vour  of  the  instruments  of  the 
palstave  form  having  been  mounted  as  axes,  hatchets,  or  adzes. 
In  the  museum  at  Salzhu^,  Austria,  there  are  at  least  four  crooked 
handles  for  this  kind  of  hlade,  found  in  the  salt-mines  of  Hallein, 
one  of  which  is  shown  in  the  annexed  cut     I  am  not,  however. 


sure  whether  the  blade  was  actually  found  with  the  haft  in  which  it 
is  now  placed,  nor,  if  so,  whether  it  was  originally  in  its  present  posi- 
tion with  the  loop  outwards.  It  looks  much  more  hke  an  Italian 
than  a  German  specimen,  which  has  been  added  to  the  haft  in  recent 
times,  and  it  has  not  the  appearance  of  having  been  exposed  for  cen- 
turies to  the  action  of  salt.  It  seems  more  probable  that  the  salt, 
which  has  fortunately  had  the  power  of  preserving  the  wood,  would 
in  course  of  years  have  dissolved  the  whole  of  the  metal,  assuming 
that  at  the  time  when  the  haft  was  lost,  or  left  in  the  mine,  a 
blade  was  still  attached  to  it,  than  that  it  should  have  left  the 
metal,  as  here,  almost  uniiyured.  In  this  instance,  moreover,  the 
haft  is  perfect,  and  not,  as  in  some  of  the  other  cases,  broken, 
so  as  to  raise  an  inference  of  their  having  been  thrown  away. 

■  •*  ADtiquitoitan,"  iii.  Stuck,  p.  2g£. 


AFTER  THE  MANNER  OF  AXES.  153 

The  position  of  the  blade  with  the  loop  outwards  is  also  sus- 
picious. 

A  broken  example  of  the  same  kind  of  haft,  also  from  the  salt- 
mines of  Hallein,  has  been  figured  by  Klemm,*  and  is  to  be  seen 
in  the  British  Museum.    There  are  others  in  the  museum  at  Linz. 

Handles  of  the  same  kind,  intended  for  palstaves,  have  been 
found  in  the  Italian  lake  dwellings.  In  some  discovered  in  the 
"palafitta"  of  Castione,t  the  notch  is  in  the  transverse  direction 
to  the  shaft,  as  if  the  blade  had  been  mounted  as  an  adze,  and  not 
as  an  axe.  In  others  the  notch  is  longitudinal,  and  not  trans- 
verse. In  one  instance  the  side  branch  has  no  notch,  but  there 
is  a  shoulder  on  it,  as  if  it  had  served  for  a  socketed  celt. 

A  looped  palstave,  mounted  in  a  similar  branched  handle,  has 
been  found  at  the  lake  dwelling  of  Moerigen,J  on  the  Lac  de 
fiienne.  In  this  case  also  the  loop  is  on  the  farther  side  of  the 
shaft. 

That  the  flanged  and  winged  celts  and  palstaves  were,  as  a  rule, 
destined  to  be  mounted  in  the  manner  of  hatchets  or  adzes,  and 
not  as  spuds  or  spear-heads,  is  to  some  extent  witnessed  by  the 
development  of  their  form ;  the  progressive  increase  in  the  size  of  tlie 
wings  and  flanges,  more  especially  about  the  middle  of  the  blade, 
s^pearing  to  be  intended  as  a  precaution  against  lateral  strains, 
such  as  the  blade  of  an  axe  undergoes,  rather  than  against  a  mere 
thrust,  such  as  that  to  which  the  head  of  a  spear  or  lance  is 
subject.  Of  course  the  stop-ridge  is  a  preservative  against  the 
blade  being  driven  back  into  its  handle,  in  whatever  way  it  is 
mounted.  But  the  flanges,  at  first  slight,  then  expanding  at  the 
middle  of  the  blade,  then  becoming  projecting  wings,  and  finally 
being  bent  over,  so  as  to  form  side  sockets  on  each  side  of  the 
blade,  seem  rather  the  result  of  successive  endeavours  to  steady  the 
blade  against  a  sideways  strain. 

This  development  can  best  be  traced  in  the  series  of  flat  celts, 
flanged  and  winged  celts,  and  palstaves,  discovered  in  the  South  of 
Fiance. 

Even  the  long  narrow  palstaves,  which  have  so  much  the 
appearance  of  chisels,  seem  to  have  been  mounted  on  crooked 
shafts.  There  is  a  long  German  §  form  with  a  narrow  butt  above 
the  stop-ridge,  and  with  but  slight  side  flanges,  which  are  con- 

*  '*  Allgemeiiie  CulturwiMenschaft,''  pi.  i.  fig.  186,  p.  105. 

t  Strobel  in  BuU.  di  Falet.  Itai.,  Anno  i.  (1875),  p.  7,  Tav.  i. ;  Anno  4to  (1878),  p.  46 
Tay.  u.  J  Keller,  "  7ter  Bericht,"  Taf.  xxiv.  17. 

t  See  lindenachmit,  <<  A.  a.  h.  V.,"  vol.  i..  Heft.  i.  Taf.  iv.  32. 


104  UETHODS  OF   UAFTINQ  CELTS.  [CHAP.  VI. 

tinued  down  along  the  sides  of  the  blade  below  the  ridge,  that 
seems  much  more  like  a  chisel  than  a  hatchet.  The  usual 
length  of  this  form  is  about  6  inches,  and  the  width  at  the  edge 
about  IJ  inches,  that  of  the  butt-end,  including  the  side 
flancbes,  being  about  f  inch.  But  that  palstaves  of  this  kind 
were  mounted  as  hatchets  will  be  evident  from  an  inspection  of 
Fig.  185,  which  represents  a  specimen  in  my  own  collection, 
found  in  the  district  of  Baron, 
near  Brigue,  Valais,  Switzerland. 
It  is,  as  will  be  seen,  in  £m^  a 
socketed  celt,  but  with  the 
socket  at  right  angles  to  the 
axis  of  the  blade.  The  reason 
why  it  should  have  been  cast 
in  this  manner  is  probably  to 
be  found  in  the  fact  that  boughs 
of  trees  with  a  smaller  branch 
at  right  angles  to  thorn  are  not 
easily  met  with,  though  such 
houghs  are  best  adapted  for  con- 
version into  the  helves  of  this 
kind  of  hatchet.  Some  ingeni- 
ous bronze-founder  of  old  times 
conceived  the  idea  of  producing 
a  hatchet  which  did  not  require 
a  crooked  helve,  but  for  haftii^ 
which  any  ordiniuy  straight 
stick  would  serve ;  and  we  have 
here  his  new  form  of  axe-head. 
In  practice,  however,  it  was  pro- 
bably found  both  to  balance 
badly,  and  to  be  expensive  in 
metal,  and  the  design  appears 
not  to  have  spread,  as  up  to 
the  present  time  this  specimen  seems  to  be  unique.  The  most 
remarkable  features  in  it  have  still  to  be  noticed.  The  pattern 
from  which  it  was  cast  seems  to  have  been  a  palstave  already 
mounted  on  its  haft,  and  we  have  here  the  smooth  and  rounded 
end  of  the  bough,  with  the  smaller  side  branch  running  off  at 
right  angles,  reproduced  in  bronze.  Even  the  baud  by  which  the 
blade  was  secured  in  the  cleft  part  of  the  handle  is  reproduced  as 


SOCKETED    CELTS  USED    AS   HATCHETS.  155 

a  spiral  moulding.  The  banding  which  extends  to  the  mouth 
of  itte  socket  is  also  spiral,  and  probably  represents  a  binding 
iDond  the  original  wooden  handle  at  the  part  where,  from  expe- 
rience,  it  was  found  most  liable  to  break.  The  straight  haft  of 
this  hatchet  was  secured  in  its  place  by  a  bronze  rivet  passing 
through  the  socket  from  side  to  side,  which  is  still  in  its  place, 
though  all  trace  of  the  wood  has  disappeared. 

With  this  singular  celt  was  found  a  small  dagger,  6^  inches 
long,  which  had  been  secured  to  its  hUt  by  four  rivets,  and  a 
penannular  bracelet  decorated  with  ring  ornaments.  It  is  remark- 
able how  well  the  discovery  of  this  form  of  celt  bears  out  the 
theoretical  suggestions  of  Sir  Joseph  Banks,*  Sir  Samuel  Meyrick,t 
Mr.  Dunoyer,+  and  others,  including  Sir  W.  Wilde.  §  Indeed, 
Dr.  Bichard  Richardson  ||  many  years  ago  advanced  the  same 
opinion  as  to  the  manner  in  which  such  celts  were  hafted. 

With  regard  to  the  usual  manner  of  mounting  those  of  the 
socketed  form  there  can  be  but  little  doubt,  as  in  some  few 
instances  the  original  handles  have  been  preserved  with  them. 


Fig.  186.— Edendeny.       | 


One  such,  found  in  the  bed  of  the  river  Boyne,  near  Eden- 
deny,  King's  County,  has  been  figured  by  Wilde,1f  whose  cut,  by 
the  kind  permission  of  the  Royal  Irish  Academy,  is  here  repro- 
duced as  Fig.  186.  The  helve  is  only  13f  inches  long,  but 
seems  well  adapted  to  the  size  of  the  blade.  So  far  as  I  know 
this  is  the  only  instance  of  such  a  discovery  within  the  United 
Kingdom. 

In  Fig.  187,  however,  is  shown  an  Italian  socketed  celt  of 
a  common  form,  with  the  original  handle  still  attached.  This 
specimen  is  in  my  own  collection,  and  was  found  about  the  year 
1872  in  the  neighbourhood  of  Chiusi,  Tuscany.  With  it  were 
another,  also  retaining  its  handle,  a  large  fibula  of  silver,  a  scara- 
b&us,  and  many  small  square  plates  of  bronze,  each  having  a  fylfot 

•  Areh.,  vol.  xix.  p.  102,  pi.  viii.  6. 

t  **  Andent  Armour,**  by  Skelton,  vol.  i.  pi.  xlvii. 

J  Areh.  Jaum.,  vol.  iv.  p.  4.  §  "  Catal.  Mm.  R.  I.  A.,**  p.  367. 

I  Uland's  Itin.,  Heftme*fl  ed.,  vol.  i.  p.  145.  H  P.  370,  fig.  257. 


156  METHODS  OF    IIAFIIKC   CBLT8  [OIAP.  TI. 

cross  upon  it,  probably  the  ornaments  of  a  girdle  All  these 
objects  bad  been  buried  in  an  um,  wbich  was  covered  by  a  slab  of 
stone,  and  most  of  tbem  are  to  be  seen  in  tbe  Etruscan  Museum  at 
Florence.  With  the  exception  of  a  fracture  not  &r  from  the  angle, 
the  handle  of  my  specimen  is  perfect.  TTie  preservation  is  due  to 
its  having  been  entirely  coated  with  thin  plates  of  bronze,  the  aides 
of  which  overlap,  and  have  been  secured  round  the  handle  by 


round-headed  nails  about  J  inch  apart.  This  plating  is  turned 
over  sqnnre  at  the  end  of  the  handle,  where  there  is  a  little  pro- 
jecting bronze  eye,  through  which  a  ring  may  have  pas-ied,  so  as  to 
serve  for  its  suspension.  At  the  sides  above  the  celt  there  are 
some  larger  round-headed  nails,  or  possibly  rivets ;  and  the  end  of 
the  branch  which  goes  into  the  socket  appears  to  be  secured  by  a 
rivet,  which  passes  through  from  face  to  face.  At  the  end  of  the 
handle  itself,  above  the  celt,  is  a  nearly  circular  flat  bronze  plntc. 


AS  SEEN   AT    HALLSTATT.  157 

with  a  Tound-headed  nail  in  the  middle  to  attach  it  to  the  wood. 
The  fracture  exposes  the  wood  inside  the  plates,  which  has  been 
preserved  by  the  salts,  or  oxide,  of  copper.  It  has  been  thought 
to  be  oak.  On  the  blade  of  the  celt  are  some  flakes  of  oxide  of 
iron,  as  if  it  had  lain  in  contact  with  some  articles  made  of  that 
metal  Indeed,  from  the  form,  as  well  as  from  the  objects  found 
with  it,  the  presumption  is  that  this  instrument  belongs  to  quite 
the  end  of  the  Bronze  Age  of  Italy,  or  to  the  transitional  period 
between  bronze  and  iron. 

It  may  be  well  here  to  mention  that  celts  of  iron  of  the  flat 

iDffiiiy  with  projections  at  the  sides  like  Fig.  45  ;  of  the  palstave 

land,  with  the  semicircular  side  sockets ;  and  of  the  socketed  form, 

liBve  been  found  in  the  cemetery  at  Hallstatt,  in  Austria,  the 

moarohes  in  which  of  Horr  Ramsauer  have  been  described  by 

Buon  Von  Sacken.*    These  discoveries  seem  to  show  that  all  three 

varieties  were  still  in  use  at  the  close  of  the  Bronze  Period.     In 

the  same  cemetery  celts  of  the  two  last-mentioned  forms  were 

found  in  bronze,  and  palstaves  occurred  with  the  wings  formed  of 

hionxe  and  the  blade  of  iron. 

In  1866  I  exhumed  from  this  cemetery  with  my  own  hands, 
when  in  company  with  Sir  John  Lubbock,  a  socketed  celt  of  iron, 
vith  a  portion  of  the  haft  still  in  it.  The  celt  is  attached  to  a 
hranch  of  the  main  handle,  which  projects  at  an  angle  of  about 
80^.  This  has  been  split  off  from  the  handle,  only  a  small  part 
of  which  remains  attached ;  and  it  is  this  portion  only  of  the 
wood  which  has  been  preserved  by  the  infiltration  of  some  salts 
of  iron,  while  the  rest,  which  was  detached  from  contact  with 
metal,  has  disappeared  The  wood  of  which  the  handle  was 
made  appears  to  be  fir.  On  an  iron  palstave  from  the  same  spot 
it  seems  to  be  oak.  On  two  bronze  palstaves  from  France  in 
my  own  collection,  one  from  Amiens  and  the  other  from  the 
Seine,  at  Paris,  the  portions  of  wood  which  still  remain  attached 
to  the  blades  appear  also  to  be  oak. 

In  the  Hallstatt  specimen  the  inclination  of  the  blade  seems  to 
have  been  towards  the  hand,  and  the  part  of  the  handle  beyond 
the  branch  which  enters  the  socket  presents  some  appearance  of 
having  been  bound  with  an  iron  ferrule,  probably  with  the  view  of 
preventing  it  from  splitting.  The  projection  is  somewhat  longer 
proportionally  than  that  in  Fig.  185,  and  the  end  appears  to  have 
been  truncated,  and  not  rounded. 

•  "  Orabfcld  von  Hallrt.,**  p.  38. 


158  METHODS  OF   HAFTING   CELTS  [CHAP.  VI. 

There  have  been  in  this  country  a  few  instances  of  the  dis- 
covery of  bronze  rings  in  company  with  palstaves  and  socketed  celts, 
and  these  rings  may  possibly  have  served  a  similar  purpose,  though 
it  must  bo  confessed  that  such  an  use  is  purely  conjectural.  That 
shown  in  Fig.  188  was  found  in  company  with  a  bronze  palstave 
without  a  loop,  but  much  like  Fig.  74,  at  Winwick,*  near  Warring- 
ton, Lancashire,  and  was  kindly  lent  me  by  Dr. 
James  Kendrick,  who  in  1858 1  suggested  that 
it  was  a  "sort  of  ferrule  to  put  round  the 
handle  of  the  palstave  to  prevent  the  wood  from 
splitting  when  the  instrument  was  strucL" 
The  ornament  on  the  ring,  somewhat  like  the 
"  broad  arrow  "  of  modem  times,  is  of  much  the 
"*^°  same  character  as  the  shield-like  pattern  below 

the  stop-ridge  of  some  palstaves.  In  the  British  Museum  is  a 
stone  mould  from  Northumberland  for  flat  rings,  3  inches  in  dia- 
meter, and  for  flat  celts  ;  but  such  rings  probably  served  some 
other  purpose. 

Another  bronze  ring,  1|.  inches  in  diameter,  was  found  with  a 
socketed  celt  in  the  Thames,?  opposite  Somerset  House,  but  here 
the  actual  association  of  the  two  is  doubtful. 

I  have  already  expressed  a  doubt  whether  the  celt  from  Tadcaster, 
Yorkshire,  and  now  in  the  British  Museum,  had,  when  found,  the 
bronze  ring  with  a  jet  bead  upon  it  passing  through  the  loop. 
The  ring  itself  is  made  not  of  one  continuous  piece  of  metal, 
but  of  stout  wire,  with  the  ends  abutting  against  each  other, 
and  nothing  would  be  easier  for  the  workman  who  found  the 
three  objects  than  to  pass  the  ring  through  the  loop  of  the 
celt  and  the  hole  of  the  bead.  I  have  myself  received  from 
Hungary  two  socketed  celts,  each  having  imperfect  penannular 
bracelets  passed  through  the  loop  in  the  same  manner,  though  they 
certainly  had  no  original  connection  with  the  celts.  It  is,  how- 
ever, but  right  to  mention  that  in  the  British  Museum  is  the 
upper  part  of  a  celt  with  an  octagonal  neck,  found  with  other 
objects  near  Kensington,  on  the  loop  of  which  is  a  small  ring,  barely 
large  enough  to  encircle  the  loop.  Of  what  service  this  could 
have  been  it  is  difficult  to  imagine. 

If  the  association  of  the  larger  rings  and  the  celts  must  be 
given  up,  it  is  needless  to  cite  the  opinions  which  have  been  held 

♦  Arch.  Assor.  Joum.y  vol.  xv.  pi.  xxv.  p.  236 ;  Arch.  Jnurn.,  vol.  xviii.  p.  159. 
t  A.  A.  J.y  vol.  xiv.  p.  269.  X  ^rch.  Journ.,  vol.  x.  p.  161, 


IN  SOME   INSTANCES   AS   ADZES.  159 

as  to  the  use  of  the  one  in  connection  with  the  other.     Some 
references  are  given  in  the  note.* 

The  early  Iron  Age  of  Denmark  is  no  doubt  considerably  later 
in  date  than  that  of  Hallstatt,  but  in  several  of  the  discoveries  of 
objects  of  that  period  in  Denmark  socketed  celts  of  iron  have 
been  found  still  attached  to  their  helves.  In  the  Nydam  find, 
described  by  Mr.  Conrad  Engelhardt,  the  majority  of  the  axes  were 
of  the  ordinary  form,  with  eyes  for  the  shafts ;  but  there  were 
some  also  of  the  form  of  the  socketed  celt,  though  without  any 
loops.  These  were  mounted  as  axes,  and  not  as  adzes,  on  crooked 
handles  about  17  inches  long.  The  helves  of  axes  of  the  ordinary 
form  were  from  23  to  32  inches  in  length.  In  the  Vimose  find  + 
there  were  several  of  these  iron  celts,  one  of  which  was  thought 
to  have  been  mounted  on  a  crooked  handle,  but  the  others  appear 
to  have  been  mounted  as  chisels. 

The  palstaves  with  the  edges  transverse  to  the  septum  between 
the  side  flanges  seem  to  have  been  mounted  in  precisely  the  same 
manner  as  those  of  the  ordinary  form,  except  that  when  attached 
to  their  handles  they  formed  adzes,  and  not  axes.  It  has  been 
suggested  §  that  the  palstaves  of  the  ordinary  form  may  also  have 
been  mounted  as  adzes,  and  probably  this  was  so  in  some  excep- 
tional cases.  Mention  has  already  been  made  of  some  Italian 
helves  with  transverse  notches  for  the  reception  of  the  blade. 
Some  of  the  flat  celts  may  have  also  been  mounted  as  adzes  by 
binding  them  against  the  shorter  end  of  an  L-shaped  handle,  in 
the  same  manner  as  the  Egyptians  fixed  their  adze  blades. 

In  some  palstaves,  but  more  especially  in  those  of  the  South 
of  Europe,  there  is  at  the  butt-end  of  the  blade  a  kind  of  dove- 
tailed notch,  which  appears  to  have  been  formed  by  hammering 
over  a  part  of  the  jets  or  runners  of  the  original  castings,  which 
were  left  projecting  a  short  distance  instead  of  being  broken  off 
short  at  the  blade.  Whether  the  hammering  over  was  for  the 
purpose  of  rounding  the  angles  or  for  that  of  forming  this  dove- 
tailed notch  is  somewhat  uncertain ;  it  is,  however,  possible  that 
one  or  more  pins  or  rivets  may  have  been  driven  through  the 
handle,  so  as  to  catch  the  dovetails  and  retain  the  blade  in  its 
place.     It  is  not  often  the  case  that  this  portion  of  the  blade  is  so 

•  Areh,,  toL  xvi.  p.  362;  Areh.  Joum.,  vol.  iv.  p.  6 ;  Klemm,  "  AUg.  Kult.  gesch.," 
^107. 
t  "Nydam  Mosefund,"  1869—1863.    Copenhagen,  1865. 
1  "  Vimow  Fundet "  af  C.  Engelhardt,  1869,  p.  29. 
!  Wettropp  in  Froe,  8oe.  Ant,^  2nd  S.,  vol.  v.  p.  335. 


160  METHODS  OF  HAFTING  CELTS.  [CHAF.  VI. 

long  that  it  would  have  gone  through  the  handle  and  have  allowed 
of  a  pin  beyond  it,  as  suggested  by  Mr.  Dunoyer  *  in  the  case  of 
a  long  palstave,  with  a  rivet-hole  near  the  butt-end  of  the  blada 
A  palstave,  found  in  a  tomb  in  the  department  of  Loir  et  Cher,t 
by  my  friend  the   late  Abb^  Bourgeois,  is  provided  with  a  rivet- 
hole  near  the  top,  countersunk  on  either  side  so  as  to  guide  a 
pin  into  the  place  intended  for  it ;  and  it  seems  probable,  as  the 
Abb^  suggests,  that  this  was  connected  with  the  securing  of  the 
blade,  which  is  destitute  of  a  loop,  to  the  helve.     Of  six  thin  flat 
bronze  celts,  7  or  8  inches  long,  from  the  Island  of  Thermia,  j:  or 
Cythnos,  in  the  Greek  Archipelago,  which  are  now  in  the  British 
Museum,    three    that   are   broad   are   provided  with   square   or 
lozenge-shaped  holes  towards  the  upper  end  of  the  blade,  and 
three  that  are  narrower  are  without.     A  flanged  celt  from  Italy,§ 
6  inches  long,  has  a  circular  hole  in  the  same  position,  which, 
may  have  received  a  pin.     Some  contrivance  for  keeping  blades 
of  smooth  bronze  fast  in  their  handles  must  have  been  neces- 
sary or  desirable  from  the  earliest  times.     With  stone  celts  we 
often  find  that  the  butt-end  destined  to  be  let  into  the  wooden 
or   horn  socket  was   purposely  roughened.     With  bronze,  how- 
ever,  such  a  process  does  not   seem    to  have  been  adopted  to 
any  extent ;   and  probably  with  blades   of  bronze,  so  much  less 
tapering  than  those  of  stone,  the  difficulty  of  keeping  them  in 
place    was   surmounted   by   attaching  them   with   some   sort  of 
resinous  or  pitchy  cement,     A  safe  remedy  against  slipping  out 
was  no  doubt  found  in  the  addition  of  the  ring  or  loop  to  the 
side,  which  there  can  be  but  little  doubt  served  for  a  cord  to  pass 
through,  so  as  to  hold  the  blade  back  to  the  handle.     In  a  socketed 
celt,  5  J  inches  long,  found  in  the  Seine,  at  Paris,  and  now  in  my 
own  collection,  not  only  is  the  wood  preserved  in  the  socket  by 
saturation  -with  some  salt  of  copper,  but  within  the  upper  part  of 
the  loop  there  are  distinct  traces  of  a  cord  which  was  apparently 
formed  of  vegetable  fibre.     The  Irish  palstave.  Fig.  105,  with  tho 
curved  projection  instead  of  the  usual  loop,  seems  to  show  that  it  w€ts 
only  against  the  upper  part  of  the  loop  that  the  strain  cama     No 
doubt,  however,  there  was  more  strength  in  the  loop  attached   to 
the  blade  at  both  ends  than  in  the  mere  neb  or  projection.     Some 
Italian  socketed  celts  have  similar  projecting  nebs,  one  on  either 
side.     In  the  case  of  the  palstaves  and  celts  with  two  loops,  i^ 

*  yirrh.  Jnttrn.,  vol.  iv.  p.  4,  fip.  B.  f  Revue  Areh,.,  vol.  xxi^.  p.  73, pi.  iii.  2, 

X  Pt'oc.  Soc.  Aut.^  2nd  S.,  vol.  iii.  p.  486.       §  Arch,  Joum,,  vol.  xxi.  p.  100. 


NO  PERFORATED   BRONZE   AXE-HEADS   IN   BRITAIN.  161 

• 

seems  probable  that  the  handle  must  have  been  somewhat  pro- 
longed beyond  the  side  branch,  which  received  the  palstave  or 
went  into  the  socket  of  the  celt. 

It  has  been  stated  that  some  of  the  Spanish  palstaves*  with  two 
loops  were,  when  first  discovered,  attached  to  a  straight  handle  of 
wood.  But  this  opinion  may  have  been  formed  from  the  grain  of 
the  wood  impressed  on  the  upper  part  of  the  blade  running  along 
and  not  across  it.  In  the  first  account  f  given  of  the  discovery, 
these  palstaves  were  regarded  as  having  been  used  for  picking  out 
the  strata  of  coal,  and  one  of  them  is  said  to  have  been  firmly 
attached  to  a  wooden  handle  by  means  of  thongs  interlaced  and 
held  by  notches  in  the  wood.  This  handle  was  described  as 
having  been  straight,  so  that  the  instrument  was  fitted  to  be 
used  as  a  crowbar  and  not  as  a  hatchet.  But  inasmuch  as  the 
groove  for  the  handle  is  only  2^  inches  long  and  ^  inch  wide, 
while  the  length  of  the  blade  projecting  beyond  the  handle  is 
nearly  5  inches,  it  is  almost  impossible  for  it  to  have  served  in 
this  manner. 

Axe-heads  of  bronze  of  the  modem  form  with  an  eye  through 
them  to  receive  a  straight  helve  have  not  been  found  in  this 
country,  though,  as  already  observed,  they  are  not  xmcommon  in 
Hungary,  Southern  Germany,  and  Italy.  That  the  form  was  already 
known  in  Greece  in  the  Homeric  Age  is  evident  from  the  feat  of 
skill  in  shooting  an  arrow  through  the  shaft  holes  of  a  number  of 
axe-heads,  arranged  in  a  row,  recorded  in  the  Odyssey.  J  I  have 
in  my  collection  a  fine  double-edged  axe,  or  ireKeKw,  from  Greece, 
8^  inches  in  length,  with  a  round  shaft-hole  ^  inch  in  diameter. 
I  have  also  two  from  Salamis. 

Looking  at  the  widespread  distribution  of  perforated  stone  im- 
plements, especially  battle-axes,  throughout  Europe,  it  seems 
strange  that  so  few  bronze  weapons  of  the  same  class  should  be 
found.  Possibly,  however,  these  stone  weapons  may  have  re- 
mained in  use  even  until  the  latter  part  of  the  Bronze  Period,  as 
they  certainly  did  through  the  earlier  part  of  it.  In  this  country 
it  seems  doubtful  whether  any  of  the  perforated  battle-axes  of  stone 
belong  to  a  time  when  bronze  was  absolutely  unknown,  as  bronze 
knife-daggers,  like  Fig.  279,  have  so  often  been  found  asso- 
ciated with  them  in  interments.  Hungary  is  the  country  in 
which  the  perforated  bronze  battle-axes  seem   to  have  arrived  at 

•  Arch.  Joum.f  vol.  vi.  p.  369.  t  uirch.  Joum.^  vol.  vi.  p.  69. 

X  Lib.  xix.  V.  573.    See  also  Lib.  v.  v.  235. 

M 


162  METHODS  OF   HAFTINa   CELTS  [CHAP.  VI. 

their  fullest  development,  many  of  them  being  of  graceful  form 
and  beautiful  workmanship.  The  perforated  copper  implements 
of  that  country  were  probably  used  for  agricultural  purposes,  and 
I  see  no  reason  for  assigning  them  to  so  early  a  date  as  the  com- 
mencement of  the  Bronze  Period  of  Hxmgary.  They  may,  indeed, 
belong  to  a  much  later  period.  It  is  hard  to  accoimt  for  this 
absence  of  perforated  axes  of  bronze  in  Britain,  but  various  causes 
seem  to  have  conduced  to  render  their  introduction  difficult 
When  first  bronze  came  into  use  it  must  have  been  extremely 
scarce  and  valuable  ;  and  to  cast  an  axe-head  in  bronze,  like  one 
of  the  perforated  axe-hammers  of  stone,  would  have  required  not 
only  a  considerably  greater  amount  of  the  then  precious  metal  than 
was  required  for  a  flat  hatchet-head,  but  would  also  have  involved 
a  far  higher  skill  in  the  art  of  casting.  Moreover,  the  flat  form  of 
these  simple  blades  rendered  them  well  adapted  for  being  readily 
drawn  out  to  a  sharp  cutting  edge,  and  when  once  they  had  come 
into  general  use  they  would  not  have  been  readily  superseded  by  those 
of  another  form,  hafted  in  a  different  method,  even  were  that  method 
more  simple.  If  the  bronze  celts  were  mainly  in  use  for  peaceful 
industries,  while  the  warlike  battle-axes  were  made  of  stone,  the 
progressive  modifications  in  the  shape  of  the  former  would  be  less 
likely  to  be  affected  by  the  characteristics  of  the  latter.  It  must 
also  be  remembered  that  in  France,*  which  then  as  now  set  the 
fashion  to  Britain,  perforated  axe-heads  of  stone  were  very  seldom 
used,  and  those  of  bronze  were  in  the  north  of  the  country 
unknown. 

But,  to  return  to  the  celts  of  the  British  Islands,  there  can,  I 
think,  be  but  little  doubt  that  the  loop  is,  as  already  described, 
connected  with  the  method  of  mounting  these  instniments  on 
their  hafts ;  and  is  not  intended  for  the  attachment  of  a  cord,  by 
which  they  might  be  withdrawn  and  recovered  after  they  had 
been  throAvn  at  the  enemy.  Like  the  American  tomahawks,  they 
may,  no  doubt,  have  occasionally  been  used  as  "  missile  hatchets," 
the  "  missiles  secures "  of  Sidonius ;  t  but  the  days  of  young 
Sigimer,  whose  followers  were  provided  with  these  weapons,  are 
many  centuries  more  recent  than  those  to  which  the  bronze  celts 
must  be  referred. 

In  the  same  manner,  any  idea  of  the  loops  having  merely  served 

♦  ^Vhilo  speaking  of  French  ajlts,  I  may  refer  to  a  short  Paper  on  the  method  in 
which  thev  wore  hafted,  ^Titten  by  the  late  M.  Penguilly-rilai-idon. — liev.  Arch.y 
2nd  8.  vol.*  iv.  p.  32U. 

t  Ep.  20,  lib.  4.     Sec  Arch.,  vol.  xxx.  p.  492. 


AS   CHISELS. 


163 


il 


for  liu^finf^  these  instrumenta  at  the  girdle  may  be  at  once  dis- 
euded.  For  such  a  purpose  the  projection  which  we  find  sub- 
stitnted  for  the  loop  would  be  useless,  and  the  presence  of  two 
loops  would  be  superfluous. 

On  the  whole,  we  may  conclude  that  the  majority  of  these 
iostruments  were  mounted  for  use,  somewhat  in  the  manner 
described,  so  as  to  serve  as  axes  or  adzes.  A  smaller  proportion 
of  them  may,  however,  not  improbably  have 
been  provided  with  short  straight  handles,  to 
serve  as  chisels,  especially  the  socketed  celts 
of  small  size  and  without  loops.  This  is  the 
more  probable  as  several  socketed  instruments 
closely  resembling  them  in  character  cannot  be 
r^arded  as  other  than  chisels  and  gouges.  No 
example,  however,  of  a  socketed  celt  provided 
with  a  handle  of  this  kind  has  as  yet  been 
found.  The  little  instrument  of  brass  fixed 
into  a  handle  made  of  stag's  horn,  which 
was  found  in  a  cist  in  a  barrow  at  Everley,* 
Wilts,  by  Sir  R.  Colt  Hoare,  has  more  the 
^ipearance  of  being  a  tanged  chisel,  such  as 
will  subsequently  be  described,  than  a  flat  colt. 
It  is  shown  full  size  in  Fig.  189,  which  I  have 
copied  &om  Sir  R.  C.  Hoare's  plate.  There 
were  no  bones  or  ashes  found  in  the  cist,  but 
several  pointed  instruments,  and  what  appears 
to  be  a  kind  of  long,  fiat  bead  of  bone,  as  well 
u  two  whetstones  of  freestone,  and  a  hone  of 
a  bitieiah  colour  had  been  deposited  with  it.  , 

Professor  Worsaae  t  has  published  an  en-  llll  ,i  .'In' 
graving  of  a  narrow  Danish  palstave,  which 
was  found  in  a  hiU  in  Jutland  fastened  to  its 
bandle  by  three  rings  of  leather.  This  handle 
wasstraight,  but  unlike  that  from  Store  Hedin- 
>g?,  which  was  an  ell  and  a  quarter  long,  was 
not  more  than  about  8  inches  in  length.  In 
some  other  instances,  he  says,  the  blade  has  ng_  ie9.-ETHier.  i 
been  fastened  to  the  handle  by  nails  or  rivets. 

I  have  already  mentioned  that  some  of  the  socketed  celts  of 
iron  belonging  to  the  early  Iron  Age  of  Denmark  have  been  found 

•  "  Anc.  Wai»,"  »oL  i.  p.  182,  pi.  vd.  t  "  Prim.  Ant.  of  Denmarli,"  p.  26. 

H  2 


164  METHODS  OF   HAFTINO   CELTS.  [CHAP.  VI. 

mounted  as  chisels.  A  good  example  of  one  thus  hafted  has 
been  figured  by  Engelhardt*  The  part  of  the  handle  which  goes 
into  the  socket  is  tapered  to  fit  it.  Above  this  the  handle  ex- 
pands with  a  shoulder  projecting  somewhat  beyond  the  outside  oi 
the  celt.  It  continues  of  this  size  for  about  1^  inches,  and  is 
then  again  reduced  to  the  same  size  as  the  mouth  of  the  celt 
The  whole  of  the  handle  beyond  the  metal  is  about  4  inches 
in  length. 

Having  said  thus  much  with  regard  to  the  early  iron  chisels,  it 
will,  however,  now  be  well  to  proceed  to  the  consideration  ol 
those  formed  of  bronze,  and  of  the  other  bronze  tools  found  in 
this  country. 

•  "  Vimofle  Mosefundet/'  p.  28. 


CHAPTER  VII. 

CHISELS,    GOUGES,    HAMMERS,    AND   OTHER   TOOLS. 

Although,  doubtless,  many  if  not  most  of  the  instruments  of 
different  forms,  described  in  the  preceding  chapters,  were  used  as 
tools,  and  not  as  weapons,  yet  in  some  cases,  especially  where  they 
have  been  found  in  graves,  it  is  more  probable  that  they  formed 
part  of  the  equipment  of  a  warrior  than  of  an  artificer.  With 
regsad  to  the  various  forms  of  which  I  intend  to  treat  in  the  pre- 
sent chapter,  there  can  hardly  exist  a  doubt  that  they  should  be 
regarded  as  tools,  and  not  as  weapons.  Already  in  the  Neolithic 
Period  we  find  many  of  these  forms  of  tools,  such  as  chisels  and 
gouges,  developed ;  and  so  far  as  hammers  are  concerned,  it  seems 
probable  that  for  many  purposes  a  stone  held  in  the  hand  may 
have  served  during  the  Bronze  Period  as  a  hammer  or  mallet,  just 
as  it  often  does  now  in  the  age  of  steel  and  steam.  I  have  else- 
where* mentioned  a  fact  communicated  to  me  by  the  late  Mr.  David 
Forbes,  F.RS.,  that  in  Peru  and  Bolivia  the  masons,  skilful  in 
working  hard  stone  with  steel  chisels,  make  use  of  no  other  mallet 
or  hammer  than  a  stone  pebble  held  in  the  hand. 

The  simplest  form  of  chisel  is  of  course  a  short  bar  of  metal 
hrought  to  an  edge  at  one  end  and  left  blunt  at  the  other  where 
it  receives  the  blows  of  the  hammer  or  mallet.  Such  at  the 
present  day  are  the  ordinary  chisels  of  the  stone-mason,  and  the 
"  cold  chisel  "  of  the  engineer. 

Most  of  the  Scandinavian  chisels  of  flint  are  of  nearly  the  same 
fonn  as  the  simplest  metal  chisels,  being  square  in  section  in  the 
^pper  part  and  gradually  tapering  to  an  edge  at  the  lower  end. 
Bronze  chisels  of  this  form  are,  however,  but  rarely  met  with  in 
wiypart  of  Europe.    One  such,  however,  was  found  at  Plymstock,t 

•  "Anc.  Stone  Imp.,"  p.  207. 

t  See  Arch.  Joum.,  voL  xxvi.  p.  346.  I  am  indebted  to  Mr.  A.  W.  Franks,  F.R.S. 
tor  the  oae  of  this  cut. 


166  CHISELS,   GOUGES,   HAMMERS,    AKU  OTHER  TOOl^.       [cHAP.  VII. 

near  Oreston,  Bevonshire,  in  compODy  with  sixteen  flanged  celts 
like  Figs.  9  and  10,  three  d^gers,  and  a  tanged  apear-head,  en- 
graved as  Fig.  327.  It  is  shown  in  Fig.  190.  Its  length  is  4 
inches,  and  the  cutting  edge  is  rather  more  than  J  inch  in  width. 
The  late  Mr.  Albert  Way,  who  describes  this  specimen  in  the 
ArckcEologiccd  Journal,  regarded  it  as  unique  in  England ;  and  the 
form,  so  far  as  I  am  aware,  has  not  again  been  found  in  this 
country.     It  is  now  in  the  British  Museum. 

I  have  a  large  chisel  of  the  same  type,  but  apparently  formed  of  copper, 
which  woa  fouud  in  the  neighbourhood  of  Preasburg,  Hungary.  It  is 
7^  inches  long,  about  j  inch 
square  in  the  middle,  and 
expands  in  width  at  the  edge, 
wluch  is  lunate.  Othera  of 
the  same  form,  4^  inches  and 
5  J  inches  long,  also  from 
Hungary,  are  in  the  Zurich 
Museum.  Such  chisels  have 
also  been  found  in  the  Swiss 
Lak  e  -d  w  ellings. 

A  long  chisel,  formed  from 
a  plain  square  bar  drawn  to 
an  edge,  was  found  by  Dr. 
Schliemann*  in  his  excava- 
tions at  Hissarlik. 

Bronze  chisels  of  the  same 
form  were  also  in  use  among 
the  ancient  iWptlans. 

A  smaller  cEisel,  conical  at 
the  butt  end  and  jKWsibly 
intended  for  insertioa  into  a 
handle,  is  shown  in  Fig.  191. 
The  original  is  in  the  collec- 
tion of  Canon  Greenwell, 
F.R.8.,  and  was  found  with 
numerous  other  bronze  antiquities  in  the  Heathery  Bum  Cave,  Durham, 
already  so  often  mentioned.  One  rather  larger,  about  3  inches  long  and 
i  inch  broad,  probably  found  in  one  of  the  barrows  at  Lakef  or  Dum- 
ford,  is  in  the  collection  of  the  Eev.  E.  Duke,  of  Lake  House,  near  Salis- 
bury.    It  may  possibly  have  been  a  lai^  awl. 

An  Aztec}  chisel  of  nearly  the  same  form  as  Fig.  191,  and  about  4^ 
inches  long,  contains  97'87  copper  and  2-ia  of  tin.  Another  from  Lima 
contains  94  copper  and  6  of  tin. 

The  small  bronze  chisel  from  Scotland,  shown  in  Fig.  192,  exhibits  a 
somewhat  different  type ;  the  blade  tapering  evenly  away  from  the  edge. 
The  point  which  was  intended  to  go  into  the  liandle  appears  to  have  been 
"drawn  down"  a  Uttlo  by  hammering,  whicli  has  produced  slight  flanges 


Plrmaiock.   1 


Fig.IM. 


"  Troy  and  its  KcmainB,"  p.  332. 


t  Jye/i.,  vol.  iliii.  p,  467. 


;1  Museo  da  Uexico,"  vol.  i.  p.  117. 


TAMGED   CHISELS.  167 

at  the  aides.  The  edge  has  also  been  hammered.  The  original  was  kindly 
lent  me  b;  the  Bev.  George  Wilson,  of  Qlenluce,  Wigtonsbire,  and  maa 
found,  wiUt  a  conical  button  and  a  flat  plate  of  cannel-coal  or  jet,  on  the 
SaodhiUe  of  liow  Torrs,  near  Glenluce.  Numerous  arrow-heads  and 
Sikee  of  flint  have  also  been  found  among  the  sands  at  the  same  place. 

A  flat  chisel  (4^  inches)  like  Fig.  192,  but  rather  broador  at  the  edge, 
vhich  is  Bomewhat  oblique,  was  found  with  two  flat  sickles  on  Sparkford 
Hill,*  Somersetshire. 

There  ware  some  email  chisels  of  this  class  in  the  Lamaud  hoard! 
(Jura). 

Others  have  been  found  in  the  Swiss  Lahe-dwellingB.J 

Two  shorter  edged  tools,  found  at  Ebnall,§  Salop,  which  have  been 
deacttbed  as  chisels  or  hammers,  seem  rather  tji  have  been  punches,  and 
will  be  mentioned  subsequently. 

As  chisels  were  probably  used  in  ancient  times,  as  at  present,  not 
only  ID  conjunction  with  a  mallet,  but  also  in  the  hand  alone  with 
pressure  as  paring-tools,  it  would  have  been  found 
conTenient  to  attach  them  to  wooden  or  horn 
bandies.  Accordingly  we  find  them  both  provided 
with  a  tang  or  shank  for  driving  into  a  wooden 
bimdle,  like  the  majority  of  modem  chisels,  and 
also,  though  more  rarely,  with  a  socket  for  the 
recqation  of  a  handle,  like  the  heavy  mortising 
chisels  of  the  present  day.  Chisels  of  the  tanged 
variety  vary  considerably  in  size  and  strength,  and 
in  the  restive  width  of  the  blade  to  the  length. 

That  shown  in  Fig.  192*  ia  from  the  great  hoard 
diKorered  at  Carlton  Itode,||  Norfolk,  already  mon- 
tioDed,  and  is  preserved  in  the  Norwich  Museum.  The 
marks  of  the  joint  of  the  mould  are  still  visible  on  the 
<aog.  It  was  found  with  numerous  celts  and  gouges, 
a  hammer,  and  at  least  one  socketed  chisel.     Anothet  c^SiJa^.    j 

tanged  chisel  of  nearly  the  same  form  and  dimensions  is 
^  in  the  Norwich  Museum.     It  formed  part  of  the  Woodward  Collec- 
tion, and  was  probably  found  in  Norfolk. 

A  chisel  much  more  expanded  at  the  edge,  and  also  of  lighter  make, 
»ia  found  at  Wallingford,  Berks,  in  company  with  a  double-edged  knife 
or  razor,  and  a  socketed  celt,  gouge,  and  knife,  of  which  notices  are  given 
in  other  parts  of  this  booh.  It  ia  engraved  as  Fig.  1 93,  and  is  in  my  own 
(oUection,  as  is  also  the  original  of  Fig.  194.  This  formed  part  of  the  hoard 
discoTered  in  Beach  Fen,  Cambridge,  and  was  the  only  one  of  the  kind 
there  found.  A  socketed  chisel-like  celt  from  the  same  board  has  been 
■heady  described  and  figured  at  page  133,  Fig.  159. 

•  Samer$el  ArtA.  and  Nat.  Silt.  Proe.,  1856—7,  vol.  vii.  p.  27. 

t  Chantre,  "  Albmn,"  pi.  liiii.  J  Keller,  7tor  Bcriaht,  TtJ.  ii.  31,  35. 

(  Arrh.  Jmm.,  voL  xiii.  p.  187 ;  Proe.  Sot.  Ant.,  2qU  S.,  vol.  iii  p.  66. 

I  AtcK.  Joum.,  vol.  ii.  p.  80 ;  Arch.  Auoc.  Jaunt,,  vol.  i.  p.  SO. 


168  CHISBI£,    GOUGES,   HAMMERS,    AND  OTHEB  TOOU.       [CHAF.  TH. 

Tanked  chisels  have  also  occurred  in  rariouB  other  hoards  of  bronze 
antiquities.  Some  vere  found  vith  numerous  celts  and  other  tools  at 
Westow,*  on  the  Derwent,  Yorkshire,  vhich  fronL  theircuTred  edgee  and 
general  character  the  late  Mr.  Jamra  Tates  regarded  as  the  tr/uXa  xft"^" 
T^ioc,  or  chisel  for  cutting  paper,  mentioned  07  Philoxenus,  and  as  the 
currier's  chisel,  imn-ordfiof,  mentioned  by  Julius  Pollux.  If  I  vere  to  oSta 
an  opinion  it  would  be  that  any  cutting  tool  of  the  Bronze  Period  in 
Britain  was  more  likely  to  have  been  used  for  cutting  leather  than  paper, 
the  latter  commodity  being,  to  say  the  least  of  it,  scarce  in  Britun  at  that 
time ;  and,  moreover,  that  chisels  are  generally  used  for  cutting  wood  and 
not  leather. 

In  the  collection  of  Canon  Greenwell,  F.E.S.,  are  two  of  theee  tanged 
chisels  from  Westow,  about  4}  inches  long  and  1^  inch  broad  at  the  edge.  A 
small  part  of  the  blade  below  the  round  collar  is  cylindrical.  In  the  British 
Museum  is  a  small  spedmen  of  this  kind  (3^  indies)  from  the  Thames. 


FIs.  ISe.— WallingfOid.      |  Fts.  lH.-BeuhtteL     f         Fig.  ife.— Tluiend^e.       i 


In  the  M^er  Collection  at  Liverpool  is  a  specimen,  4  inches  long  and 
i  inch  broad  at  the  edee,  found  near  Canterbury  in  1761.  The  coUar  is 
flat  above  and  almost  nemispherical  below.  Another,  with  part  of  the 
tang  broken  off,  and  the  blade  2}  inches  long  and  1}  inch  wide,  was 
found  in  the  Kirkhead  Cave,  Ulverstone,  Lanca^iire,  and  was  described 
to  me  by  Mr.  H.  Ecroyd  Smith. 

Another,  rather  like  Fig.  199,  but  broken  at  the  angles,  was  found 
with  spear-heads  and  a  socketed  celt  at  Ty  MawT,f  Anglesea.  "What 
appears  to  be  a  cliieol  of  this  kind  (4J^  inches  long)  was  found  near 
Biggen  Grange,!  Derbyshire,  and  is  in  the  Bateman  (Aillection.  Another 
was  fomid  at  Porkington.S  Shropshire, 

A  fragment  of  a  tanged  chisel  was  found  with  a  large  hoard  of  broad 
spear-heads,  &c.,  at  Bcoadward,  Shropshire. 

A  remarkably  small  specimen  from  Thixendale,  in  the  East  Biding 
of  Yorkshire,  is  in  the  collection  of  Canon  Greenwell,  who  has  kindly 
allowed  me  to  engrave  it  as  Fig.  196.    The  stop,  instead  of  being  as  usual 

•  jirrh.  Joum.,  vol.  vi.  p.  381,  408;  Arch.  Aiaoe.  Jour«.,  vol.  iii.  p.  68. 
t  Areh.  Jourr,.,  vol.  Xliv.  p.  M3. 

i  Batemaii'B  "  Cfttalo^e,"  p.  74,  No.  S ;  '■  Vest.  Ant.  Derb.,"  p.  8. 
J  Arch.  Joum.,  vol.  vii.  p.  19fi. 


CHI8BL8   WITH  LUGS  AT  THE    SIDES. 


169 


a  circular  collar,  consists  of  a  bead  on  each  face,  so  that  in  the  side  view 
it  appears  as  if  an  oval  pin  traversed  the  blade. 

Nearly  siniilar  side-stops  are  to  be  observed  in  the  chisel  represented 
in  Fig.  196,  which  was  found  with  two  others  (3$  inches  and  4^  inches) 
in  n  hoard  of  bronze  antiquities  at  Yattendon,*  Berks,  of  which  I  have 
given  an  aooount  elsewhere.  With  the  chisels  were  instruments  of  the 
following  forms,  some  in  a  fragmentary  condition :  flat  celts,  palstaves, 
socketed  oelts,  gouges,  socketed  and  tanged  knives,  swords,  scabbard 


Fig.  106.— Tattendon.       i 


Fig.  107.— Broxton. 


Olds,  Bpear-heads,  and  flat,  conical,  and  annular  pieces  of  bronze.  The 
other  two  chisels  from  this  hoard  were  more  like  Fig.  194. 

A  very  large  example  of  a  chisel  of  this  kind  is  shown  in  Fig.  197,  the 
original  of  wiuch  was  kindly  lent  me  by  Sir  Philip  de  M.  Grey  Egerton, 
F.K.8.  It  was  found  in  company  with  two  looped  palstaves  and  a  spear- 
head near  Broxton,  Cheshire,  about  twelve  nules  south  of  Chester. 

An  instrument  of  somewhat  the  same  character,  from  Farley  Heath, 
has  already  been  described  at  p.  69. 

A  tanged  chisel,  5  inches  long,  and  without  any  stops  or  collar,  was 
found  with  other  objects  at  Burgesses'  Meadow,  Oxford,  in  1830,  and  is 
now  in  the  Ashmolean  Museum. 

•  JProc,  Soc,  Ant,,  2n(i  S.,  vol.  vii.  p.  480. 


170 


CHISELS^  GOUGES^   HAMMERS,   AND  OTHER  TOOLS.       [CHAF.  TU. 


Tliis  form  of  instrument  occurs  but  rarely  in  Scotland ;  but 
what  appears  to  be  a  chisel  of  this  kind  is  engraved  by  Wilson.* 
His  figure  is,  however,  a  mere  diagram,  without  any  scale  attached, 
and  the  instrument  is  described  as  an  axe  blade  with  a  cross  limb, 
or  as  a  "  S2)iked  axe."  Whatever  its  character,  the  original  of  the 
figure  is  said  to  have  been  found  with  other  bronze  relics  at 
Strachur,  Argyleshire. 

An  example  of  a  chisel  of  elongated  form  is  in  the  Antiquarian 
Museum  t  at  Edinbiu'gh,  but  it  is  uncertain  in  what  part  of  Scotland  it 
was  found.  By  the  kindness  of  the  Council  of  the  Society  of  Antiqua- 
ries of  Scotland  it  is  shown  as  Fig.  198. 


Fig.  196.— SooUand.       i 


Fig.  199.— Ireland.       i 


In  Ireland  they  are  much  more  common.  There  are  thirteen 
specimens  in  the  Museum  of  the  Royal  Irish  Academy,  as  cata- 
logued by  the  late  Sir  William  Wilde,  +  vary^ing  in  length  from 
2  J  to  6i  inches.  Some  of  these  Irish  chisels,  which  approximate  to 
flat  celts  in  character,  have  already  been  described  in  Chapter  III. 

That  wliich  Wildo  has  given  as  his  Fig.  395  is  almost  identical  in 
form  with  the  chisel  from  Ireland  in  my  own  collection  which  is  here 
engravtHl  as  Fig.  199,  though  considerably  longer  altogether,  and  some- 
what loiigor  proportionally  in  the  tang. 

I  have  another  example  from  Belaghey,  County  Antrim,  which  is  6f 
inches  long,  and  much  stouter  in  the  tang  and  in  the  neck  of  the  blade 
than  that  here  figured.     It  is  only  1 3  inches  wide  at  the  edge. 


♦  "Pn^h.  Ann.  of  Soot.,"  vol.  i.  p.  381,  fig.  54. 

t  rroc.  Soc.  Ant.  Scot.,  vol.  xii.  p.  613.  J  "  Cat4il.  Mu8.  R.  I.  A.,"  p.  520. 


SOCKETED  CHISELS.  171 

Amonff  those  in  the  museum  at  Dublin  is  one  which  is  decorated 
with  knobs  round  the  collar.  Two  others  are  figured  in  **  Hora)  Ferales."  * 
In  the  British  Museum  is  one  (4|  inches)  with  a  well-marked  collar. 
Another,  with  the  square  tang  broken  off,  has  a  loop  at  the  side  of  tlie 
round  part  of  the  blade,  which  is  2^  inches  long.  This  curious  specimen 
was  found  near  Burrisokane,  county  Tipperary. 

Another  chisel  (4|  inches)  in  the  same  collection  has  side-projections 
only,  like  Fig.  195. 

Another  (3^  inches),  with  a  well-developed  collar,  is  engraved  in  the 
Areheohgieal  Journal.]  The  form  shades  off  into  that  of  the  flat  celts 
having  projections  at  the  sides. 

Others  in  the  collection  of  Mr.  Robert  Day,  F.S.A.,  resemble  Fig.  196 
flinches)  and  Fig.  197  (6  inches).  The  latter  was  found  at  Kanturk, 
Co.  Cork. 

Tanged  chisels  have  been  found,  though   not  abundantly,  in 
France.      One  from  Beauvais  is  in  the  museum  at  St.  Germain. 

The  socketed  form  of  chisel  is  by  no  means  common  in  this 
country ;  but  some  instruments,  probably  intended  for  use  as 
chisels,  have  already  been  described  among  the 
socketed  celts  not  provided  with  loops.  These 
are  all  comparatively  broad  at  the  cutting  edge ; 
but  there  is  another  variety,  with  a  narrow  end, 
fonned  much  like  the  modem  engineers  "cross- 
cut chisel,"  some  specimens  of  which  will  be  now 
described. 

That  shown  in  Fig.  200  is  from  the  great  find 
of  Carlton  Rode, J  Norfolk  (1844),  from  which 
several  specimens,  including  a  tanged  chisel  (Fig. 
192*)  and  a  socketed  celt  without  loop  (Fig.  160), 
have  already  been  described ;  and  some  other 
forms,  such  as  gouges  and  hammers,  have  yet  to  be 
mentioned.     The  edcre  is  only  -i^ths  of  an  inch  in         ^  Fig.  200 

•  1  1  11  1  111  1    /.  •  Carlton  Bode.    \ 

Width,  and  the  tool  seems  well  adapted  for  cutting 
mortises.  The  idea  of  a  mortise  and  tenon  must  be  of  very  early 
date,  as  a  mere  stake  driven  into  the  ground  supplies  it  in  a 
rudimentary  form  ;  and  tools  let  into  sockets,  or  having  sockets  to 
receive  handles,  aflFord  instances  of  connections  of  the  same  kind. 
In  our  modem  mortising  chisels  the  cutting  edge,  instead  of  being 
in  the  middle  of  the  blade,  so  as  to  have  a  V-shaped  section,  is 
usually  at  the  side,  and  presents  an  outline  like  the  upi)er  part  of  a 
K,  V ,  I  have  not  met  with  this  bevelled  edge  among  bronze  chisels. 

♦  PL  ▼.  43,  44.  t  Vol.  viii.  p.  91. 

X  Areh,  Joum.y  vol.  ii.  p.  80  ;  Areh.  Ammc.  Journ.j  vol.  i.  pp.  67,  69 ;  Smith's  "  Coll. 
^,"  Toi  i.  p.  106 ;  Arch.f  vol.  xxxi.  p.  494 ;  **  Howe  Forales,"  pi.  v.  40. 


172  CHISELS,   GODGEB,    HAHHBRS,   AND  OTHER  TOOLS.       [cHAP.  Til. 

On  the  side  of  this  Carlton  Rode  chisel  may  be  seen  the 
mark  of  the  joint  of  the  mould  in  which  it  was  cast.  The  socket, 
as  usual  with  these  tools,  is  circular. 

A  bronze  chisel  of  the  same  form.  3|  inches  lone,  vas  found  at  Bom- 
ford,*  Essex,  in  company  with  socketed  celts,  palstaves,  fragments  of 
swords,  a  broken  spear-bead,  and  lumps  of  metal.  It  has  alr^dy  been 
figured. 

In  the  hoard  found  at  Westow,  Yorkshire,  already  mentioned,  were 
two  or  three  socketed  chUels.  One  of  them,  2}  mches  long,  is  engraved 
in  the  Arehaological  Journal.^  That  which  I  have  here  engraved  as 
Fig.  201  18  probably  the  same  specimen.  It  is  now  in  the  coUectioo  of 
Canon  Greenwell,  F.R.S.  Tanged  chisels,  gouges,  and  socketed  oelto 
were  found  at  the  same  time. 

In  the  same  collection  is  a  somewhat  smaller  chisel,  the  socket  of  which 
is  square  instead  of  circular.  This  was  found  in  the  Heathery  Bum  Gave, 
Durham,  together  wi&  a  number  of 
objects,  belonging  to  the  Bronte 
Period,  of  which  further  mention 
will  be  made  hereafter.  Another, 
found  at  Eoseberry  Topping,  York- 
shire, is  now  in  the  Bateman  Collec- 
tioD,  at  ShefBeld.  A  email  narrow- 
edged  chisel  was  found  in  a  hoard  at 
Ueldreth,  Cambridgeshire. 

I  am  not  aware  of  any  socketed 

chisels  of  the  narrow  form  having 

been  found  in  Scotland. 

5L£i:  *  H«Sfr,&;™.   i  In  Ireland  they  are  rare,  but  in 

the  collection  of  Mr.  E.  Day,  F.S.A.. 

are  a  few  specimens  of  undoubtedly  chisel-like  character.     Tho  broad 

celt-like  form  has  been  described  in  a  previous  chapter. 

In  France  they  are  also  far  from  common.  There  are,  however, 
two  in  the  museum  at  Tours,  found  at  the  Chatellier  d'Amboise. 
There  is  also  one  in  the  museum  at  Narbonne.J  They  have  been 
found  in  Savo7,§  DoubB,[[  and  Jura.^ 

Several  have  been  found  in  the  LiJte-dwelUngs  of  Switzerland.**  One 
with  a  treble  moulding  round  the  mouth  and  a  polygonal  neck  from 
McDrigcnfj'  exhibits  much  taste  in  its  manufacture. 

A  number  of  chisels  both  of  the  tanged  and  the  socketed  forms  were 
present  in  the  great  hoard  of  bronze  oojecta  discovered  at  Bologna. 

Socketed  examples  from  Italy  are  in  the  museum  at  Copenhagen,||  and 
in  the  British  Mueeiun. 

•  ^rcA.  JoUTH.,  vol. 
t  ^reh.Journ.,  vol. 

I  "  llatpriaui,"  vol 

kEj:p.  Arch,   dt  Sa 
IV.,"  pi,  I.  B. 

II  Chantre,  "  Album,"  pi. 
••  Keller,  6tCT  Boricht, 

Palafittpe,"  fig.  40. 

tt  Deaor  and  Favrp,  '■  I^  Bel  Age  du  Br.,"  pi. 
II  "  Cong.  Prfh.,"  CoiiOTihagpn  vol.  p.  W6. 


vi'.  p.  3B2. 
V.  pi.  ii.  12, 

,i,,187a,pl. 

See  also  ^r 
lu.  No.  3 

■ch. 

;pi. 

ri.  215, 

216; 

,  vol.  Ui.  1 
Penin,  " 

,.S8,%. 
Et.  Prfh 

4. 

.de 

•  pi.  T.  7. 

38; 

7tcr  Ber.. 

,  Taf.  vii 

H  Ibid, 
i.  2,  3,  5, 

No. 

,&c. 

6. 

;  Deaor.  " 

Les 

TANGED  GOUGES. 


173 


I  hare  some  from  Macarsca,  Dalmatia,  of  which  the  sockets  have  been 
formed  by  hammering  out  the  metal  and  turning  it  oyer,  instead  of  being 
produced  as  usual,  by  means  of  a  core  in  the  casting. 

Socketed  dusels  from  Emmen  and  Deume,  MoUandy  are  in  the 
museum*  at  Leyden. 

From  North  (Germany  I  may  cite  one  (6^  inches)  from  Schlieben^f 
which  is  in  the  Berlin  Museum. 

Others  are  engrayed  by  lindenschmit,}  8chreiber,§  and  Lisch.|| 

One  from  Kempten,  Bayaria,  is  in  the  Sigmaringen  Collection.^ 

Gouges. 

Closely  allied  to  chisels  are  gouges,  in  which  the  edge,  instead 
of  being  straight,  is  curved  or  hollowed,  so  that  it  is  adapted  for 
working  out  rounded  or  oval  holes.     In  some  languages,  indeed, 
the  name    by  which  these  tools  are  known  is    that 
of  "  hollow  chisels."    It  is  an  early  form  of  instrument, 
and  a  few  specimens  made  of  flint  have  been  found 
in  this  country,  though  they  are  here  extremely  rare, 
while,  on    the   contrary,  they  are  very  abundant  in 
Denmark  and  the  South  of  Sweden.     In  the  Scandi- 
navian  countries,  however,  bronze  gouges  are  never 
found ;  and  though  gouges  of  stone  were  not  unknown 
in  this  country  during  its  Stone  Period,  their  suc- 
cessors in  bronze  do  not  appear  to  belong  to  the  early 
part  of  the  Bronze  Period,  but,  on  the  contrary,  seem 
to  be  characteristic  of  its  later  phases. 

Of  bronze  gouges  there  are  the  same  two  varieties 
as  of  the  ordinary   chisel,    viz.  the  tanged  and  the 
socketed,  of  which  the  former  is  far  rarer  than  the 
latter.     Indeed  the  only  tanged  gouge  from  Britain 
with  which  I  am  acquainted  is  that  from  the  Carlton 
Rode**  hoard,  already  so  often  mentioned,  which  is      yik  203 
shown  in  Fig.  203.     The  original  is  in  the  Norwich      ^^^^  x 
Museum,  the  trustees  of  which  kindly  allowed  me  to 
engrave  it.    As  will  be  seen,  it  is  of  remarkably  narrow  form, 
especially  as  contrasted  with  the  socketed  gouge  &om  the  same 
hoard  shown  in  Fig.  207.     There  was  a  broken  tanged  gouge  in 
the  great  hoard  of  bronze  objects  found  at  Bologna. 

•  Jannflen'a  "  Catal.,"  No.  21. 
t  Schzeiber,  <«I>ie  ehem.  StreitkeUe,"  Taf.  ii.  11. 
:  "Alt  u.  h.  Vora.,"  ToL  i.  Heft  v.  Taf.  iii.  §  Taf.  ii.  10. 

I  ''FMer.  Fnmciw.,"  Tab.  zxxiii.  5.  %  lindeiischimt,  Taf.  xlii.  7. 

^  Arek.  Jowm.y  toL  ii.  p.  80 ;  Arch,  Assoc,  /otim.,  toI.  i.  p.  61, 59  ;  "  Horse  Ferales," 
Pl.  T.  42. 


174  CHISELS^   GOUGES,   HAMMERS,   AND  OTHER  TOOLS.        [cHAT 


Of  English  socketed  gouges  the  most  common  form  is  that  shoi 
Fig.  204,  from  an  original  in  the  British  Museum,  which  was  found 
a  spear-head  (Fig.  391),  socketed  knife  (Fig.  240),  hammer  (Fig. 
awl  (Fig.  224),  and  two  socketed  celts,  at  Thomdon,*  in  SufPolk.  1 
were  six  gouges  of  the  same  character,  but  of  different  sizes,  in  the  1 
found  atWestoWjt  Yorkshire,  some  of  which  have  been  figured.  An* 
(3j^  inches)  found  with  socketed  celts  and  some  curious  ornaments  i 
a  large  stone  at  Eoseberry  Topping,^  in  Cleyeland,  has  also  been  fig 
Another  was  found  with  socketed  celts  and  spear-heads  at  Exning 
Suffolk.  The  cutting  end  of  another  was  associated  with  socketed 
in  the  hoard  discovered  at  Martiesham  in  the  same  county.  Pa 
another  was  discovered,  with  a  socketed  celt,  fragments  of  blades, 
rough  copper,  at  Melboum,||  Cambridgeshire.  Another  was  fc 
with  socketed  celts,  spear-heads,  and  an  armlet,  within  the  encamp 
on  Beacon  Hill,^    Chamwood  Forest,   Leicestershire.     Another, 

socketed  celts,  spear-heads,  &c.,  at  £bnf 
near  Oswestry;  and  another  (2 J  inches), 
socketed  celts,  fragments  of  knives,  a  butt^ 
stud,  and  limips  of  metal,  at  Kensington. ff 
hoard  is  in  the  British  Museum.  A  gouge 
found  with  four  socketed  celts  and  about  3( 
of  rough  copper  in  an  urn  at  Sittingboun 
Kent.  A  plain  gouge  formed  part  of  the  1 
found  at  8tanhope,^§  Durham.  A  remarl 
fine  gouge,  4^  inches  long  and  nearly  H 
wide  at  the  edge,  was  found,  with  spear-h 
socketed  celts,  part  of  a  celt  mould,  and  li 
of  metal,  at  Beddington,||||  Surrey.  At  Por] 
ton,^^  Shropshire,  a  gouge  accompanied 
tanged  chisel  lately  mentioned.  In  the  1 
found  at  Guilsfield,***  Montgomerj-shire,  ' 
were  two  gouges  in  company  with  looped 
staves,  socketed  celts,  &c.  In  my  own  coUe 
are  three  socketed  gouges,  about  3^  inches  long,  which  form  pa 
the  hoard  from  Beach  Fen,  Cambridgeshire,  in  which  were  socl 
celts,  socketed  and  tanged  knives,  and  numerous  other  objects, 
some  of  the  instances  cited,  as  at  Guilsfield  and  Ebnall,  the  upper  pi 
the  socket  is  beaded  instead  of  plain.  One  of  this  kind  from  the  I 
hoard  already  mentioned  is  shown  in  Fig.  205.  There  were  two  su 
the  hoard,  which  comprised  numerous  socketed  celts  and  the  moulc 
them,  and  various  tools  of  the  bronze-founder.  There  were  also  th< 
halves  of  a  bronze  mould  for  such  gouges  which  will  subsequent 
described.     In  the  Museum  of  the  Cambridge  Antiquarian  Society 

♦  Arch.  Joitm.j  vol.  x.  p.  3 ;  "  Hone.  For.,"  pi.  v.  36. 

t  Arch.  Jourti.y  vol.  \*i.  p.  381,  408 ;  Arch.  Assoc.  Journ.^  vol.  iii.  p.  58. 

X  Arch.  Scot.,  vol.  iv.  p.^oo,  pi.  vii.  6;  Arch,  ^Eliana^  vol.  ii.  p.  213,  pi.  iv.  c. 
\  Arch.  Journ.y  vol.  x.  p.  3.  ||  Arch.  Journ.^  vol.  xi.  p.  294. 
^  rroc.  Soc.  Ant.,  vol.  iv.  p.  323. 

♦•  Arch.  Journ.^  vol.  xxii.  p.  167;  "  IXokv  Forjilcs,"  pi.  v.  35. 
ft  Proc.  Soc.  Ant.,  2nd  8.,  vol.  iii.  p.  232. 

XI  Smith's  "Coll.  Ant.,*'  vol.  i.  p.  101 ;  Arch.  Journ.,  vol.  ii.  p.  81. 
j§  Arch.  ^Eliana,  vol.  i.  p.  13,  pi.  ii.  12. 

II il  "Surrev  Aix^h.  Si>o.  Coll.,"  vol.  ^-i.  ^^  Arch.  JoMrn.,  vol.  vii.  p.  195. 

•**  Arch.  'Camb.,  3rd  S.,  vol.  x.  p.  214  ;  "Montgom.  Coll.,"  vol.  iii.  p.  437. 


Fig.  204. 
Tborndon.    | 


Fig.  205. 
Uarty.    \ 


SOCKETED  GOUGES. 


175 


gouge  from  Bottisliam  Lode  (3  inches)  with  a  slight  shoulder  about  i  i^^^h 
mm  the  top  of  the  blade,  the  upper  part  of  the  neck  being  larger  than 
the  lower.  One  of  three  found  in  the  Heathery  Bum  Cave  (2^  inches)  is 
•lao  shouldered.  Of  the  other  two  (Sf  inches  and  3^  inches)  one  is  very 
tKgfatly  shouldered.  They  are  in  the  collection  of  Canon  Qreenwell,  F.E.S. , 
•I  is  also  a  plain  example  (3}  inches)  from  Scothom,  Lincolnshire. 

In  the  British  Museum  are  the  unfinished  castings  for  two  gouges,  one 
2}  inches  long  and  fully  i  inch  wide,  and  the  other  3  inches  long  and 
I  indi  wide  at  the  edge,  which  in  both  is  but  slightly  hollowed.  They 
were  found  with  a  socketed  celt  (Fig.  146)  near  Blandford,  Dorset.  The 
longer  one  is  of  yery  white  and  hard 
braue. 

Two  goug^  one  3^  inches  and  the 
other  broader,  but  only  2  inches 
kng,  found  with  various  other  ob- 
jeets  at  Hounalow;  as  well  as  one 
from  the  Thames  at  Battersea  (4 
indbifls),  are  in  the  same  collection. 

Two  gouges  (3^  inches  and  5 
inches)  were  found,  with  a  hammer, 
t  spear-head,  and  a  socketed  celt 
vhh  a  loop  on  the  face  (Fig.  154), 
near  Whittlesea.  The  whole  are  in 
the  museum  at  Wisbech. 

Two  from  Derbyshire  are  in  the 
Blackmore  Museum  at  Salisbury. 

A  socketed  gouge  of  imusually 
long  proportions  is  shown  in  Fig. 
206.  It  was  foimd  at  Undley,  near 
Lskenheath,  Suffolk,  and  is  in  my 
own  collection.  Li  the  Carlton  Eode 
hoard  were  also  two  long  gouges 
with  the  hollow  extending  more 
neaily  to  the  socket  end.  They  are 
both  rather  trumpet-mouthed.  One 
of  them  is  4^  inches  long  and  A 
inch  wide  at  the  edge,  the  other 
4^  inches  long  and  i  inch  wide.  I  have  not  seen  the  originals,  but 
describe  them  from  a  lithographed  plate. 

The  broad  short  gouge  shown  in  Fig.  207  is  also  from  Carlton  Hode. 
It  is  broken  at  the  mouth  of  the  socket,  but  I  have,  in  the  figure,  restored 
the  vtat  that  is  wanting.  The  original  was  lent  mo  by  the  trustees  of 
the  Norwich  Museum.  Another*  from  the  same  hoard,  about  3|  inolics 
long,  has  the  g^roove,  which  is  wide  and  rather  flat,  extending  only  an  inch 
upwards  from  the  edge. 

Socketed  gouges  have  been  found,  though  very  rarely,  in  Scotland. 
That  shown  in  Fig.  208,  the  cut  of  which  has  been  kindly  lent  to 
me  by  the  Society  of  Antiquaries  of  Scotland,  was  dredged  up  in  tlie 
river  Tay.t     This  appears  to  be  almost  the  only  Scottish  specimen 

•  ^'Hore  Fenlee,"  pi.  v.  39.  t  iVoc.  Soc.  Ant,  Scot.,  vol.  v.  p.  127. 


Pig.  808.  Tig.  Wr. 

Undley.    i       Carlton  Bode,    i 


Fiff.  206. 
Tay.    i 


176  CHISELSy   GOUGES^   HAMMERS^   AND  OTHER  TOOLS.       [CHAP.  VH'-' 

at  present  known.  Professor  Daniel  Wilson*  terms  it  "  one  of  th^ 
rarest  of  the  implements  of  bronze  hitherto  found  in  Scotland ;" 
but  he  adds  that  other  specimens  have  been  met  with  in  the  Tay. 
In  Ireland  they  are  conaderably  more  abundant,  there  being 
at  least  twenty  specimens  in  the  Museum  of  the  Royal  Irish 
Academy,  one  of  them  as  much  as  4}  inches  long. 

One,  much  like  Fig.  208,  has  been  engraved  by  Wilde  as  Rg.  899. 
Others  are  figured  in  the  ArchiBological  Journal  \  and  **  Horae  FercQes."  J 
In  one  of  these,  2j^  inches  long,  the  hollow  is  carried  up  to  the  collar 

round  the  mouth  as  a  square-ended  recess.  One  gouge 
appears  to  have  been  originally  tanged.  Several 
socketed  gou^s  from  Ireland  are  in  the  British  Mu- 
seum. Mr.  K.  Day,  F.S.A.,  has  examples  from  Mul- 
lingar  and  Derry,  the  latter  with  a  collar  at  the  top. 
They  occurred  also  in  the  Downs  hoard.  A  gouge  | 
only  2^  inches  long  and  unusually  broad  has  a  sniall 
loop  at  the  upper  end  of  the  concave  part.  It  is  here 
engraved  as  Fig.  209,  from  the  original  in  the  Museum 
of  the  Hoyal  Irish  Academy.  This  may  be  the  specimen 
figured  by  Vallancey.||  I  have  a  specimen  like  Fig  208. 
Fig.  S09.— iieiond.  \         Sookcted  gougcs  are  occasionally  found  in  France. 

One,  4  J  inches  long,  with  two  mouldings  round  the  top, 
ornamented  with  faint  diagonal  lines,  was  found  with  socketed  celts  and 
other  implements  in  the  Conmiune  de  Pont-point  ^  (Oise),  near  the  river 
Oise,  and  is  in  the  Hotel  Cluny,  Paris.  Others  from  the  Hautes  Alpes** 
and  from  the  Fonderio  de  Lcunaud  have  been  figured  in  Mr.  Ernest 
Chantre's  magnificent  Album. 

There  are  three  with  moulded  tops,  from  the  hoard  of  Notre  Dame  d'Or, 
in  the  Poitiers  Museum. 

A  fine  gouge  (about  5^  inches)  with  a  moulded  top  is  in  the  museum 
at  Clermont  Ferrand  (Puy  de  Dome).  A  very  fine  French  gouge  of  this 
character  is  in  the  British  Museum. 

I  have  a  specimen  much  like  Fig.  208  found  in  the  Seine  at  Paris. 
Others  were  in  the  hoard  at  Dreuil,  near  Amiens,  and  in  a  second  hoard 
also  found  near  that  town. 

Large  gouges  with  moulded  tops,  from  the  Stations  of  Auvemier,ff  in 
the  Lake  of  Neuchatel,  and  Mocrigen,  in  the  Lake  of  Bienne,  are  in 
Dr.  Victor  Gross's  collection. 

There  was  at  least  one  socketed  gouge  in  the  great  Bologna  hoard. 

In  Germany  they  are  very  rare,  but  one  from  the  museum  at  Sig- 
maringen,  with  a  somewhat  decorated  socket,  is  engraved  by  Lindenschmit. 
It  was  found  at  Kempten,  Bavaria.JJ  Others,  from  Diiren  and  Deume, 
North  Brabant,  Holland,  are  in  the  museum  at  Leyden. 

♦  "  Proh.  Ann.  Scot.,"  vol.  i.  p.  388.  t  Vol.  iv.  p.  335,  pi.  iii.  1,  2,  8,  4. 

X  Pi.  V.  37.  38,  41.  §  *'  HoraB  Ferales,"  pi.  v,  38. 

II  Vol.  iv.  pi.  ix.  5. 

%  '*  Horse  Ferales,"  pi.  v.  34  ;  Rev,  Areh,^  N.S.,  vol.  xiii.  pi.  ii.  x. 
••  PI.  X.  6,  and  xl.  6.     See  also  Mem,  Soc.  Ant,  Norm.,  1828—9,  pi.  xvi.  16. 
ft  "  Deux  Stations  Lacustres,"  pi.  iv.  34.    Keller,  7ter  Bericht,  Taf .  vii.  4 ;  De«or 
and  Favre,  "  liO  Bel  Age  du  Br.,"  _pl.  L  6. 
XX  *'  Alt.  u.  h.  Vorz.,"  Heft.  v.  m  iii  9, 10 ;  «•  HdhfloioU.  Sunml.,"  pi.  zlii.  7. 


SOCKETED  HAMMERS.  177 

Aaooktted  gouge,  with  the  edge  turned  to  a  sweep  of  about  1  inch  radius, 
ia  k  the  muMum  at  Agram,  Croatia. 
One  from  Siberia  *  has  been  figured  by  Worsaae. 

Hammers  and  Anvils. 

Another  fonn  of  tool  constructed  with  a  socket  to  receive  the 
iuuidle  in  precisely  the  same  manner  as  the  socketed  celts  and  gouges 
is  the  hammer.    It  is  worthy  of  notice  that,  though  perforated  ham- 
mers formed  of  stone  are  comparatively  abundant  in  this  country, 
jet  that  instruments  of  the  same  kind  in  bronze  are  unknown.  It  is 
ferae  that  what  looks  like  a  perforated  hammer,  said  to  be  of  bronze, 
was  found  in  Newport,  Lincoln,  and  is  engraved  in  the  Archceo- 
logical  Joumal,-f  but  there  is  no  evidence  of  its  belonging  to  the 
same  period  as  the  ordinary  tools  formed  of  bronze ;    and  the 
suggestion  that  it  may  have  been  the  extremity  of  a  bell-clapper 
is,  I  think,  not  &r  from  the  truth.     It  is  very  probable  that  many 
of  the  perforated  stone  hammers  belong  to  the  Bronze  Period  of  this 
coontry,  as  do  doubtless  most  of  the  perforated  stone  battle-axes  or 
aze-hunmers;  for  in  the  early  part  of  the  Bronze  Period  it  is  likely 
that  metal  was  far  too  valuable  to  be  used  for  heavy  tools  and 
weapons,  and  even  towards  the  close  of  the  period  it  seems  as  if 
it  was  only  the  lighter  kind  of  hammers  which  were  formed  of 
bronze.     The  heaviest  I  possess  weighs  only  five  ounces,  and  the 
lightest  less  than  half  that  weight.    As  will  subsequently  be  seen, 
it  is  possible  that  some  of  these  instruments  were  of  the  nature  of 
anvils  rather  than  of  hanmiers,  but  for  the  present  it  will  be  most 
convenient  to  speak  of  them  under  the  latter  name. 

The  most  conunon  form  of  hammer  is  that  which  is  shown  in 

Fig.  210,  from  an  original   in   the   British   Museum  found   at 

Thomdon,}  Suffolk,  in  company  with  a  spear-head,  socketed  gouge, 

socketed  knife,  and  two  socketed  celts.     The  two  hammer-like 

instruments  engraved  as  Figs.  211  and  212  were  found,  with  a 

Qnmber  of  socketed  celts,  moulds,  &c. — in  fact  the  whole  stock-in- 

tndeof  an  ancient  bronze-founder — in  the  Isle  of  Harty,  Sheppey, 

tnd  are  in  my  own  collection.     The  larger  of  the  two  shows  a 

conaderable   amoimt  of   wear  at  the  end,  which  is  somewhat 

*' upset"  by  constant  use.     The  smaller  is  more  oxidized,  so  that 

the  marks  of  use  are  less  easily  recognised.     The  metal  of  which 

•  iOn.  8oe.  Ant.  du  ITord,  1872—7,  p.  118.  f  Vol.  xxvii.  p.  142. 

t  Ank.  J(Mtm,f  T<d.  X.  p.  3;  Proe.  8oe.  Ant.y  2n(i  S.,  vol.  iii.  p.  66,  where  it  ifl  en- 
IMiifdlnaa;  <* Hor« Ferales,"  pi.  v.  33. 

N 


178  CHISBLB,   GOUGES,    HAMHKRB,    AND   OTHER   TOOIS.       [cti 

they  axe  formed  Beems  to  cootain  a  laiger  admixture  of  tin 
usual  with  tlie  cutting  tools;  and  I  have  noticed  the  same 
I  some  other  instances,   so  that  eren  in  early  tii 


Fi».WO.— ThorndoD.  1        Fig.  JU.-H«rty.  i  Fig.  111.— Hutr.  1    Fig.  213.-C«f 

singular  fact  must  have  heen  known  that  by  addii^  to 

the  softer  metal,  tin,  in  a  larger  proportion  than  the  oi 

usually  employed  for  bronze,  a  much  harder  metal  result 

the  present  time  the  extremely  hard  all 

■  for  the  specula  of  reflecting  telescopes  is 

by  an  a^nixture  of  about  two  parts  ol 
and  one  part  of  tin,  the  two  soft  metal 
in  these  proportions  forming  an  alloy 
as  hard  as  hardened  steel. 

In  th.e  Carlton  Bodo  find,  of  which  mei 

already  been  frequently  made,  was  a  ha 

muclL  longer  proportiona  than  those  from 

of  Harty.     By  the  kindnesa  of  tho  triiHt«( 

Norwich  MuBeum  I  have  been  able  to  engr 

Fig,  213.     It  expands  considerably  at  tin 

Ae  will  be  seen,  the  end  is  "  upset "  by  use 

appears  to  be  a  hammer  of  much  the  eai 

but  with  the  face  still  smaller,  waa  founc 

hoard  of  bronze  objects,  including  palstave 

heads,  flat  sickles,  a  torque,  &c.,  at  Taunl 

is  ahowa  in  Fig.  214. 

A  hammer  somewhat  larger  in  its  dimensions  than  Fi^,  21: 

type  more  resembliuf^  Fig.  212,  having  no  ahniilder  upon  its  b 

found  at  HoBoberry  Topping,  t  in  Cleveland,  with  a  socketed  celt, 


IRISH    HAMMERS. 


179 


and  odier  objects.  Another  broken  hammer  was  found,  with  a  hoard 
of  biooze  objects,  at  Stanhope,*  Durham. 

A  miall  hammer  (2^  inches),  found  with  ^ugee  and  other  objects  near 
Whittlesea,  is  in  the  Wisbech  Uuseum. 

Another  with  a  ciroular  socket  was  in  the  hoard  fouud  in  Burgesses' 
Ueadow,  Oxford. 

A  BmaLL  one  was  found  at  Hugby,t  and  is  in  the  possession  of  Mr. 
U.  H.  Bloxam,  F.8.A.    I  have  one  (3  inches)  found  near  Cambridge. 

I  am  not  aware  of  any  examples  having  as  yet  been  found  in 
Scotland. 

In  Ireland  they  are  rare,  but  four  "round-faced  socketed 
punches,"  varying  from  2  to  4  inches  in  length,  are  mentioned  in 
Wilde's  Catalogue.     These  are  probably  hammers. 

In  the  British  Museum  are  also  several  Irish  hammers,  oue  of  which  in 
shown  full  size  in  Fig.  215,  for  the  use  of  which  I  am  indebted  to  the 


Fig.  S1&— Dowri*.       t 

Council  of  the  Society  of  Antiquaries.}  It  is  cylindrical  in  form,  with 
two  rings  of  projecting  knobs  around  it.  The  end  is  circular  and  elightlv 
oonvex,  and  has  a  ridge  across  it,  due  to  constant  use.  Another,  found, 
with  trumpets,  spear-heads,  and  numerous  other  bronze  relics,  at  I>owris,S 
King's  County,  is  shown  in  Fig.  216,  also  lent  me  by  the  same  CouuciL 
It  is  of  a  different  type  from  any  of  the  others,  expanding  beyond  the 
■oekflt  into  a  large  n^t  blade.  It  appears  never  to  have  been  in  use. 
Two  other  wmaH  Irish  specimens,  one  with  a  long  oval  face,  are  in  the 
Britiflh  Museum.     I  have  a  hammer  (2^  inches)  much  lihe  Fig.  210,  but 

•  Areh.  JBIiaHa,  vol.  i.  p.  13,  pL  ii-  13. 

t  Prae.  Sac.  Ant.,  2nd  S.,  vol.  lii.  p.  129 ;  "  Hora  Fer.,"  pi.  v.  32. 

X  Pnc.  See.  Ant.,  2iid  8.,  vol.  iiL  p.  66.        }  Froe.  Sot.  AM.,  2nd  S.,  vol.  iii.  p.  4fi. 
N  2 


180  CHISELS,   GOUGES,   HAMMEBS,   AMD  OTHER  TOOLS.       [CHAF.  VII. 

with  the  shoulder  nearer  the  top,  found  with  a  socketed  celt  and  some 
perforated  and  other  rinffs,  near  Trillick,  Go.  Tyrone.  I  have  also  an 
imperfect  specimen  with  the  end  expanded,  but  not  to  the  same  extent 
as  Fig.  216.  This  was  found  with  a  broken  sword,  spear-heads,  and  a 
socketed  knife,  on  Bo  Island,  Enniskillen,  and  was  kmdly  prociured  for 
me  by  the  Earl  of  Enniskillen. 

Socketed  hammers  have  been  found  in  several  European  countries. 
I  have  two  from  France.  One  of  them  (3^  inches),^  like  Fig.  212  in 
foim,  was  found,  with  a  spear-head,  a  double-edged  knife,  some  curved 
cutting  tools,  and  an  anvu  of  bronze  (Fig.  217),  together  with  a  large 
torque  and  a  plain  bracelet  of  gold,  at  Fre8n6  la  M^,  near  Falaise, 
Calvados.  The  other  (2  inches),  stouter  in  its  proportions  and  more 
like  Fig.  210,  was  foimd  near  Angerville,  Seine  et  Oise.  A  short  thick 
hammer  was  found  at  Briatexte,  Tarn.* 

An  instrument  in  the  Brituh  Museum,  in  form  much  like  Fig.  216, 
found  at  Yienne  (Is^  ?),  has  only  a  small  square  hole  in  the  socket,  and 
may  have  served  as  an  anvil  rather  than  as  a  hammer.  A  hammer  also 
witii  expanded  end  was  found  near  Chalon,t  and  another  in  the  Valley  of 
the  Somme4 

A  cylindrical  hammer  or  anvil  was  found  in  the  hoard  of  the  Jardin  des 
Plantes  at  Nantes.  § 

Cylindrical  hammers  have  been  found  among  the  Lake-dwellings  of 
the  Lac  du  Bourget,||  Savoy,  one  of  them  provided  with  a  loop. 
M.  Eabut,  of  Chambery,  has  a  stone  mould  horn  the  same  lake  for 
casting  such  hammers.  Another  hammer-mould  of  stone  was  found  at 
the  Station  of  Eaux  Vives,  near  Geneva. 

Li  my  own  collection  is  one  of  these  looped  socketed  hammers,  nearly 
square  in  section,  from  Auvemier,  in  the  Lake  of  Neuchatel.  Others 
from  Swiss  Lake-dwellings,  both  with  and  without  loops,  are  engraved  by 
Keller.  Professor  Desor  has  a  hammer  expanding  towards  the  end  from 
the  Lake  of  Neuch&tel.^  A  hammer  found  at  Moerigen**  seems  to  have 
been  formed  from  a  portion  of  a  looped  palstave.  The  Lake-dwellers 
frequently  utilized  sudi  broken  instruments.  Another  hammer,  from  the 
Lake  of  Bienne,tt  is  hexagonal  in  section,  and  ornamented  with  reversed 
chevrons  on  its  faces. 

They  are  occasionally  found  in  Hungary.  I  have  seen  one  ornamented 
with  dievrons  in  reHef  upon  the  sides.  One  with  saltires  on  the  sides, 
and  some  fragments  of  others,  were  in  the  Bologna  hoard. 

The  object  engraved  by  Madsen  t|  as  possibly  the  ferrule  of  a  lance  may 
be  a  hammer  of  this  kind. 

A  solid  bronze  hammer  (4J  inches),  of  oblong  section,  with  two  pro- 

i'ecting  lugs  on  each  side  for  securing  the  handle,  found  near  Przemysl, 
^land,  was  exhibited  at  the  Prehistoric  Congress  at  Pesth.     It  was 

*  "  Materiaux,"  vol.  xiv.  pi.  ix.  6. 

t  Chantre,  "  Age  du  Br.,"  Ihre  ptie.  p.  38. 

X  "Mat^riaux/^vol.  v.  p.  462. 

§  Parenteau,  "Le  fondeur  du  Jard.  des  Plantes;"  "Materiaux,"  vol.  v.  p.  190, 
pi.  viii.  10. 

II  "  Exp.  Arch,  de  la  Sav.,"  1878,  pi.  v. ;  Chantre,  "  Album,"  pi.  v.  1. ;  Penin,  «  Et. 
Preh.  BUT  la  Sav.,"  pi.  x.  6,  7,  xix.  17. 

f  Keller,  7ter  Bericht,  Taf.  vii.  9. 

•*  Desor  et  Favre,  «  Le  Bel  Age  du  Br.,"  pi.  i.  9 ;  Gross, "  Deux  Stations,"  pi.  iii.  22. 

ft  Desor,  "Les  Palafittes,"  fig.  47.  tt  "  AfbUd.,"  vol.  u.  pi.  13,  15. 


METHOD  OF   HAFTING  HAICMERS.  181 

loiiiid  with  a  bronze  spear-head,  and  is  in  the  Museum  of  the  Academy  of 
Sdeooes  at  Oraoow. 

As  to   the  maimer  in  which  these  socketed  hammers  were 
moonted  we  have  no  direct  evidence.     It  seems  probable,  however, 
that  many  of  them  had  crooked  hafts  of  the  same  character  as 
those  of  the  socketed  celts.     It  is  worth  notice  that  on  some  of 
the  coins  of  Cunobeline  *  there  is  a  seated  figure  at  work  forging 
1  hemispherical  vase,  and  holding  in  his  hand  a  hammer  which  in 
profile  is  just  like  a  narrow  axe,  the  head  not  projecting  beyond 
the  npper  side  of  the  handle.     A  seated  figure  on  a  hitherto 
onpublished  silver  coin  of  Dubnovellaunus,  a  British  prince  con- 
temporary with  Augustus,  holds  a  similar  hammer,  or  possibly  a 
hatchet,  in  his  hand.     But  though  when  in  use  as  hammers  they 
were  mounted  with  crooked  shafts,  it  is  quite  possible  that  some 
of  these  instruments  may  have  been  fitted  on  to  the  end  of  straight 
stakes  and  have  served  as  anvils.     The  Rev.  W.  C.  Lukis,  F.S.A., 
informs  me  that  at  the  present  day  the  peasants  of  Brittany  make 
use  of  iron-tipped  stakes,  which,  when  driven  into  the  ground, 
form  convenient  anvils  on  which  to  hammer  out  the  edges  of  their 
sickles,  and  which  have  the  great  advantage  of  being  portable. 
Though  such  anvils  are  not,  so  far  as  I  am  aware,  any  longer  used 
in  this  country,  traces  of  their  having  been  formerly  employed 
^pear  to  be  preserved  in  our  language,  for  a  small  anvil  to  cut 
md  punch  upon,  and  on  which  to  hammer  cold  work,  is  still 
termed  a  "  stake.'' 

It  is  worthy  of  remark  that  an  implement  of  the  same  kind  as 
these  so-called  socketed  hammers,  and  made  in  the  same  manner,  of 
a  very  hard  greyish  alloy,  was  found  in  the  cemetery  at  Hallstatt,t 
and  was  regarded  by  the  Baron  von  Sacken  as  a  small  anvil.  A 
bronze  file  was  found  with  it. 

It  is  also  to  be  observed  that  of  the  two  hammer-like  instruments 
found  together  in  the  Harty  hoard  one  is  much  larger  than  the 
other,  and  may  have  formed  the  head  of  a  stake  or  anvil,  while 
the  other  served  as  a  hammer.  Still,  as  a  rule,  a  flat  stone  must 
have  served  as  the  anvil  in  early  times,  as  it  does  now  among  the 
native  iron-workers  of  Afiriea,  and  did  till  quite  recently,  for  many 
of  the  country  blacksmiths  and  tinkers  of  Ireland,  t  Among 
Danish  antiquities  some  carefully  made  anvils  of  stone  occur,  but 

*  Evans,  *' Ano.  Brit.  Coins,"  pi.  xii.  6. 

t  •'Gnbfeld  von  Hallstatt,"  pi.  xix.  11,  p.  89. 

X  WUde,  <«Catal.  Btone  Ant  in  R.  I.  A.  Mus./'  p.  81. 


182  CHISELS,    OOUOES,    HAHBIBBS,    AMD   OTBEK  T00L8.        [cHAP.  Til. 

I  am  Dot  certain  as  to   the  exact  age  to  which  they  should  be 
assigned. 

Bronze  anvils  of  the  form  now  in  use  are  of  extremely  rare  occur- 
rence in  any  country.  That  figured  by  Sir  William  Wilde  ■  appean 
to  me  to  be  of  more  recent  date  than  the  Bronze  Period,  and  I  am  not 
aware  of  any  other  specimen  having  been  found  in  the  British  Mes ; 
but  as  it  is  a  form  of  tool  which  may  eventually  be  discovered.  It 
seems  well  to  call  attention  to  it  by  engraving  a  French  example. 
This  anvil  is  shown  in  two  views,  in  Figs.  217  and  218.  As  will  be 
seen,  it  is  adapted  for  being  used  in  two  positions,  according  as  one 
or  the  other  pointed  end  is  driven  into  the  workman's  bench.  In 
one  position  it  presents  at  the  end  two  plane-surfaces,  the  one  broad 


Kg.  818.— FreBi*  U  Min. 


and  the  other  narrow,  inclined  to  each  other  at  an  angle  of  about 
120  degrees,  so  that  their  junction  forms  a  ridge.  ITiis  part  of  the 
anvil  has  seen  much  service,  as  there  is  a  thick  burr  all  round  it, 
caused  by  the  expansion  of  the  metal  under  repeated  blows. 
On  the  projecting  beak  there  are  three  slight  grooves  gradually 
increasing  in  size,  and  apparently  intended  for  swages  in  which  to 
draw  out  pins.  In  the  other  position  the  anvil  presents  no  smooth 
surface  oii  which  to  hammer,  but  a  succession  of  swages  of  different 
forms  —  some  half-round,  some  V-shaped,  and  some  |/\|-shaped. 
There  are  also  some  oval  recesses,  as  if  for  the  heads  of  pins.  The 
metal  of  which  the  anvil  is  made  appears  to  contain  more  tin  than 
the  ordinary  bronze,  and  therefore  to  be  somewhat  harder.  On 
one  face  is  the  mark  of  the  runner  J  inch  in  diameter,  which 
was  broken  ofl'  after  the  tool  was  cast. 


"C»tal.  Mm.  R.  I.  A,.'' i 


FRENCH  ANVILS.  188 

This  interesting  tool  was  found  with  the  hammer  abready  men- 
tioned, a  spear-head,  a  double-edged  knife  or  razor,  a  knife  with 
the  end  bent  round  so  as  to  present  a  gouge-like  edge,  and  a  large 
carved  cutting-tool  of  the  same  character  (Fig.  247),  all  of  bronze, 
at  Fresn^  la  M^re,  near  Falaise,  Calvados.  With  them  was  a 
magnificent  gold  torque  with  recurved  cylindrical  ends,  the  twisted 
part  being  of  cruciform  section ;  and  a  plain  penannular  ring  or 
bracelet,  formed  from  what  was  a  cylindrical  rod.  The  whole 
find  is  now  in  my  own  collection.  It  is  not  by  any  means 
improbable  that  this  anvil  was  rather  the  tool  of  a  goldsmith  of 
the  Bronze  Age  than  that  of  a  mere  bronze-worker. 

I  have  another  anvil  of  about  the  same  size,  but  thinner,  which  was 
foimd  in  the  Seine  at  Paris.  It  also  can  be  mounted  two  ways,  but  in 
each  position  it  presents  a  nearly  flat  but  somewhat  inclined  face,  and 
there  are  no  swages  in  the  beaks,  one  of  which  is  conical  and  the  other 
nearly  rectangular. 

M.  Ernest  Chantre  has  engraved  two  other  specimens,  somewhat 
differing  in  form,  but  of  much  the  same  general  character.  They  were 
found  near  Ohalon-sur-Saone  and  near  Geneya.*  The  analysis  of  the 
metal  of  one  of  them  gives  16  parts  of  tin  to  84  parts  of  copper. 

Another  bronze  anvil  is  in  the  museum  at  Amiens,  ana  a  fifth,  also 
from  France,  is  in  the  British  Museum.  This  has  a  flat  projecting  ledge 
at  the  top,  and  at  rieht  angles  a  slightly  tapering  beak.  An  anvil  of  the 
same  kind,  but  without  me  beak,  was  found  with  other  objects  near 
Amiens,  and  is  now  in  the  museiun  of  that  town. 

A  small  anvil  without  a  beak,  found  at  AuYemier,f  in  the  Lake  of 
Neuch&tel,  is  in  the  collection  of  Dr.  Gross.  A  square  flat  anvil,  some- 
what dented  on  the  face,  formed  part  of  the  Bologna  hoard. 

In  my  own  collection  is  what  appears  to  have  been  a  larger  anvil  of 
bronze,  which  was  foimd,  with  other  instnunents  of  the  same  metal,  at 
Macarsca,  Dalmatia.  In  form  it  is  not  unlike  an  ordinary  hammer-head 
about  5  inches  long ;  but  the  eye  through  it  appears  to  be  too  small  for  it 
ever  to  have  served  to  receive  a  haft  of  the  ordinary  kind,  though  it 
probably  held  a  handle  by  which  to  steady  the  tool  when  in  use.  One 
end  is  nearly  square  and  but  slightly  convex ;  the  other  is  oblong  and 
rounded  the  narrow  way.  Both  ends  are  much  worn.  On  one  face  and 
one  side  are  rounded  notches  or  swages.  This  tool  has  been  cast  in  an 
open  mould,  as  one  face  presents  the  rough  surface  of  the  molten  metal, 
which  contains  a  large  proportion  of  tin.  The  other  face  and  the  sides  are 
birly  smooth. 

Saws  and  Files. 

While  speaking  of  bronze  tools,  which  up  to  the  present 
time  have  not  been  noticed  in  Britain,  but  which  may  probably 
l)e  some  day  discovered — if,  indeed,  they  have  not  already  been 
found — the  saw  must  not  be  forgotten. 

•  "Age  du  Br.,"  ptie.  i.  p.  39. 

t  Kefier,  7ter  Bericht,  Taf.  vii.  8 ;  Grow,  «*  Deux  SUtions,"  pi.  iii.  28. 


184  CHISELS^   GOUGES,   HAMlfEBS,  AND  OTHER  TOOLS.       [cHAP.  VII. 

A  fragment  of  what  has  been  regarded  as  a  rudely  formed  saw  of 
bronze  was  indeed  found,  with  a  sword  and  several  cdts,  at  Mawgaa,* 
Cornwall,  and  is  now  in  the  Museum  of  the  Society  of  Antiquaries.  It  is 
4  inches  by  i  inch,  coarsely  toothed,  and  the  serrations  appear  to  have 
been  caet.    I  am,  however,  rather  doubtful  whether  it  was  really  a  saw. 

Saws  have  been  found  both  in  Scandinavia  and  in  France,  in  the  latter 
coimtiT  in  hoards  apparently  belong^ing  to  the  later  portion  of  the  Bronze 
Period.  One  from  Kibiers,t  Hautes  Alpes,  is  about  5^  inches  long  and 
f  inch  broad,  slightly  curved,  and  with  a  rivet-hole  at  one  end  for  attach- 
ment to  the  handle.  Two  from  the  ''  Fonderie  de  Lamaud,"  X  Jura,  are 
neariy  one-half  smaller.  There  were  five  specimens  in  that  hoard,  and 
M.  Chantre  enumerates  sixteen  altogether  from  various  parts  of  France 
and  Switzerland.  A  fine  specimen,  with  a  rivet-hole  for  the  handle,  was 
found  at  MoBrigen,§  in  the  JLake  of  Bienne. 

The  Scandinavian  ||  type  is  of  much  the  same  character,  though  some 
are  more  sickle-like  in  shape,  with  the  teeth  on  the  inner  sweep. 

A  saw,  found  with  celts,  spear-heads,  diadems,  &c.,  at  Lammersdorf, 
near  Prenzlau,  is  in  the  Berlin  Museum.  A  short  one,  with  a  rivet-hole 
for  the  handle,  found  at  Stade,  is  in  that  at  Hanover. 

A  saw  of  pure  copper  was  found  in  some  excavations  of  dwellings  of 
remote  date  at  Santorin,^  in  the  Grecian  Archipelago,  in  company  with 
various  instruments  formed  of  obsidian.  Some  fragments  of  saws  occurred 
in  the  Bologna  hoard.  Part  of  one  from  Cyprus  is  in  the  British 
Museum.  A  copper  (?)  saw  from  Niebla,  Spain,  9  inches  long,  also  in 
the  British  Museum,  has  the  teeth  arranged  to  cut  as  it  is  drawn  towards 
the  workman,  and  not  when  pushed  away  from  him. 

The  file  is  another  tool  of  exceedingly  rare  occurrence  in  bronze, 
though  not  absolutely  unknown  in  deposits  belonging  to  the  close 
of  the  Bronze  Period.  Sir  William  Wilde  **  mentions  "  a  bronze 
circular  file,  straight,  like  a  modelling  tool,"  as  being  in  the 
Museum  of  the  Royal  Irish  Academy,  but  I  have  not  seen  the 
original  and  am  not  confident  as  to  its  age.  A  file  ft  was,  however, 
found  in  the  great  hoard  of  the  Fonderie  de  Lamaud,  and  another 
from  the  Lake-dwellings  of  the  Lac  du  Bourget  is  in  the  museum 
at  Chamb^ry. 

The  early  form  of  file  is  indeed  much  the  same  as  that  of  a 
very  broad  saw,  the  toothing  being  coarse  and  running  at  right 
angles  across  the  blade.  In  the  cemetery  at  Hallstatt,  ++  in  Upper 
Austria,  files  of  this  character  were  found,  several  in  bronze 
and  one  in  iroa     The  bronze  files  are  from  5  to  10  inches  long, 

•  "  Catal.  MuB.  Soc.  Ant.,"  p.  16 ;  Areh.,  vol.  xvii.  p.  337. 
t  E.  Chantre,  "  Album  "  pi.  xxv.  No.  5. 

X  Chantre,  "Album,"  pi.  xliii.  §  Keller,  7ter  Bericht,  Taf.  vii.  11. 

II  Woraaae,  "Nord.  Olda.,"  figs.  167,  158;  "Cong.  pr6h.,"  Stockholm  vol.,  1874,  p. 
494. 

H  "  Comptes  Rend,  de  I'Ac.  des  Sc.,"  1871,  vol.  ii.  p.  476. 
••  "  Catal.,"  p.  697,  No.  96. 
ft  E.  Chantre,  "  Age  du  Bronze,"  Uro  ptie.  p.  87. 
Jt  Von  Sacken,  "  Das  Grabf.  ▼.  HalLrt,"  pi.  xix.  12. 


SAWSy   FILBS^  AND  TONGS.  185 

and  some  which  are  flat  for  the  greater  part  of  their  length  are 
drawn  down,  for  about  2  inches  at  the  end,  into  tapering  round 
files.  In  the  Bologna  hoard  were  several  fragments  of  files,  includ- 
ing one  of  a  "  half-round  "  file. 

Tongs  and  Punches. 

From  our  greater  acquaintance  with  the  working  of  iron  than 
with  that  of  bronze,  there  seems  to  us  a  sort  of  natural  connection 
between  the  anvil,  hammer,  and  tongs.     It  must, 
however,  be  borne  in  mind  that  bronze  is  a  metal 
which  instead  of  being,  like  iron,  tough  and  ductile, 
becomes  "short''  and  fragile  when  heated,  so  that 
all  the  hammering  to  which  the  tools  and  weapons 
of  bronze  were  subjected  in  order  to  planish  their 
&ce8,  or  to  draw  out  and  harden  their  edges,  was 
probably  administered  to  them  when  cold.    At  least 
one  pair  of  bronze  tongs  has,  however,  been  found, 
which  is   shown   in   Fig.    219.     This   instrument 
was  discovered,  with  numerous  other  antiquities, 
in  the  cave   at   Heathery  Bum,*  near   Stanhope 
in  Weardale,  Durham,  and  is  now  in  the  collec- 
tion of  Canon  Greenwell.     As  half  of  a  mould 
for  socketed  celts  and  some  waste  runners  of  bronze 
were  foond,  it  is  evident  that  the  practice  of  casting 
bronze  was  carried  on  in  the  cave,  and  these  tongs 
were   probably   part    of  the   foimder  s   apparatus. 
Whether  they  were  used  merely  as  fire-tongs,  or 
for  the  purpose  of  lifting  the  crucible  or  melting- 
pot,  is  a  question.     They  appear,  however,  much  too 
light  to  be  of  service  for  the  latter  purpose. 

In  the  museum  of  the  Louvre  at  Paris  are  some 
Elgyptian  tongs  of  bronze,   which  are  remarkably 
similar  to  those  from  Durham.     A  workman  seated     HeatSjf  b™.  } 
before  a  small  fireplace,  holding  a  blowpipe  to  his 
mouth  with  one  hand  and  with  a  pair  of  tongs  in  the  other, 
is  shown  in  a  painting   at   Thebes,  published  by  Sir  Gardner 

Wilkinson.! 
What  I  have  ventured  to  regard  as  another  of  the  tools  of  the 

•  Proe.  Soe.  Ani,y  2nd  S.,  vol.  ii.  p.  127. 

t  "  Anc.  Egyptiaiu,"  vol.  iii.  p.  224,  fig.  375. 


186  CHISELS,   OOCGBS,    HAMMERS,   AND  OTHER  TOOLS.       [CHAP.  Vlt. 

bronze-fouDder  is  a  kind  of  pointed  punch  or  pricker,  of  which  mi 
example  is  given  in  Fig.  220.  This,  as  well  as  another  which  had 
lost  its  point,  was  found,  with  socketed  celts,  gouges,  moulds,  &c., 
forming  the  whole  stock-in-trade  of  a  bronze-founder,  in  the  Me  of 
Harty,  Kent.  It  seems  to  have  been  furnished  with  a  wooden 
handle,  into  which  the  tang  was  driven  as  far  as  the  projecting 
stop  ;  and  its  purpose  appears  to  have  been  the  extraction  of  the 
cores  of  burnt  clay  irom  out  of  the  sockets  of  the  celts.  That 
these  sockets  were  formed  over  a  core  of  clay  inserted  into  the 


I 


ng.  IS).-HutT.    i  Rg.I91.- 

mould  is  proved  by  numerous  celts  having  been  found  with  the 
cores  still  in  them.  The  heat  of  the  melted  metal  was  sufficient 
to  convert  the  clay  into  terra-cotta  or  brick,  and  in  this  condition 
the  cores  have  been  preserved.  Some  force  was  necessary  to 
extract  such  hardened  cores,  and  this  could  be  well  effected  by 
driving  in  such  a  pointed  instrument  as  that  here  figured.  If  the 
two  prickers  from  the  Harty  hoard  were  originally  of  the  same 
length,  the  broken  one  has  lost  a  portion  from  its  end  exactly 
corresponding  in  length  with  the  depth  of  the  socket  of  the  largest 


PUNCHES  USED  IN  OBNAMENTING.  187 

celts  found  with  it ;  as  if  it  had  been  driven  home  through  the 
bomt  day  quite  to  the  bottom  of  the  socket,  and  then  had  been 
broken  off  short  at  the  mouth  of  the  celt  in  the  vain  endeavour  to 
extract  it 

Some  small  punches,  without  any  tang  for  insertion  in  a  handle, 
were  found  with  socketed  celts  and  numerous  other  objects  in  the 
hoard  from  Reach  Fen,  already  mentioned.  One  of  these  is  shown 
in  Fig.  221.  No  moulds  were  discovered  in  this  case ;  and  though 
the  hoard  has  all  the  appearance  of  being  the  stock  of  an  ancient 
bronze-founder,  it  is  possible  that  these  shorter  punches  may  here 
have  been  used  for  some  other  purpose  than  that  of  extracting 
cores.  The  end  of  one  is  sharp,  that  of  the  other  presents  a  small 
oblong  face.  It  is  possible  that,  like  the  instruments  next  to  be 
described,  these  may  have  been  punches  used  in  the  decoration  of 
other  articles  of  bronze.  Mr.  H.  Prigg,*  in  his  description  of  this 
hoard,  has  suggested  such  an  use.  The  large  end  of  the  punch 
shown  in  the  figure  bears  no  mark  of  having  been  hammered ;  it 
may,  however,  have  been  struck  with  a  wooden  mallet.  Punches, 
more  chisel-shaped  at  the  point,  appear  to  have  been  in  use  for 
producing  the  incuse  ornaments  which  occur  on  so  many  of  the 
flat  and  flanged  celts.  I  am  not  aware  of  any  tools  which  were 
undoubtedly  used  for  this  purpose  having  been  observed  in  Britain ; 
but,  as  I  have  already  remarked,  there  were  found  at  Ebnall,t 
Salop,  two  short-edged  tools,  which  may  possibly  be  punches,  and 
if  so  may  have  been  applied  to  this  use.  One  of  these  is  shown 
in  Fig.  222,  the  block  for  which  has  been  kindly  lent  me  by  the 
CouDcil  of  the  Society  of  Antiquaries.  The  other  is  described  as 
of  similar  form  but  of  rather  longer  proportions.  They  were  found 
in  company  with  spear-heads,  celts,  gouges,  and  broad  dagger- 
blades  ;  but  it  does  not  appear  that  any  of  these  were  ornamented 
with  punch-miarked  patterns.  The  tools  may,  therefore,  have  been 
merely  some  kind  of  strong  chisels,  possibly  used  for  breaking  off 
the  jets  and  superfluous  metal  from  the  castings.  The  thickness 
of  the  tool  is  rather  greater  than  the  cut  would  lead  one  to  imagine, 
being  J  inch.  These  two  tools  have  been  regarded  as  ham- 
mers, or  possibly  weights.  I  have  now  spoken  of  them  as  punches, 
or  possibly  chisels,  but  it  may  be  that  after  all  it  was  the  broad 
end  that  was  destined  for  use,  in  which  case  they  might  be  regarded 
as  anvils. 

*  Areh.  Auoe.  Joum.f  toI.  xxxvi.,  p.  50. 

t  Froe.  So€.  Ant,,  2nd  S.,  vol.  iii.  p.  66 ;  Areh.  Joum.f  vol.  xxii.  p.  167. 


188  CHISELSy   GOUGES^   HAMMERS,   AMD  OTHSB  TOOLS.       [CHAP.  YII. 

Whatever  the  purpose  of  these  particular  tools,  there  can  be  but 
little  doubt  that  punches  were  in  use  for  the  ornamentation  of  the 
flat  faces  and  the  sides  of  celts  ;  and  it  will  be  well  to  be  on  the 
look  out  for  such  tools  when  hoards  belonging  to  the  ancient 
bronze-founders  are  examined.  For  the  most  part,  however,  these 
seem  to  belong  to  a  period  posterior  to  that  of  the  ornamented 
flat  celts,  though  decorated  spear-heads  occur  in  them. 

Some  of  the  punches  from  the  Fonderie  de  Lamaud  and  from 
the  Lake-dwellings  may  have  served  for  decorating  other  articles  in 
bronze. 

Awls,  Drills,  or  Prickers. 

Allied  to  the  pointed  tools  last  described,  but  considerably 
smaller,  are  the  awls,  drills,  borers,  or  prickers  of  bronze  which 
have  so  frequently  been  found  accompanying  interments  in  barrows. 
No  doubt  such  instruments  must  have  been  in  very  extensive  and 
general  use ;  but  it  is  only  under  favourable  conditions  that  such 
small  pieces  of  metal  would  be  preserved,  and  when  preserved  it 
is  only  under  conditions  equally  favourable  that  they  would  attract 
the  attention  of  an  ordinary  labourer.  It  is,  therefore,  mainly  to 
the  barrow-digger  that  we  are  indebted  for  our  knowledge  of  these 
little  instruments.  Many  belong  to  a  very  early  part  of  the  Bronze 
Age,  but  the  form  continued  in  use  through  the  whole  period. 

A  somewhat  detailed  essay  upon  them  has  already  appeared  in 
the  Archceologia*  in  the  late  Dr.  Thumam's  admirable  and  ex- 
haustive paper  on  "  Ancient  British  Barrows,"  from  which  I  am 
tempted  largely  to  borrow.  I  am  also,  through  the  kindness  of 
the  Council  of  the  Society  of  Antiquaries,  enabled  to  make  use  of 
some  of  the  woodcuts  which  illustrate  Dr.  Thumam's  paper. 
He  distinguishes  three  types  of  these  instruments,  which,  as  he 
points  out,  correspond  to  some  extent  with  as  many  types  or 
varieties  of  the  bronze  celt.     They  are  as  follows  : — 

I.  That  with  a  simply  flattened  end  or  tang  for  insertion  into 
its  handle. 

II.  That  with  a  well-marked  shoulder,  where  the  stem  and  tang 
unite ;  the  object  being  to  prevent  its  passing  too  far  into  the 
handle. 

III.  That  with  a  regular  stop-ridge,  or  waist,  almost  as  marked 
as  that  in  a  carpenter's  awl,  as  distinguished  from  that  of  a  shoe- 
maker. 

•  Vol.  xliii.  p.  464. 


AWLS  OR  PRICKEHS.  189 

One  of  the  first  type,  from  the  Gblden  barrow  at  Upton  Lovel,  is  engraved 
Inr  Hoare,*  and  is  shown  in  Fig.  223.  With  it  were  two  cups,  a  necklace 
of  imber  beads,  and  a  small  bronze  dagger.  It  is  almost  the  longest  of 
tiMMe  found  by  Sir  B.  Golt  Hoare,  wMch  were  upwards  of  thirty  in 
lunber.  The  only  longer  specimen  was  found  in  a  barrow  near  Lake,t 
Hid  there  also  some  beads  and  a  bronze  dagger  accompanied  the  inter- 
ment It  is  considerably  thicker  than  Fig.  223,  and  the  tang  for  insertion 
in  the  handle  is  broader  and  flatter.  A  smaller  awl  of  the  same  character 
was  found  in  a  barrow  on  Upton  Lovel 
Doiniy^  opened  by  Mr.  Ounnington.  In  this 
iutance  were  were  two  interments  in  the 
lune  grave,  and  several  flint  celts  and  a 
perforated  stone  battle-axe  were  found,  as 
veU  as  numerous  instruments  of  bone,  and 
t  necklace  of  beads  of  jet  or  lignite. 

An  awl  of  this  kind  (3iV  inches)  found, 
with  a  spear-head,  hammer,  knife,  and  gouge 
ol  bronze,  at  Thomdon,  Suffolk,  §  most  of 
them  already  described,  is  now  in  the  British 
Museum,  and  is  shown  in  Fig.  224. 

Several  such  instruments,  some  of  them 
not  more  than  an  inch  in  length,  were  found 
bf  Canon  Oreenwell  ||  in  his  exploration  of 
the  Yorkshire  barrows.  In  nine  cases  awls 
or  prickers  accompanied  interments  of  un- 
bomt  bodies,  and  in  three  cases  Ihey  were 
found  among  burnt  bones.  In  most  in- 
ftanoes  instruments  of  flint  were  found  with 
them.  An  aged  woman  in  a  barrow  on  Lang- 
ton  Wold^  had  three  bronze  awls  or  prickers, 
as  wen  as  an  assemblage  of  bone  instru- 
ments, animal  teeth,  marine  shells,  and 
other  miscellaneous  property,  buried  with 
her.  Dr.  Thumam  regarded  these  as  drills 
used  with  a  bow,  but  I  think  such  an  use  is  Fig.  ns.  Fig.  m.  Fig.  225. 
doubtfuL  Some  of  the  awls  from  the  York-  YJS^  ^  dS^'l  ^'^ 
ihire  barrows,  instead  of  being  flattened  at 

(me  end,  are  drawn  down  to  a  point  at  both  ends,  leaving  the  middle  of 
banter  diameter  so  as  to  form  a  xind  of  shoulder.  These,  I  presume,  are 
incToded  under  Dr.  Thumam's  Type  11.  Sometimes  this  central  part  of 
the  blade  is  square  and  sometimes  the  tang  is  square,  like  that  described 
by  Stukeley**  from  a  barrow  near  Stonehenge  as  '<  a  sharp  bodkin  round 
at  one  end,  square  at  the  other  where  it  went  into  a  handle." 

An  awl,  square  at  the  centre,  and  round  at  each  end  in  section,  is  shown 
in  Fig.  225.  It  was  found  by  Canon  QreenweU  in  a  barrow  at  Butter- 
wick,  Yorkshire,  in  company  with  the  celt  (Fig.  2),  and  other  objects. 
The  point  has  unfortunately  been  broken  off. 

A  typical  example  of  Ihr.  Thumam's  second  class  from  a  barrow  at 

*  ToL  L  p.  99,  pi.  zi.    The  cut  is  from  the  Areh.^  vol.  xliii.  p.  466. 

t  PL  XXX.  8.  X  Arch,,  vol.  xv.  p.  122,  pi.  iv.  5. 

i  Areh.  Jowm.,  rol.  x.  p.  3.  ||  **  British  Barrows,"  pattim. 

n  Op.  cit,,  p.  13S.  ♦•  *«  Stonehenge,"  p.  46,  pL  xxxii. 


190  CHISELS,   GOUGES,   HAMMSRSy   AND  OTHER  TOOLS.       [CHAF. 

Bulford,*  Wilts,  is  shown  in  Fig.  226.  Another  was  found  at  Beckhc 
ton,  and  a  small  pricker  of  the  same  type  was  found  with  a  burnt  ii 
ment  at  Storrington,f  Sussex.  like  those  found  by  Sir  B.  C.  Hoare, 
was  regarded  as  the  pin  for  fastening  the  doth  in  which  the  bones  i 
collected  from  the  fimeral  pyre.  The  fact  of  several  of  them  having  1 
found  still  inserted  in  their  hafts,  as  will  subsequently  be  seen, 
suffice  to  prove  that  this  view  is  mistaken. 

Several  awls  pointed  at  both  ends  were  found  by  the  late  Mr.  Bate 
during  his  researches  in  the  Derbyshire  barrows.  lii  Waggon  Low 
the  right  shoulder  of  a  contracted  skeleton  were  three  instrument 
flint,  and  a  small  bronze  awl  1^  inches  long,  taperine  each  way  from 

middle,  which  is  square.  Anomer,  pointed  at  • 
end,  lay  with  a  drinking  cup  and  a  rude  speaz 
arrow-head  of  flint  near  the  shoulder  of  a  yout 
skeleton  in  a  barrow  near  Minning  Low.§  Ano 
of  the  same  kind  was  found  in  a  barrow  on  ] 
Moor,  II  Staffordshire.  Another  was  found  with 
cined  bones  in  a  barrow  in  Larks-Low,^  Middle 
In  several  instances  there  were  traces  of  a  wo( 
handle,  as  was  the  case  with  one,  upwards  • 
inches  long,  which  was  found  with  a  flint  sp 
head,  a  double-edged  axe  of  basaltic  stone, 
objects  of  bone,  among  the  calcined  bones  : 
sepulchral  urn  from  a  barrow  at  Throwley.** 

In  a  beurrow  at  Haddon  Field  ff  there  was  a  s: 
drinking  cup  near  the  back  of  a  contracted  skelc 
Fig.  226.        Tig.  227.      and  beneath  this  an  arrow-head  of  flint,  an  inc 
ford,  i    ^"stoito!"^  ment  of  stag's-hom  like  a  netting  mesh,  and  a  br« 

awl  showing  traces  of  its  wooden  handle. 
In  another  barrow  near  Gotam,  Nottinghamshire,  {^  there  lay  neai 
thigh  of  a  contracted  skeleton  a  neatly  chipped  spear-head  of  flint,  a: 
small  bronze  pin  which  had  been  inserted  into  a  wooden  handle. 

In  a  barrow  near  Fimber,§§  Yorkshire,  opened  by  Messrs.  Mortii 
there  were  found  near  the  knee  of  a  contracted  female  skeleton  a  ki 
like  chipped  flint  and  the  point  of  a  bronze  pricker  or  awl.      T 
another  female  interment  in  the  same  barrow  a  bronze  pricker  was  f c 
inserted  in  a  short  wooden  haft.     The  Britoness  in  this  instance  wo: 
necklace  of  jet  discs  with  a  triangular  pendant  of  the  same  material. 
A  bronze  pin,  1^  inches  lon^,  accompanied  by  a  broken  flint  celt 
some  arrow-neads  and  flakes  of  flint,  together  with  calcined  bones, 
found  in  an  urn  in  Havenshill  barrow,  ||  ||  near  Scarborough. 

In  some  of  the  Wiltshire  barrows  more  perfectly  preserved  han 
have  been  found.  One  of  these,  copied  from  Hoare*s  **  Ancient!^ 
shire," ^^  is  shown  in  Fig.  227.  It  was  foimd  in  the  King  barrow  ^ 
what  was  probably  a  male  skeleton  buried  in  the  hollowed  trunk  oi 

• 

•  Arch.,  vol.  xliii.  p.  466,  fig.  163.  f  Stua.  Arch.  Coll.,  vol.  i.  p.  55. 

X  "Ten  Years'  Dig.,"  p.  85.  §  "  Vest.  Ant.  of  Derb.,"  p.  41. 

II  "Vest.  Ant.  of  Derb.,"  p.  82.  f  Smith's  "Coll.  Ant.,"  vol.  i.  p.  60,  pi.  x: 

••  "Ten  Years'  Dig.,"  p.  155.  ft  Lib.  cit.,  p.  106. 

XX  "Vest.  Ant.  of  Derb.,"  p.  104. 

§§  "  Reliquary,"  vol.  ix.  p.  67. 

nil  Areh.  A880€,  Jaurn.y  vol.  vi.  p.  3.  Hf  Vol.  i.  p.  122,  pi.  xv.  No.  3. 


AWUS  USED   IN   SEWING.  191 

dm  tree.  With  it  was  a  curious  urn  of  burnt  day  and  two  bronze  daggers, 
one  near  the  breast  and  the  other  near  the  thigh.  The  handle  is 
detcribed  as  being  of  ivoiy,  but  I  think  Dr.  Thumam  was  right  in  read- 
ing it  as  of  bone.  The  awl  in  this  instance  is  of  the  third  type,  having  a 
wSl-marked  coUar  round  it.  Another  of  the  same  character,  but  retain- 
iig  only  a  small  part  of  the  haft,  so  that  the  shoulder  is  better  shown, 
HB  found  with  burnt  bones  in  an  urn  deposited  in  a  barrow  near  Stone- 
lienge.*  No  mention  is  made  as  to  the  nature  of  the  material  of  which 
the  haft  was  formed. 

In  the  case  of  an  awl  of  the  first  type,  engraved  by  Dr.  Thumam,  and 
liero  reproduced  as  Fig.  228,  the  handle  is  of  wood,  but  the  kind  of 
wood  is  not  mentioned. 

One  or  two  bronze  or  brass  awls  with  square  shoulders  are  in  the 
Hnseum  of  the  Boyal  Irish  Academy.f  Several  awls  with  their  original 
wooden  handles  have  been  found  in  the  Lake-dwellings  of 
SsToy,^  and  others  in  hafts  of  stag's-hom  in  the  Swiss  Lake- 
dwellings. 

Whether  the  twisted  pins  from  the  Wiltshire  barrows 
are  of  the    nature  of  gimlets,    as  suggested  by  Dr. 
Thnmam,  is  a  difficult  question.     I   shall,  however, 
prefer  to  treat  of  them  as  personal  ornaments  rather 
than  as  tools.     It  is  possible  that  they  may  to  some 
extent  have  combined  the  two  functions.     As  to  the 
instniments  which  I  have  been  describing  being  piercing 
tools  or  awls,   there  seems  to  be  little  doubt ;    and 
Mr.  Bateman  can  hardly  have  been  far  wrong  in  re- 
garding them  as  intended  to  pierce  skins  or  leather. 
Though  not  curved  like  the  cobbler's  awl  of  the  pre- 
sent day,  they  are  probably  early  members  of  the  same 
fiunily.      In   Scandinavia   these    instruments   are    of 
frequent   occurrence,    sometimes  being  provided  with     ^i^,  ^ 
ornamental  handles  also  made  of  bronze.  §     They  are 
m  that  part  of  Europe  often  found  in  company  with  tweezers  and 
small  knives  of  bronze,  and  all  were  probably  used  together  in 
sewing,  the  hole  being  bored  by  the  awl  and  the  thread  drawn 
through  by  the  tweezers  and,  when  necessary,  cut  with  the  knife. 
Possibly  the  use  of  bristles  as  substitutes  for  needles  dates  back  to 
▼ery  early  times. 

In  one  instance  at  least  tweezers  have  been  found  in  Britain  in 
company  with  objects  apparently  belonging  to  the  Bronze  Age, 
though  no  doubt  to  a  very  late  part  of  it.     Those  represented  in 

•  -  Anc.  WUtft,"  ToL  i.  p.  164,  pi.  xrii.  t  WUdo*s  "  Catal.,*'  p.  697. 

:  Cbantre,  «  Alb.,"  pi.  Ixiii. 

t  Woraaaa,  *'Nord.  Olds.,'*  figi.  274,  27S;  Nilsson,  <«  Nordens  Ur.-Invanare,*'  figs. 


193  CHIBEL8,   OOUOBS,   UAUHKKS,   AMD  OTHBK  TOOLS,      [CH 

Fig.  229  were  discoTered  near  Llangwyllog,  *  Augleses,  t< 
with  a  two-edged  r&zor,  a  bracelet,  buttons,  rings,  &c.,  wh 
DOW  in  the  British  Museum. 

A  more  highly  oroameoted  pair  of  tweezers,  with  a  broi 
found  with  a  bone  comb,  a  qnem,  spindle-whorls,  Ac,  in  a 
house  near  Kettlebum,t  Caithness,  belongs  to  a  consideiabi 
period. 

The  needles  of  bronze  found  in  the  British  Isles  do  not  at 

appear  to  belong  to  the  Bronze  Period,  though  some  of  thoa> 

on  the  Continent  seem  to  date  back  to  that  age.     Two  are  ei 

by  Wilde,$  and  there  are  altogether  eighteen  such  articles 

Museum  of  the  Royal  Irish  Acaden 

broken  specimen  (1^  inch)  from  th< 

hills  near  Glenluce,S  Wigtonshire,  ha 

flgured- 

Another  useful  article  anciently 
of  bronze — though  perhaps  not, 
speaking,  a  tool — may  as  well  be 
tioned  in  this  place ;  I  mean  th< 
hook,  of  which,  however,  I  am  able 
but  one  example  as  having  been  (a 
the  British  Isles.  This  was  found  in  I 
and  ia  shown  in  Fig.  230,11  kindly  1 
the  Royal  Irish  Academy. 

Fish-hooks  of  bronze  have  been  fo 
considerable  abundance  on  the  site  of 
of  the  Swiss  Lake-dwellings ;  and  it 
a  little  remarkable  that  in  form  m 
them  are  almost  identical  with  th( 
fish-hooks  of  the  present  day.  The  barb,  to  prevent  tl 
from  struggling  off  the  hook,  is  in  most  instances  p 
and  double  hooks  are  occasionally  found.  The  attachment 
line  was,  even  in  the  single  hooks,  frequently  made  by  a  ] 
eye,  formed  by  flattening  and  turning  back  the  upper  part 
shank  of  the  hook.  Fish-hooks  were  found  in  the  Fond* 
Lamaud  (Jura),11  and  in  the  hoard  of  St.  Pierre-en-Chatre  ( 
Such  are  the  principal  forms  of  tools  and  instruments  of 
found  in  these  islands.    Some  of  them,  such  as  the  socketed  { 

•  Arfh.  Joum.,  vol.  i]tii.  p.  74. 

+  Pn€.  Ste.AHl.  &»(.,Tol.  i.  p.  !66:  AreA.  J'mrH..xa].  x.  p-  218, 

t  "C»t«l.  Ifoa.  R.  I.  A., "p.  fl47.  J  "Ayr  Mid  Wigton  Coll.,"  vol. 

\  Wilde,  "  C&tal.  Miu.  K.  1.  A.,"  fig.  403.    f  ChantK, "  Age  du  Br.,"  l^re  pi 


MOSTLY  OF  LATE  DATE.  193 

hammers,  and  chisels,  can  only  belong  to  the  latter  part  of  the 
Bronze  Period,  when  the  art  of  using  cores  in  order  to  produce 
sockets  or  other  hollow  recesses  in  castings  was  well  known. 
Others,  like  the  simple  awls  so  frequently  found  in  company 
with  instruments  of  flint  in  our  barrows,  appear  to  extend  from 
the  commencement  of  the  Bronze  Age  to  its  close. 

There  still  remains  to  be  described  a  class  of  instruments  in 
use  by  the  husbandman,  and  not  by  the  warrior ;  and  as  the 
present  chapter  has  extended  to  such  a  length,  it  will  be  well  to 
treat  of  these  under  a  separate  heading. 


o 


CHAPTER  VIII. 

SICKLES. 

Sickles  are  the  only  undoubtedly  ajsfricultural  implements  ixl 
bronze  with  which  we  are  acquainted  in  this  country.  Already 
in  the  Stone  Period  the  cultivation  of  cereals  for  food  appears  to 
have  been  practised,  and  I  have  elsewhere*  pointed  out  a  form  of 
flint  instrument  which  may  possibly  have  supplied  the  place  of 
sickles  or  reaping  hooks  in  those  early  times.  The  rarity  of 
bronze  sickles  in  this  country,  as  compared  with  their  abundance 
in  some  parts  of  Southern  Europe,  is,  however,  somewhat  striking, 
and  may,  perhaps,  point  to  a  considerably  less  cultivation  of  grain 
crops  in  Britain  than  in  countries  with  a  warmer  climate,  while 
the  inhabitants  were  otherwise  in  much  the  same  stage  of  civilisa- 
tion. 

The  traditions  of  the  use  of  bronze  sickles  survived  to  a  com- 
paratively late  period  in  Greece  and  Italy,  and  Medea  is  described 
by  Sophoclest  as  cutting  her  magic  herbs  with  such  instruments 
(XctXifeoKTii/  TJfjLa  cperravoi^  Toiia^)y  and  by  Ovid  +  as  doing  it 
**  curvamine  falcis  ahenne."  Elissa  is  by  Virgil  §  represented  as 
using  a  bronze  sickle  for  similar  purposes — 

*'  Falcibus  et  messso  ad  lunam  quseruiitur  aenis 
Pubentes  herbsD  nigri  cum  lacte  venoni." 

When  bronze  sickles  were  used  for  reaping  corn  it  seems  to  have 
bqen  a  common  custom  merely  to  cut  the  ears  of  corn  from  off  the 
straw,  after  the  manner  of  the  Gaulish  reaping  machine  described 
by  Pliny,  II  and  not  to  cut  and  carry  away  straw  and  ear  together 
from  the  field.  This  practice  will  probably  account  for  the  small 
size  of  the  sickles  which  have  come  down  to  us,  unless  we  are  to 
reverse  the  argument,  and  derive  the  custom  of  cutting  off  the 

•  "  Anc.  Stono  Imp.,"  p.  320.  f  Macrob.  "  Satom.,*'  v.  c.  19. 

:  "  Met.,"  Tii.  224.  {  "-Bn.,"  lib.  iv.  618. 

II  '*Nat.  Hiflt.,"xviii.  c.  30. 


METHOD  OF   HAFTTNG    SICKLES.  195 

ears  only  from  the  diminutive  size  of  the  instruments  employed 
for  reaping. 

Bronze  sickles  were  hafted  in  different  ways,  sometimes  being 
fastened  to  the  handle  by  a  pin,  either  attached  to  the  stem  of 
the  blade  or  passing  through  a  hole  in  it,  combined  with  some 
system  of  binding  ;  and  sometimes  being  provided  with  a  socket 
into  which  the  haft  was  driven,  and  then  secured  by  a  transverse 
pin  or  rivet. 

The  sickles  with  a  socket  to  receive  the  handle  appear  to  be 
peculiar  to  Britain  and  the  North  of  France.  The  other  form 
occurs  over  the  greater  part  of  Europe,  including  Scandinavia,  and 
the  blades,  as  has  been  observed  by  Dr.  Keller,  are  always 
adapted  for  use  in  the  right  hand.  Dr.  Gross,  of  Neuveville,  on 
the  Lake  of  Bienne,  has  been  so  fortunate  as  to  discover  at 
Mcerigen,  the  site  of  one  of  the  ancient  pile-villages  on  the  lake, 
two  or  three  handles  for  sickles  of  this  kind.  A  figure  showing 
three  views  of  one  of  these  handles  has  been  published  by  the 
Ro}'al  ArchiBological  Institute,*  and  is  here  by  permission  repro- 
duced as  Fig.  231.  This  handle  is  formed  of  yew,  curiously 
carved  so  as  to  receive  the  thumb  and  fingers,  and  has  a  flat  place 
at  the  end  against  which  the  blade  was  fastened.  In  this  place 
there  are  two  grooves  to  receive  the  slightly  projecting  ribs  wtth 
which  the  stem  of  the  sickle-blade  is  usually  strengthened.  Dr. 
Kellert  has  suggested  that  the  blade  of  the  sickle  was  made  fast 
to  the  handle  by  means  of  a  kind  of  ferrule  which  passed  over  it, 
and  was  secured  in  its  place  by  two  pins  or  nails. 

The  end  of  the  handle  forms  a  ridge,  through  which  are  two 
holes  that  would  admit  a  small  cord  for  the  suspension  of  the 
sickle,  and  thus  prevent  its  being  lost  either  on  land  or  water. 
We  find  this  sailor-like  habit  prevailing  among  the  Lake-dwellers 
in  the  case  of  their  flint  knives  also,  the  handles  of  which  were 
often  perforated. 

There  is  a  remarkable  resemblance  in  character  between  this 
handle  and  some  of  those  in  use  among  the  Esquimaux  J  for  their 
planes  and  knives,  which  are  recessed  in  tlie  same  manner  for  the 
reception  of  the  fingers  and  the  thumb. 

Some  iron  sickles,  of  nearly  the  same  form  as  those  in  bronze 
with  the  flat  stem,  were  present  in  the  great  Danish  find  of  the 
Enly  Iron  Age  at  Vimose,  §  described  by  Mr.  C.  Engelhardt.     The 

•  Ank.  Jmmt.^  toI.  xxx.  p.  192.  t  Keller,  Tier  Bericht,  Taf .  vii.  1. 

fi«IWi.Timee,"p.  513.  §"  Vimose  Fundct,"  1869,  p.  26. 

o2 


196  S1CKI.EK  [chap.  VI 

chord  of  the  curved  blades  is  from  6  to  7  ioches  in  length,  a 
one  of  the  instruments  still  retained  its  origin^  wooden  hanc 
This  is  hetween  9  and  10  inches  long,  and  is  curved  at  the  p 
intended  to  receive  the  hand.     The  end  is  conical,  like  the  hi 


of  a  screw,  and  is  evidently  tlius  made  in  order  to  give  a  sec 
hold  to  the  reaper  when  drawing  the  sickle  towards  him.  Sicl 
with  nearly  similar  handles  were  in  use  in  Smaaland,"  in  the  So 
of  Sweden,  until  recent  days. 

•  "  Aiirbni;.:r  for  Oldkind,,"  ISdT,  p.  i.in. 


WITH   PRCUECTIMO    KNOI19.  197 

Of  sickles  without  a  socket  but  few  have  been  found  in  Britain, 
md  those  mostly  in  our  Western  Counties.  In  a  remarluible  hoard 
found  in  a  turbary  at  Edington  Burtle,*  near  Glastonbury,  Somer- 
Mshire,  were  four  of  these  flat  sickles.  One  of  these  had  never 
beea  finished,  hut  had  been  left  rough  as  it  came  &om  the  mould, 
iDto  which  the  metal  had  been  run  through  a  channel  near  the 
pCHnt  of  the  sickla  A  projection  still  marks  the  place  where  the 
jet  was  broken  off.     As  will  be  seen  from  Fig.  232,  this  blade  is 


^.»I.— EdlDKtoa  Boitle. 


pcDvided  with  two  projecting  pins  for  the  purpose  of  attaching  it 
la  tlie  handle.     In  this  respect  it  differs  from  the  sickles  of  the 
onlinaty  continental  type,  which,  when  of  this  character,  have 
Q^uiklly  but  a  single  knob. 
Another  of  the  Edington  sickles  with  a  single  projection  is 


dhown  io  F^.  233.  This  blade  is  more  highly  ornamented,  and 
liu  i  rib  along  the  middle  in  addition  to  that  along  the  back,  no 
doubt  for  the  purpose  of  increasing  stiffness  while  diminishing 
"eight.  Of  the  other  two  sickles  found  at  Edington,  one  is  im- 
[<erfect  and  the  other  much  worn.  Both  are  provided  with  the 
t"o  projecting  pins. 

Two  other  sickles  found  on  Sparkford   Hill.t  also  in  Somerset- 
shire,  present  the  same  peculiarity.     One  of  these  nnich  resembles 


198  SICKLES  [chap 

Fig.  233,  though  neirly  straight  along  the  hack.  The  otl 
flat  on  both  faces.  Each  has  lost  its  point.  A  chisel-like  to< 
found  with  them. 

With  the  Edington  sickles  were  found  a  hroad  fluted  penaE 
armlet  and  what  may  have  heen  a  finger-ring  of  the  same  pa 
a  plain  penannular  armlet  of  square  section,  part  of  a  light  fun 
torque  like  Fig.  467,  part  of  a  ribbon  torque  like  Fig.  46i 
four  penaunular  rings,  some  of  them  apparently  made  from 
menta  of  torques. 

Two  other  sickles  of  the  same  character,  each  with  two 
jecting  pina,  were  found  in  Taunton  *  itself  in  association 
twelve  palstaves,  a  socketed  celt,  a  hammer  (Fig.  214),  a  fraj 
of  a  spear-head,  a  double-edged  knife,  a  funicular  torque 
4G8),  a  pin  (Fig.  451),  some  fragments  of  other  pins,  and  s. 
penannular  rings  of  various  sizes. 


All  the  objects  found  at  Edington,  Sparkford  Hill,  and  Ta 
are  now  in  the  museum  in  Taunton  Castle. 

A  thinner  form  of  flat  sickle,  if  such  it  be,  has  been  foui 
Kent.  Among  a  number  of  bronze  objects  which  were  disco 
at  Marden.t  near  Staplehnrst,  there  is  a  slightly  curved  blade 
a  rivet  at  one  end,  which  appears  to  present  a  sickle-like  chai 
I  have  not  seen  the  original,  and  as  it  is  described  as  a  knife- 
it  may  prove  to  liave  been  one,  or  possibly,  what  is  of  far 
occurrence,  a  saw. 

Of  socketed  sickles  a  few  have  at  different  times  been  dr( 
up  from  the  Thames.  One  of  these,  found  in  1850,  is  in  mj 
collection,  and  is  shown  in  Fig.  234.  The  blade,  which  is  a 
as  sharp  at  the  back  as  at  the  edge,  is  not  quite  eeutnil  wit 

■■  pi. 


WITH    8UCKETS. 


199 


socket,  bnt  so  placed  as  to  make  the  iDStrument  better  adapted  for 
use  in  the  right  hand  than  in  the  left  The  socket  tapera  con- 
siJenbly,  and  is  closed  at  the  end. 

la  another  sickle  found  in  the  Thames,  near  Bray,  Berks*  (Fig.  235),  ths 
•ocktl  diee  into  the  blade  instead  of  forming  a  distinct  feature.  A  third, 
(oimd  near  Windsor;  and  engraved  in  the  Proceeding)  of  the  Society  of 
JMlijtiK-ia,\  closely  reaembleB  Fig.  234,  but  the  end  of  the  socket,  instead 
uf  bnng  dosed,  is  open.     The  blade  of  this  also  ia  sharp  on  both  edges. 

One  from  Stretham  Fen,  in  the  Museum  of  the  Cambridge  Antiquariau 
Society  (about  SJ  inches),  is  of  the  same  character.  It  has  two  rivet-boles 
in  the  socket.  Another  from  Dovnbam  Fen  (5}  inches)  is  sharp  on  both 
td«a. 

In  the  Norwich  Museum  is  a  sickle  of  somewhat  the  same  character  as 
Fig.  235,  but  the  socket  instead  of  being  oval  is  oblong,  and  is  placed  at  a 
lesa  angle  to  the  blade,  which  in  this  case  also  is  double-ed^;ed.    The 


Mcket  is  \i  by  iV  inch,  and  has  one  rivet-holo  through  it.  The  curved 
biife  from  Wicken  Fen,  to  be  described  in  the  nest  chapter,  much 
nwmblee  this  Norwich  example  in  outline.  Another  sickle  from  Nor- 
1o\k\  was  exhibited  to  the  Axclueological  Institute  in  1851.  Mr.  Franks 
W  shown  me  a  sketch  of  another  foimd  at  Doreham  which  has  the 
ntenal  edge  of  the  blade  extending  across  the  end  of  the  socket.  Both 
«dgea  of  the  blade  are  sharp. 

But  few  BJcMes  have  been  foimd  in  Scotland.  That  shown  in  Fig.  236 
*u  found  in  the  Tar,§  near  EttoI,  Perthshire,  in  1640,  and  has  been 
described  by  Dr.  3.  Alexander  Smith.  The  block,  which  has  been  kindly 
lent  me  by  the  Society  of  Antiquaries  of  Scotland,  is  engraved  on  the 
«>»le  of  two-thirds  linear,  instead  of  my  usual  scale  of  one-half.  The 
main  difference  between  this  specimen  aud  mine  from  the  Thames  (Fig. 

i.  p.  378. 


300  stcKLBs  [chap.  vm. 

234)  oonaiBta  in  the  blade  being  fluted.  AnoUiGr  more  rudely  nude 
sitkle,  found  at  Edengerach,*  I^nmay,  Aberdeenshire,  has  also  ben 
engraved.  This  has  a  sin^e  central  rib  along  the  blade  and  no  rivet- 
hole  through  the  socket.    Perhaps  it  is  an  unfinished  casting. 


ng.  SI.-lTau  bnl,  FatUdn. 

In  Sinclair's  ' '  Statistical  Aocount  of  Scotland  "  f  it  is  stated  that  an 
instrument  of  this  class  was  found  at  Ledbe^,  Sutherlandahi  re,  and  was 
pronounced  by  the  Earl  of  Bristol,  then  Bishop  of  Deny,  to  whom  it 
was  presented,  to  be  a  Druidical  pruning  hook  sunilar  to  several  found 
in  l^gland. 

In  Ireland  these  instruments  are  much  more  abundant  Eleven 
specimens  are  mentioned  by  Wilde  +  as  being  in  the  Museum  of 
the  Royal  Irish  Academy,  and  there  are  three  in  the  British 
Museum,  as  well  aa  one  in  that  at  EdinbuigL 

That  engraved  as  Fig.  237  is  in  the 

collection  of  Canon  Green  well,  F.H.S., 

and  was  found  at  Garvagh,  county 

Deny.   Tlie  blade  is  fluted  somewhat 

like  that  of  the  Tay  specimen.     In 

one  of  those  engraved  by  Wilde  (Fig. 

405)  it  is  more  highly  ornamented. 

In  another  the  socket  ia  not  closed 

at  the  end,  but  resembles    that  of 

^^^^^k       the  Windsor  example  already  men- 

^^^^^P      tionod.    This  appears  to  be  the  one 

^^^^^       engraved    by  VollanceyS    who    ob- 

jfTT.      i  screes  that  it  was  "tailed   by  the 

Irish  a  Suaru,"  and  that  it  was  used 

I,  niisletoe,  &c."     In  awother]|  tho   blade   ffinns 


"to  cut  herbs. 


t  Vol.  xvi.  p. 

;  "  t-atul.."  p.  o27. 

i  "  t'oll.  de  hob.  Hil).,"  vol.  iv.  pi.  I.  4.  ]>.  61 

U  t'ig-  i06.     I'omiHiru  '■  Hum-  Ki-rulcn,"  pi.  x 


70CND  IN  ISELANU.  201 

I  direct  continiutioa  of  the  aocket  as  in  Fig.  238,  whicli  is  engraved 
from  a  apecimeu  in  the  British  Museum,  found  neur  Athlone,  county 
Westmeath. 

Vatlancey,  in  his  "Collectanea,"  has  figured  another.  In  the  colloction 
of  Ut,  J.  Holmes  ie  another  example  of  this  type.  Another  eickla 
of  the  same  character  as  Fig.  237,  found  near  Ballygawley,*  Tyrone, 
hu  ftlso  been  figured.  This  specimen  is  among  those  in  the  British 
UaHum. 

A  socketed  sickle,  double-edged,  and  with  a  concavity  on  each  side  at 
the  angle  between  the  blade  and  the  socket  so  deep  as  to  meet  and  form 
k  hole,  was  found  in  Aldemey,  and  ia  engraved  in  the  Arehaohgical 
AmeuAitM  Ji»trnal.\      With  it  were  found  socketed  celta,  speor-heuds, 


Pig.  ne.-AUilinw. 


ud  broken  swords  and  daggers.    This  may  be  regarded  as  a  French 
Mher  than  an  English  example. 

In  my  own  collection  is  another,  from  the  Seine  at  Paris,  about  7  ini'hes 
in  length  along  the  outer  edge  of  the  blade,  which  extends  past  the  end 
of  the  socket.  This  still  contains  a  part  of  the  wooden  handle,  which  hiis 
liwn  secured  in  its  place  by  two  rivets,  apparently  of  bronze.  In  general 
mtline  this  sickle  is  much  like  Fig.  234,  but  the  blade  is  narruwi.T  and 
nibte  curved  and  the  socket  more  tiattened.     In  the  museum  at  Amiens 


Artk.  JoiiTH.,  Tul,  li.  p.  1H6.     Sw  alHii    Dublin 
iln,"  iJ.  I.  18. 
Vol.  m.  p.  6. 


■  drth.  J. 
tVol.£i 


202  SICKLES  [chap.  V 

is  another  sickle,  in  form  closely  resembling  Fig.  234,  but  with  a  looj 
the  back  of  the  socket.  M.  Chantre  in  his  magnificent  work,  ^*JjI 
du  Bronze,"  does  not  specify  this  socketed  type,  though  he  divides  * 
form  without  socket  into  five  different  varieties.  The  socketed  fc 
appears  to  be  quite  unknown  in  the  South  of  France,  as  it  also  is 
Switzerland. 

These  three  are  the  only  instances  I  can  cite  of  socketed  sick 
having  been  found  outside  the  British  Isles,  so  that  this  type 
instrument  appears  to  be  peculiarly  our  own.  The  existence 
a  socket  shows  that  the  form  does  not  belong  to  an  early  peri 
in  the  Bronze  Age,  and  the  same  is  to  be  inferred  from  t 
character  of  the  other  bronze  objects  with  which  the  Alderr 
sickle  was  found  associated. 

Inasmuch  as  the  continental  forms  are  as  a  rule  differ 
from  the  British,  and  as  they  are,  moreover,  well  known,  it  v 
suffice  to  indicate  some  few  of  the  works  in  which  descriptions 
them  will  be  found.  Some  from  Camenz,  in  Saxony,  have  b< 
engraved  in  illustration  of  a  paper  by  myself  in  tlie  Proceedk 
of  the  Society  of  Antiquanes* 

Others  from  Germany,  some  of  which  are  said  to  have  Rod 
numerals  upon  them,  have  been  figured  by  Lindenschmit.t 

Examples  from  Italy  have  been  given  by  Strobel,J  Gastah 
Lindenschmitjll  and  others. 

They  have  been  found  in  great  abundance  in  some  of  the  set 
ments  on  the  lakes  of  Switzerland  and  Savoy.  It  has  been  thou 
that  the  Lake-dwellers  did  not  cut  off  merely  the  ears  of  their  cor 
but  *'  that  the  straw  was  taken  with  it,  otherwise  there  would 
have  been  the  seeds  of  so  many  weeds  in  the  corn.''  Diodorus  Sieu 
however,  who  wrote  in  the  first  century  B.C.,  tells  us  distini 
that  the  Britons  gathered  in  their  harvest  by  cutting  off  the  e 
of  com  and  storing  them  in  subterraneous  repositories.  Fi 
these  they  picked  the  oldest  clay  by  day  for  their  food.  Whet 
for  thresliing  they  made  use  of  the  tribulum**  that  ''sh 
threshing  instrument  having  teeth,"  before  Roman  times,  is  dou 
ful  ;  but  that  so  primitive  an  instrument,  armed  with  flakes 
flint  or  other  stone,  should  have  remained  in  use  in  some  Medit 
ranean  countries  until  the  present  day,  is  a  remarkable  instai 

*  2nd  8.,  vol.  iii.  p.  333. 

t  "  Samnil.  zn  Sigmar.,"  Taf.  xli. ;  *'  Alt.  u.  h.  Vorz.,"  vol.  i.  Heft  xii.  Taf.  ii. 

}  "  Avanzi  Prorom.,"  1863,  Tav.  ii.  6,  7. 

?  "Nuovi  Cenni,"  1862,  Tav.  iv.  17,  18.  |!  •'  Sainml.  zn  Sigmar.."  Taf.  xli 

1!  Stevens,  *'  Flint  Chips/'  p.  167. 

*♦   See  Evans,  **  Anc.  Stono  Imp.,"  p.  2jG. 


FOUND   ON    THE    CONTINENT.  203 

power  of  survival  of  ancient  customs.  Such  an  instance 
stence  in  a  primitive  form  much  reduces  the  extreme  im- 
iity  of  the  use  of  bronze  sickles  in  Germany  having  lasted 
time  when  Roman  numerals  might  appear  upon  them. 
^  St.  Andrew's  cross  and  every  straight  line  found  upon 

instruments  is  to  be  regarded  as  a  Roman  numeral,  and 
jcts  bearing  them  are  to  be  referred  to  Roman  times  as 
irliest  possible  date,  the  range  of  Roman  antiquities  will 
h  enlarged,  and  will  be  found  to   contain,   among  other 

a  largo  number  of  the  bronze  knives  from  the  Swiss 
sellings  ;  for  one  of  the  most  common  ornaments  on 
ks  of  these  knives  consists  of  a  repetition  of  the  pattern 

KIIIIIXIIIII. 

were  it  proved  that  in  some  part  of  Europe  the  use  of 
sickles  survived  to  so  late  a  date  as  supposed  by  Dr.  Lin- 
nit,  their  great  scarcity  in  the  British  Isles  affords  a  conclu- 
jument  against  their  being  assigned  to  the  period  of  the 
occupation,  of  which  other  remains  have  come  down  to  us 

abundance. 


CHAPTER  IX. 

KNIVES,    RAZORS,    ETC. 

It  is  a  question  whether,  if  in  this  work  strict  regard  had  been  paid 
to  the  development  of  different  forms  of  cutting  implements,  the 
knife  ought  not  to  have  occupied  the  first  place,  rather  than  the 
hatchet  or  celt ;  for  when  bronze  was  first  employed  for  cutting 
purposes  it  was  no  doubt  extremely  scarce,  and  would  therefore 
hardly  have  been  available  for  any  but  the  smaller  kinds  of  tools 
and  weapons. 

Both  hatchets  and  knives,  or  rather  knife-daggers,  have  been- 
found  with  interments  in  barrows  ;  but  it  seems  better  to  include 
the  majority  of  the  latter  class  of  instruments,  which  appear  U^ 
occupy  an  intermediate  place  between  tools  and  weapons,  in  the 
next  chapter,  which  treats  of  daggers ;  rather  than  in  this,  which  will 


Fig.  SS9.— Wicken  Fen. 


be  devoted  to  what  appear  to  be  forms  of  tools  and  implements. 
Some  of  these,  however,  like  the  celt  or  hatchet,  may  have  been 
equally  available  both  for  peaceful  and  warlike  uses  ;  and  though 
I  have  to  some  extent  tried  to  keep  tools  and  weapons  under 
different  headings,  it  appears  impossible  completely  to  carry  out 
any  such  system  of  arrangement.  Xor  in  treating  of  what  I  have 
regarded  as  knives  does  it  seem  convenient  first  to  describe  what 
appear  to  be  the  simpler  and  older  forms,  inasmuch  as  there  are 
other  forms  which  in  all  respects  except  the  shape  of  the  blade  so 
closely  resemble  some  of  the  sockett^l  sickles  described  in  the  last 
chapter,  that  tliey  seem  almost  of  necessity  to  follow  immediately 


f^OCKETED   KKIVES.  200 

in  order.  The  first  inEtrumcnt  which  I  shall  cite  has  sometimes 
indeed  been  regarded  as  a.  sickle,  though  it  is  more  properly 
''peakiDg  a  curved  knife. 

It  wsa  found  in  Wicken  Fen,  and  la  now  in  the  Muaemn  of  tlio  Cambridgo 
Antiqu&rian  Society,  the  Council  of  which  has 
kindly  permitted  me  to  engrave  it  as  Fig.  239.  j.v 

It  has  already  teen  figured,  but  not  quite  aceu-  '"a, 

ntely,  in  the  Arehaologieal  Journal,*  the  rib  at 
dieback  of  the  blade  being  omitted-  I  am  not 
arare  of  any  other  example  of  this  form  of 
knife  haTing  been  found  in  the  United  Kingdom, 
but  a  double-edged  socketod  knife  with  a  curved 
blade,  found  in  Ireland,  is  in  the  Bateman  Col- 


The  ordinaiy  fonn  of  socketed  knife  has 
1  straight  double-edged  blade,  extending 
ftom  an  oval  or  oblong  socket,  pierced  by 
one  or  two  holes,  through  which  rivets  or 
pina  could  pass  to  secure  the  haft.  These 
holes  are  usually  at  right  angles  to  the  axis 
of  the  blade,  hut  sometimes  in  the  same 
plane  with  it. 

FifT.  240  shows  a  knife  with  two  rivet-holea, 
*liicli  was  found  at  Tkomdon,  Suffolk,  together 
vitli  socketed  celta,  a  spear-head,  hammer, 
googe,  and  an  awl,  several  of  which  hove  been 
Sgored  in  preceding  pages.  Another  (9  inches 
long),  much  like  Fig,  240,  but  with  the  sides  of 
the  socket  flat,  and  the  blade  more  fluted,  was 
fonnd  in  the  Thames,  and  is  engraved  in  the 
Areh^alogical  Journal.^  Another,  of  much  the 
wme  size  and  general  character,  formed  part  of 
a  hoard  of  bronze  objects  found  in  Reach  Fen, 
Bear  Borwell,  of  which  mention  has  already  fre- 
quently been  made.  It  is  in  my  own  collection,  ^^^^  __^_ 
and  is  sluiwn  in  Fig,  241.  I  have  another,  ^^TT^  Fig.  hi  — 
6i  indies  long,  found  m  Edmonton  Marsh.  TGoradon.  }    Bach  Fen.  i 

A  fine  blade  of  this  kind,  with  two  rivet-holes 
in  the  hilt  (HJ  inches),  was  found  in  the  New  Forest,  GLamoi^ansbire, 
ud  was  formerly  in  the  Meyrick  Collection.^     It  is  now  in  the  British 
Uoieum.     The  blade  has  shallow  flutings  parallel  with  the  edges. 

A  socketed  knife  of  this  kind  (4^  inches)  was  found  by  General  A. 
IHtt  Bivere,  F.R.S,,  in  a  pit  at  the  foot  of  the  interior  slope  of  the  rampart 
of  Highdown  Camp,§  near  Worthing,  Sussex.  It  may  possibly  have 
acmmpanied  a  funereal  deposit. 

•  VoL  Tii.  p.  80a.  +  Vol.  ixriv.  p.  301. 

X  "Aae.  AnvooT,''  pi.  xlvii.  II.  i  Areh.,  yiA.  xUi.  p.  75,  pi.  viii.  23. 


206  KSIVE8,   RAZORS,    ETT.  [CH 

In  Bomo  inatanpes  the  two  livet-holea  run  lengthways  of  the  ova 
Mcket.  One  such,  diBcovered  with  otlier  objects  at  Lanant,  0 
(f)^  inches),  ia  engraved  in  the  Arekaohgia.*  It  is  now  in  the  \ 
of  the  Society  of  Antiquaries.  One  like  it  was  found  on  Holyhead 
tainit  Anglesea,  and  is  now  in  the  British  Museum. 

A  fnigment  of  a  knife  of  this  Mnd  is  in  the  museum  at  Amie 
formed  i>art  of  a  Itoard  found  near  that  town.     It  has  a  heading 
mouth  of  the  socket,  and  also  on 
midway  hotween  the  riTet-holes. 

Coninionly  there  is  but  a 
hole  through  the  socket,  especi 
the  smaller  spccimeas.  VrnA 
in  Fig.  242  is  of  this  bind,  b 
scnts  the  remarkable  feature  ■ 
ing  U2>an  each  face  of  the  soc 
small  projecting  bosses  sim: 
livet-lieads.  It  was  found  : 
Heathery  Bum  Cave,J  Durliar 
socketed  celts,  spear-heatls,  ai 
merous  other  articles.  Anothc 
the  same  cave  (5|  inches) 
plain  and  rather  larger  socke 
the   collection   of   Canon   Ore 

r.R.s. 

Of  other  specimens,  but  witUi 
small  bosses,  the  following  may  1 
tionod  : — One  (BJ  inches  long)  fou 
eocketed  celts,  part  of  a  sword 
and  a  gouge,  at  Martlcslinm,  ■ 
and  in  the  possession  of  Captain  '. 
of  Ufford  IlaU.  Two  found 
Tliames  near  Wallingford.§  Anoi 
inches),  from  the  same  source. 
own  collection.  This  was  found 
socketed  celt,  gouge,  chisel,  an 
(Fitf.  209).  One  from  IJandysili 
bighsliire.  found  with  socketed  ci 
a  Bjiear-licad.  is  in  Canon  (iree 
r-ollcction.  A  knife  of  this  ki; 
among  the  relics  found  above  the 
mite  in  Kent's  Cavcm,  near  Toiv| 
I  hiiw  a  knife  of  this  character  \4J  inches',  but  with  the  rivet-h 
ino  with  the  edges  of  the  blade,  found  in  Dorset  shir,-. 


t  Areh.JfiHr 
It  liy  the  Soi'if 


:.  p,  US.  111.  ii.;  "Cstnl.  Ihis.  Soc 


SCOTTISH    AND    IRISH    KNIVES.  iU7 

In  Scottand  the  socketed  form  of  knife  is  very  rare. 

That  ehown  in  Fig.  2J3  wus  found  at  Kilpraston,  Perthshire,  and  ie  in 
thf  eiiDertion  of  Canon  Greonwell,  F.R.S.  It  has  a  central  rib  along  tlif 
Hide  and  two  shorter  lateral  ribs,  and  in.  somo  respccta  has  more  tin- 
ippearance  of  being  a  epear-head  than  a  knifu. 

Wther,  with  the  rivot-holo  in  the  same  pliine  as  tho  blade,  was  found 
uw  Compbelton,  Argj-leahiro,  and  has  boon  engraved  as  a  spear-head  by 
Pnfessor  Daniel  Wi£on.*  The  discovery  of  a  blade  having  its  original 
luniile,  as  subsequently  mentioned,  proves,  however,  that  some  of  thcso 
•re  rightly  regarded  aa  knives,  though  another  form  (Fig.  328)  has  moro 
the  a]ipearance  of  being  a  spoar-hoad.  The  curved  knifo  with  a  socket, 
figiired  by  the  same  autlior,t  can  hanlly,  I  think,  bo  Scottish. 

In  Ireland  the  socketed  form  of  knife  is  more  abundant  than  in 
either  England  or  Scotland,     No  less  than  thirty-three  such  knivcw+ 
ire  recorded   by  Sir  W.  Wilde,  as  preserved  in 
the  Museum  of  the  Royal  Irisli  Academy,  of  five 
of  which  he  gives  figures.     Many  specimens  also 
eiist  in  private  collections. 

That  shown  in  Fig.  244  is  in  the  collection  of  Canon 
GreeQwell.  F.R.S.,  and  was  found  at  Kells.  Co. 
UeatL  As  will  be  observed,  tho  blade  is  at  the  base 
wmeirhat  wider  than  the  socket.  The  indented  lines 
upon  it  appear  to  have  been  produced  in  the  cast- 
iig.  and  not  added  by  any  subsequent  proecss.  A 
We  of  the  same  kind,  found  in  the  Bog  of  Augh- 
»De,  near  Atlilet^^ue,  Co.  Galway,  is  still  attached 
to  the  original  handle,  which,  like  many  of  thoso  of 
llie  flint  knives  found  in  the  Swiss  Lake-dwellings, 
iiformed  of  yew.   It  has  been  several  times  figurod.§ 

I  have  a  specimen  of  tho  same  character,  but  in 
ondine  more  like  Fig.  240,  6  inchoa  long,  from  the 
Xurth  of  Ireland. 

A  knife  of  this  kind,  found  in  a  hoard  at  St.  Go- 
Boulph,  ia  in  the  Tours  Museum. 

In  some  lastances  the  junction  between  the  hlade  and  the  socket 
is  nuulc  to  resemble  that  between  the  hilt  and  hlade  of  some  of  the 
bronze  swords  and  daggers,  such  as  Figs.  2!)1  and  349. 

The  example  shown  in  Fig.  24-'5  is  in  my  own  ollec'tion.  I  do  not, 
however,  know  in  what  part  tii  Ireland  it  was  found.  The  rivet-hole  is 
at  the  side,  and  not  on  the  face,  in  which,  however,  there  is  a  slight  flaw, 
vhich  assumes  the  appearance  of  a  hole  in  the  figure.  In  Canon  Grcen- 
tbU'b  collection  is  a  nearly  similar  specimen  (lOJ  inches),  found  at  Baltc- 
wgh,  Co.  Deny,  with  two  rivet-holes  at  the  side  and  the  socket  some- 
what  ornamented  by  parallel  grooves  at  the  mimlh  and  at  the  junction 
*ith  the  blade. 

t  Op.  ril.,  p.  402.         I  "  fttfal,,"  p.  46^. 
,Tol.  xssvi.  p.  330;  '•Honr>Ferale«,"pI.  ».  29'. 


W8  KNIVES,   RAZORS,  ETC.  [( 

Oue  of  tho  Bockoted  knives  in  tlie  Academy  Museum  at  Dublin 
rivet-lioles  on  the  face.  Of  the  other 
two-thirds  have  a  single  rivet-holo  on 
and  tho  other  third  one  on  the  side. 

A  lon^  blade,  somewhat  differing  in  i' 
from  Fig.  245,  was  found  between  Lur 
Moira,  Co.  Down,  and,  It  is  stated,  in  ■ 
with  tho  bronco  hilt  or  pommel  showi 
246.  ThoBe  objects  formed  part  of  thi 
Collection,  and  are  now  in  the  Museur 
Royal  Irish  Academy.  Two  objects,  8< 
similar  to  Fig.  246,  found  with  spear-] 
Cambridgoahire,  will  subsequently  be  mt 
A  piece  of  bronze  of  much  the  same  fon 
with  8  hoard  of  bronze  objects  at  Uai 
Kent,  seems  to  be  a  jet  or  waste  piece 
casting.  It  has,  however,  been  regardet 
of  a  fibula. 

The  socketed  form  of  kuife  is  hardly 
upon  the  Continent,  though,  as  will  ha 
observed,  it  has  occasionaUy  been  foum 
Nortli  of  France.  Among  the  fragnc 
metal  forming  part  of  tho  deposit  of  an 
bronze- founder,  and  discovered  at  Drei 
Amiens,  I  have  the  fragments  of  tv 
knives.  I  have  also  a  fine  and  entire  sj 
OJ  inches  long,  from  the  bed  of  the  ■ 
Charenton,  near  Paris.  There  is  a  tri 
rib  at  each  end  and  in  the  middle  of  thi 
through  the  fate  of  which  are  two  riv' 
A  portion  of  the  original  wooden  handli 
in  the  socket,  secured  in  its  place  by  t" 
also  apparently  of  wood,  which  pass  thro 
rivet-holes.  Another  knife  (6|  inche: 
Fig.  241,  but  with  only  one  rivet -hole,  ' 
found  in  the  Seine  at  Paris,  and  is  no< 
collection. 

Several  sock^'ted  knives  with  curved 
have  been  found  in  the  Swiss  Lake-d^i 
and  one  siieh,  found  with  the  sickle 
mentioned,  is  in  the  Amiens  Museum. 

There  is  anotlipr  form  of  socketei 
which  it  will  bo  well  here  to  mention. 
blade  is  sharj)  on  both  sides,  but 
of  being  Hat  it  is  eun^otl  into  ii  seti 
For  a  typieal  exaiii]ile  I  niii  obli^eVV 
recourse  to  a  Freiioli  spoeiiiien. 


That  shown  in  Fij.  "J4" 


.x.U,«,. 


:idx 


s£i= 


CURVED   KNIVES. 


gold  torque  and  bracelet,  a  bronze  anvil  (Fi^.  217),  and  other  objocta,  at 
Freene  la  Mclre,  near  Falaise,  Calvados.  It  seems  well  adapted  for 
working  out  hollows  in  wood.  With  it  was  found  a  small,  tanged,  single- 
edged  knife,  the  end  of  which  is  bent  to  a  smaller  curve. 

An  instrument  of  much  the  same  character  (4   inches)  was  found, 
with  a  bronze  sword,  spear-heads,  &c.,  in  the  Island  of  Skye,  and  is  now 


Fig.  MS.— Moink        1 


Fig.  M7.-tVHnilaM(n.       ( 


in  the  Antiquarian  Museum  at  Edinburgh.  As  Professor  Daniel  Wilson* 
observes,  "m  general  appearance  it  resembles  a  bent  spear-head,  but  it 
has  a  raised  central  ridge  on  the  inside,  while  it  is  nearly  plain  and 
smooth  on  the  outer  side. — The  most  probable  use  for  which  it  has  been 
designed  would  seem  to  be  for  scraping  out  the  interior  of  canoes  and 
other  large  vessels  made  from  the  trunk  of  the  oak."  It  is  shown  as 
Fig.  248.  Another  instrument  of  the  same  kind  (4^  inches),  found  at 
Wester  Ord,  Invergordon,  Eoss-shire,  is  engraved  in  the  Proceedings  oftke 


Fig.  HS.— Skra. 


Society  of  Antiquariei  of  Seotland,\  and  ia  here  by  their  permission  repro- 
duced as  Fig.  249. 
It  seems  by  no  means  improbable  that  such  instrumenta  may  have  been 

•  "  Preh.  Ann.,"  vol.  i.  p.  400 ;  Proe.  Soc.  Ant.  Scot.,  vol.  viii.  p.  310.    The  cut  is 
here  reproduced  \iy  peTmiamon  of  SIosbts.  Maumillau. 
t  Vol.  viii.  p.  310. 


210  KNIVES,    RAZORS,    ETC.  [ 

mistaken  far  bent  spear-lieade,  and  that  they  are  not  quite  so  rare 

at  present  appear. 

Two  specimens  of  the  socketed  form  have  bees  found  m  the  Li 

ment  of  the  Eaux  Yivee,  near  Creneva,  and  are  now  in  the  n 

that  town.     Another,  with  a  tang,  is  in  the  collection  of  M. 

iioTgea,  and  was  found  among  the  pile-dwellingB  near  that  plac 
A  fragment  of  what  appears  to  havo  been  one  of  these  curve 

but  with  a  solid  handle,  and  not  a  socket,  was  found  with  gc 
various  fragmenti 
slow,  and  is  no 
British  Museum. 
What  seems 
tanged  ciUTod  hn 
kind  formed  pa 
great  Bologna  ho 

Another  f< 
knife,  which  aj 
be  intermediate 
those  with  sod 
those  with  men 
tang,  is  shown 
250.  In  this 
loops  extendin. 
the  blatle  on  eit 
which  would  re 
ends  of  the  two 
wood  or  horn 
to  form  the  hi 
that  a  single  i 
ficed  to  bind  t 
the  blado  betwi 
firmly  togetlier. 

The  original  y 
in  Eeaoh  Fen,  Ce 

Fig.*H)--E«chF™.    i  F«  »Sl-Re«hF™     1        .^^^^^   ^nd   is    nO' 

own  collection.  ' 
has  the  appearance  of  having  been  originally  longer,  but  of  b 
worn  away  by  use.  I  know  of  no  other  specimen  of  the  Id 
power  to  cast  such  loops  upon  the  blade  is  a  proof  of  no  ordi 
in  the  foundor. 

A  palstave  with  a  loop  of  tliia  kind  instead  of  a  stop  or  «i 
was  found  at  Dousard,*  Haute  Bavoie. 

Another  foim  of  knife  or  dag^r  has  merely  a  Hn  i  vnffl 

■■  QumUg.  "  Alhaa."  pi-  tI.  ! 


KNIVES   WITH   BROAD   TAMOB.  211 

ctses  provided  with  rivets  by  which  it  could  be  fastened  to  a 
huidle,  in  others  without  rivets,  as  if  it  had  heea  simply  driven 
into  a  handle. 

The  blade  Bhown  in  Fig.  251  was  found  in  the  eamo  hoard  aa  that 
^Bgiayed  aa  Fig.  241.  The  rivetA  are  fast  attached  to  the  blade,  and 
the  handle  through  which  they  pasaod  was  probably  of  some  perishable 
inalerial,  such  as  wood,  horn,  or  bone. 

Another  Made  (5^  inches),  with  a  broad  tang  and  two  rivet-holee,  was 
found  in  the  Thames.* 

In  the  Britiah  Museum  is  a  knife  much  like  the  figure,  8  Inches  long, 
And  showing  three  facets  on  the  blade,  found  in  the  Thames  at  Kingston. 

The  knife-blades  with  broad  tangs,  which  were  not  riveted  to 
their  handles,  were  in  some  instances  provided  with  a  central 
Hdge  upon  the  tang,  which  served  to  steady  them  in  their  handles, 
^nd  in  others  the  stem  or  tang  was  left  plain. 

One  of  the  former  daaa,  from  the  Heathery  Bum  Cave,  ia  shown  in 
^ig.  252.     It  is  in  the  collection  of  Canon  Qreenwell,  F.E.S. 

An  imperfect  hnifs  of  the  same  kind,  found  in  Yorkshire,  is  in  the 
Stwborough  Museum. 

Another,  with  the  edges  more  o^val,  like  Fig.  241,  was  found  in  the 
■aei^bourhood  of  fi^ttmgham,f  with  socketed  celts  and  numerous  other 
Ckbjects  in  bronv 

Another,  bro4  at  the  base  and  more  like  a  dagger  in  cbaraoter,  was 
ffonnd  with  vaH  as  other  articles  at  Marden.t  Kent. 

More  leaf-shaped  and  sharply  pointed  blades  of  this  kind,  probably 
^■^era  rather  than  knives,  have  been  often  found  in  Ireland.  One  § 
Cl'^  inches)  has  been  figured  by  Wilde.  Another  was  in  the  Dowrie 
Sioaid. 

In  the  Isle  of  Haiiy  hoard,  already  more  than  once  cited,  was  a  knifo 
-with  a  plwn  tang,  shown  in  Fig.  253.  It  has  rather  the  appearance  of 
larina  boon  made  from  the  pomt  of  a  broken  sword,  as  the  edgee  of  the 
tang  nave  been  "upset"  oy  hammering.  The  blade  itseu  is  now 
narrower  than  the  tang,  the  result  probably  of  much  wear  and  use. 

The  end  of  a  broken  sword  in  the  Dowris  hoard  has  been  converted 
>nta  a  knife  in  a  similar  manner.  In  the  collection  of  the  late  Lord 
^aybrooke  is  what  appears  to  be  part  of  a  tanged  knife,  sharpened  at 
us  broken  end  so  as  to  form  a  chisel. 

In  Qie  Beach  Fen  hoard  was  a  knife  (4J  inches)  of  much  the  same 
«™artBr,  but  not  so  broad  in  the  tang. 

A  flat  hUi^A  with  n  tang  for  insertion  in  a  haft  must  have  been  a  very 
wly  form  of  nii.tal  tool.  Among  the  Assyrian  relics  from  Tel  Sifr,  in 
™utti  Babylfiiiiu.  Kuch  blades  were  found,  of  which  there  are  examples  in 
«"  R"'"h  Museum, 

P.B.S.,  has  two  leaf-shaped  blades  of  copper,  with 
of  bone  rather  longer  than  the  blades,  which  were 
Ate  Esquimaux.     In  form  they  resemble  Fig.  257. 

J-  ii.  p.  229.    t  Prot.  See.  Ant.,  2nd  8.,  Tol.  i.  p.  332. 
rir.  p.  268.'     i  '■  Catal.,"  p.  487,  fig.  366. 


KNirES,    BAZOIU,    ETC. 


[chap. 


It  will  now  be  well  to  mention  some  of  the  other  Irish  spe 
mens  of  this  class. 

The  knivw  with  the  projecdng  rib  upon  the  tang  are  b;  no  me< 
unconunon,  and  there  are  severu  in  the  Museum  of  the  Bojral  In 
Academy  and  elsewhere.    Canon  Greenwell  has  one  (6|  inches]  fri 


Fir.  SIA—Eeaamj  Burn  C^n 


I      Fig.  »a.-n«rty.      }  pig.  a 


BaUynasereen,  Co.  Tyrone,  much  like  that  from  the  Heathery  Bum  Ci 
(Tig.  252). 

The  knife  or  dagger  with  a  plain  tang  and  an  omamentetl  bli 
engraved  ae  Fig.  254  is  in  the  Museum  of  the  Eoyal  Irish  Acader 
Another,  simply  ridged  and  with  a  single  rivet-hole  in  the  Umg,  found 
Craigs,*  Co.  Antrim,  is  in  the  collection  of  Mr.  R.  Day,  F.S.A.  It  is  1 
Tound-cnded  than  tJie  blade  with  a  central  rib  along  it'and  one  rivet-h 
in  the  tang,  shown  in  Fig.  255.  This  is  in  my  omi  collection,  anil  i 
found  at  Ballyclare,  Co.  Antrim. 

•  Froc.  Sot.  Anl.,2aAii.,  vol,  v.  p.  209  (wooduul), 


KNIVES   WITH   LANCEOLATE   BLADES. 


213 


old  for  blades  of  thia  character  will  Hubsequently  be  mentioned, 
.er  fonu  of  knife,  unless  possibly  it  was  intended  for  a  lauoe- 
shown  in  Fig.  256.  This  specimen  is  also  from  the  Beaoh  Fen 
ut  is  of  yellower  metal  and  oifferently  patinated  fiom  the  objects 
it^L  it.  Canon  Gxeenwell  has  a  knife  of  the  same  form  (4  j  inches), 
t  Seamer  Carr,  Torkshire.  Another,  smaller  (3|  inches),  is  in 
ish  Museum,  but  its  place  of  finding  is  not  utown.  A  nearly 
Jade,  found  near  Balljcastle,  Co.  Antrim,  is  shown  in  Fig.  267, 
er  esamplo  of  this  form  (Sg-  inches)  is  in  the  British  Museum. 
.  WiMo*  hfts  fionirfid  snmfi  other  exi 


of  the  same  kind,  from 
heads.     They  appear  to 


.  Wilde  *  has  figured  some  other  exai 
.ches  long,  which  he  regarded  as  art 
ever,  too  large  for  such  a  purpose. 
Museum  of  the  Eoyal  Irish  Academy  is  yet  another  variety,  with 
9  pierced  in  the  centre  (Fig.  258). 


-BiUyetue.  i    Fig.  SM.-Bxub  FflL  t     Fif.  la;.— BaUycutle,  {     Tig. 


re  proceeding  to  describe  some  other  symmetrical  double- 
ilade3,  it  will  be  well  to  notice  such  few  examples  as  have 
und  of  single-edged  blades,  like  the  ordinary  knives  of  the 
day.  Abundant  as  these  are,  not  only  in  the  Lake-dwell- 
Switzeriand,  but  in  France  and  other  continental  countries, 
■e  of  extremely  rare  occurrence  in  the  British  Tales, 

g.  259  I  have  engraved  a  small  instrument  of  this  kind,  found  at 
ton,  near  Tring,  Herts,  the  handle  of  which  terminates  in  the 
[  an  animal.  It  was  therefore  not  intended  for  insertion  into  a 
some  other  material. 


"CateLHua.  E.  I.  A.,' 


I,  Gg«.  387,  388,  389. 


2U 


KNIVES,   RAZOBS,   ETC. 


[CHAF. 


I  liave  another  bronze  knife,  rather  longer  and  narrower,  and  witli  * 
pointed  tang,  which  is  said  to  have  been  found  in  London ;  but  of  QoM  I 
am  b;  no  means  certain. 

The  rude  biife  found  with  the  Isle  of  Harty  board,  and  shown  full  Btio 


FJg.  JB9.— Wlmioton.  { 

as  Fig.  260,  is  the  only  oUier  English  specimen  with  which  I  am  al^- 
quointed,  but  no  doubt  more  exist. 

The  only  specimen  mentioned  in  tho  Catalogue  of  the  Museum  of  the 
Society  of  Antiquaries  of  Scotland  is  in  aU  14  inches  long,  with  a  thick 
back  and  notched  tang,  and  of  this  the  place  of  finding  is  unknown. 


Fig.  160.— Ids  of  Bartr. 

Professor  Daniel  Wilson  *  speaks  of  it  as  having  been  found  in  Ayrshire, 
and  regards  it  as  a  reaping  instrument.  He  also  figures  a  socketed  knife 
of  much  the  same  sixu  from  the  collection  of  Sir  John  Clerk  at  Peni- 
cuick  House,  in  which  are  also  some  tauged  specimens.  I  cannot  help 
suspecting  that  these  ore  of  foreign  origin. 

In  Ireland  the  form  appears  to  be  at  present  unknown. 

la  Fig.  261  is  shown  a  knife  of  a  form  which  is  of  extremely 
rare  occurrence  in  this  country ; 
though,  a3  will  be  seen,  it  has 
frequently  been  found  in  France. 


The  specimen  here  figured  has 
been  kindly  lent  me  by  Mr.  Hum- 
plirey  Wickham,  of  Strood,  and  was 
found  with  a  hoard  of  bronze  objects 
at  Allhftllows,  Hoo,t  Kent.  The 
hoard  coiitninod  socketed  colts,  giuiges,  a  epoar-head,  fragments  of 
Rwortii,  and  tJie  objt'ct  engraved  as  Fig.  '2SG.  Ono  more  crescent-like  in 
fonu  was  found  with  a  hoard  of  broiizo  objects  near  Meldreth,  Cam- 
bridgralnro.  and  is  in  the  British  Mueeum. 

Knives  iif  this  kind  were  associated  with  celts,  gouges,  &c.,  in  tho  hoard 
•  '•  lYih.  Aim.  tHiit.,"  vul.  i.  p.  <02.  t  -^rch.  Cant.,  voL  xi.  p.  12S,  pi.  c  14, 


KNIV'ES  OF   PECULIAR  TYPES.  215 

of  Notre-Dame  d'Or,  now  in  Hie  musetim  at  Poitiers.    Two  also  were 
present  in  the  Aldemey  hoard  found  near  the  Pierrt  du  Villain." 

Some  knives  of  this  oharacter  vere  foimd  with  &  hoard  of  bronze  tools 
wnd  weapons  at  Questembert,  Brittany,  and  are  now  in  the  museum  at 
Vannea.  A  broken  one  was  in  the  hoard  of  the  Jardin  des  Flantes, 
Nantee.f  One  from  La  Manche  is  engraved  in  the  Mtmoirt  of  the  Society 
«/  AiUifHariea  of  Normandy,  1827—8,  pi.  xvi.  20.  A  knife  of  this 
character  of  rectangular  form,  each  side  being  brought  to  an  edge, 
TM  found  with  other  bronze  relics  at  Ploneour,  Brittany,  and  is  en- 
giared  in  the  Arehteologia  Cam^entii.t  In  character  this  knife  closely 
tnemhles  some  of  those  in  flint.  §  A  hind  of  triangular  knife  of  the 
time  character  was  found  at  Briatexte|j  (Tarn).  One  from  the  station 
of  Gaux  Vives,  in  the  Lake  of  Geneva,  has  the  face  ornamented  at  the 
bloitt  mai^in  with  a  vandyke  of  hatched  triangles.  In  some  French 
niieties  Uiere  are  rings  at  the  top  of  the  blade  instead  of  holes  through 
it  In  a  curious  specimen  from  ^t.  Julien,  Chateuil,  in  the  collection  of 
U.  Aymard,  at  Le  Puy,  the  edge  is  nearly  semicircular,  and  there  are 
o^t  ronad  holes  through  the  blade  as  well  as  two  rings  at  the  bock. 
Some  of  the  razors  from  the  Lake-dwellings  of  Savoy  and  Switzerland 
ire  of  much  the  same  character  as  these  knives.  I  have  a  knife  of  this 
dui  with  a  rather  large  triangular  opening  in  it  and  two  circular  loops, 
bond  at  Bemissart,  Hainault.^  Another  somewhat  difierent  was  found  at 
Urine**  (Tarn). 


lig.  Ml-Cotlle. 

A  Danish  fj"  knife  of  this  character  has  five  circular  loops  along  the 
boUowed  back.  AMecklenburg||  knife  has  throe  such  loops  and  curded 
festoons  of  bronze  between. 

The  bronze  knife  or  razor,  shown  full  size  in  Fig.  262,  was  found  at 
Cottle,S§  near  Abingdon,  and  is  now  in  the  British  Museum.  It  is  of  a 
pecnliar  and  distinct  type,  but  somewhat  resembles  in  character  the 
oblong  bronze  cutting  instrument  found  at  Ploneour,  Brittany,  already 
mentioned.  It  is  thinner  and  flatter  than  would  appear  from  the  figure. 
AlfMklenbuTgJIII  knife  or  razor  figured  by  Lisch  is  analogous  in  form. 

I  have  a  rough  and  imperfect  blade  of  somewhat  the  same  character  as 
that  bom  Coma,  but  thinner  and  more  curved.    It  has  no  hole  through 

•  ArdL  A—ai.  Jomm.,  vol.  iii.  p.  9.    t  Parcntoau.  "  3Iat6riaux,"  vol.  v.  pi.  viii.  16. 
t  M  8.,  vol.  vi.  p.  138.  \  "  Anc.  Stone  leap.,"  p.  304,  Hg.  2aS. 

("lUUrisai,"  vol.  liv.  pi.  ii.  4. 
t  "Ann.  do  code  Arch,  de  Mons,"  1B57,  pi.  i.  6. 

••  "MaMrisni,"  vol.  liv.  p.  489.  tt  Woraaae,  "Nord.  Olds.,"  fiR.  160. 

It  liMh,  "Freder.  Fnutdec.,"  tab.  ivii.  10. 

\\fnc.8»c.  JMt.,toAfi.,'to\.  ii.  p.  301.  For  the  use  of  thia  cut  I  am  iodcUi-d  to 
Ike  Ooancn  of  the  Sodetr. 


316  KI(I%'ES,    RAZORS,    ETC  [cHAP.  IX. 

it,  but  thickena  out  at  one  end  into  a  short  boat-shaped  {m^jectiort  aboDt 
i  inch  long.     It  was  found  near  Londondeny. 

A  diminutive  pointed  blade  which  appears  to  be  too  Btuall  to  have  been 
in  use  aa  a  dagger,  and  which  from  the  rivet-hole  throng  the  taog  can 
hardly  have  served  as  an  arrow  or  lance  head,  is  shown  in  Fig.  263.  This 
specimen  formed  part  of  the  Beach  Fen  hoard.  A  vei?  small  example  of 
this  kind  of  blad^,  from  a  barrow  near  Eobin  Hood  s  Ball,  Wilts,  has 
been  figured  by  the  late  Dr.  Thumam,  F.8.A.,  in  his  second  exhaustive 
paper  on  "Ancient  British  Barrows,"  pubhshed  in  the  Areh^olcgi*,* 
from  which  I  have  derived  much  useful  informatioii. 

A  email  blade  with  the  sides  more  curved  is  shown  in  Fig.  364,  which  I 
have  copied  from  Dr.  Thumam's  engraving-f  The  original  was  found  in 
Ludy  Tjow,  Staffordshire. 

A  smaller  example,  with  a  longer  and  imperforated  tang,  found  in  an 
urn  at  Broughton.t  Lincolnshire,  and  now  m  the  British  Museum,  has 
been  thought  to  be  an  arrow-head  ;  but  I  agree  with  Dr.  Thumam  in 
regarding  both  it  and  the  small  blades  described  by  Hoare§  aa  arrow- 
heads, as  being  more  probably  small  double-edged  knives. 


Priddjr.     1 


Some  remarks  as  to  the  almost  if  not  absolutely  entire  nbsencc 
of  bronze  arrow-lieads  in  this  country  will  be  found  in  a  subsequent 
pi^e. 

TliG  larger  specimens  of  tlicse  tanged  blades  of  somewhat  tri- 
angular outline  I  have  descril)cd  as  daggers,  but  I  must  confess 
tliat  tlie  distinction  between  knives  and  da^crs  is  in  such  ca-ses 
puroly  arbitrary.  The  more  rounded  forms  which  now  follow  secin 
ratlier  of  tlie  nature  of  tools  or  toilet  iustrumcnts  than  weajions, 

Fif,'.  2fi.'i,  copiisl  from  Dr.  Tliumam's  plntn,  ||  represents  what  has  been 
rfgiinlfd  aa  a  razor  bliido.     It  was  found  In  a  barrow  at  Wintersloiv, 


DOUBLE-EDGED   RAZORS. 


217 


Wilti,  and  ill  nor  in  the  Aslunolean  MuBeum  at  Oxford.  Its  roeemblanco 
to  the  leaf  of  rib-vort  {Plantago  media)  has  been  pointed  out  by  Dr.  Tbur- 
nam,  vfao  records  that  it  was  found  in  an  um  with  burnt  bones  and  a  set 
of  beautiinl  amber  buttons  or  studs.  He  has  also  figured  one  of  nearly 
the  BBine  size,  but  vith  fewer  ribs,  from  a  barrow  at  Priddj,  Somerset. 
This  alu  has  been  regarded  as  an  arrow-head,  though  it  is  3  inches  long 
■nd  H  inches  broad.  It  has  a  small  rivet-hole  through  the  tang.  The 
oripnal  is  now  in  the  Bristol  Museum,  and  its  edge  ia  described  as  sharp 
enough  to  mend  a  pen.*  I  have  reproduced  it  iu  Fig.  266.  A  blade  of 
much  the  same  kind  was  found  in  an  um,  with  an  axe-hammer  of  stone 
■nd  a  whetstone,  at  Broughton- in -Craven,  |  in  1675. 


Hl.Mf. 


E^ff.ll 


Cuon  Oreenwell  records  the  finding  of  an  oval  knife  (2J  inches)  with 
Wnt  bones  in  an  um  at  Nether  SweU,t  Oloucostershire. 

A  &nt  blade,  almost  circular,  with  a  somewhat  longer  tang  than  any 
Wfif^nred,  formed  part  of  the  great  Bologna  hoard. 

*  Artk.  Jmnl.,  vol.  in.  p.  162. 

t  'nio«««by'B"Catal,,"m\Vliitakcr'flod.  of  ■■  Ducat.  Lcod.,"  p.  114. 

I  "Aritjih  Bmtowi,"  p.  4te. 


218  KNIVES,    RAZORS,    ETC,  [CHAP.    IZ. 

These  iDstruments  are  occasionally  found  in  Scotland.  Some 
of  them  are  of  rather  larger  size,  and  ornamented  in  a  different 
manner  upon  the  faca 

A  small  plain  oval  blade,  whicli  has  poseibly  last  its  taaff,  wu  foonil 
in  a  tuniuluB  at  LieraboU,*  Kildonau,  SuUierland,  and  has  been  figmed- 
Two  oval  blades  were  found  with  burnt  bonea  in  uma  near  St.  Audrein.'f 

Another,  found  in  a  large  cinerary  um  at  Balbl&ir,^  Snthwlandiihitgr 
is  ehown  fuJl  size  in  Fig.  267.  The  edges  are  vety  tlun  and  sharp,  awS- 
the  central  rib  shown  in  the  section  is  ornamented  with  inciBed  lines. 

Another  blade  of  the  same  character,  but  ornamented  with  a  lozei^ 
pattern,  and  with  the  midrib  less  pronounced,  is  shown  in  Fir.  268,  aW 
of  the  actual  size.    It  was  found  m  a  tumulus  at  Bogart,$  Bntherland. 


f 


FIj.  !SS.— WaUIngfiud.       )  Fig.  170.— HbbUmit  Bon  Ca*e.       1 


Another,  apparently  more  perfect,  and  with  many  more  lozenges  in  tbo 

SaHem,  is  engraved  in  Gordon's  "Itinerorium  Septentriontde."  ||  He 
escribes  it  as  "  the  end  of  a  spear  or  Hasta  Pura  of  old  mixt  brass, 
finely  chequered."     It  was  in  Baron  Clerk's  collection. 

Tlko  only  English  example  which  I  can  adduce  was  found  with  some 
sickles,  a  torque,  and  uumerous  other  obj  ects  at  Taunton.  It  is  of  nearly 
the  same  sizp  and  shape  as  Fig.  267,  but  the  centre  plate  is  fluted  with  a 
slight  ridge  along  the  middle  and  one  on  either  side,  and  is  not  orna- 
mented.    It  is  described  as  a  lance-head  in  the  Arehaologieat  Jbunuil.^ 

I  an)  not  awiire  of  any  such  blades  having  ever  been  found  in  Ireland, 
in  wltii'h  ivuntry  the  plainer  forms  of  oval  razors  also  seem  to  be  ex- 
tremely rare. 

In  (.'nnim  OrtH'n well's  Oolleftion  is  an  oval  blade  (4  inches)  with  a  flat 
ceutnd  rib.  tujH<ring  tu  a  point,  running  along  it.     It  has  no  tang,  but 

•  /ViK\  Sof,  .Inf.  Scut,,  vol.  I.  p.  43*.  t  Grv-nwdl,  "  Brit.  Barrow*,"  p.  *46. 

:  iSw.  «.«-.  .Int.  Snil.,'ivi.\'\l.\K\:6.  For  the  use  of  this  cut,  as  weU  as  figt.  268, 
2TI.  '2'i.  anil  27.1.  1  Mn  indeMm)  to  the  l^-ietv. 

}   /W.  .Siv.  Ami.  Una.,  vol.  «.  p.  451.  '  3  P-  116.  pi.  1-  8  {1726). 

%  \i)L  xxivii.  !■.  fti,    Srv  olw  IMns-  "  IWt.  aiiJ  Ri^m.  Taanton,"  pL  i.  4. 


SCOTCH   AND   IBI3H   RAZORS.  219 

thm  is  a  rivet-faole  through  the  broad  end  ol  tite  rib.    It  was  found  ia 
u  uni  with  burnt  bonea  at  Eillyless,  Co.  Antrim. 

The  form  most  commonly  known  under  the  name  of  razor  is  that 
ibown  in  Fig.  269,  from  a  specimen  in  my  own  collection,  found 
m  tbe  Thames,  with  a  socketed  knife  and  other  objects,  near 
ViUingfbrd.  One  of  almost  identical  character  was  found  at 
UBngwyllog,"  Anglesea. 


Pit.  SIS.— Dantiu.       | 


Vig.  174.— Inlud.        1 


Another,  without  midrib,  from  the  Heather;  Bum  Cave,  is,  b;  the 
penaianon  of  Canon  Greenwell,  F.B.8.,  shown  as  Fie.  270. 

An  example  from  Wiltshiref  in  the  Stourhead  Museum  (now  at 
Deriue)  is  more  barbed  at  the  base  and  rounded  at  the  top,  In  which 
tlieie  is  neither  notch  nor  perforation. 

It  is  difficult  to  assign  a  use  for  the  small  hole  usuaU;  to  be  seen  in 


*  ArtJi,  /»HrM.,Tol.  3 


i.  p.  74;  Arch.  Cami., Sid  8.,yoL  x. 


;  Arei.,  vol.  iliii. 


KNIVES,   RAZ0B8,  STC. 


[CHAF. 


these  liladeB.     It  ma;  possiblr  be  by  way  of  preoaotion  Bgainat  t 

figaure  in  the  blade  extending  too  far,  though  in  most  oasee  the  notcha^K 
the  end  of  the  blade  does  not  extend  to  the  hole. 

Bazora  of  this  character  have  been  discovered  in  Scotland.  TIb^h 
which  are  believed  to  have  been  found  together  in  a  tumulus  at  Bo\^^^i 
faouBes,  near  Dunbar,*  Haddington ehire,  about  1825,  are  shown  in  P  ^| 
271,  272,  and  273.  They  are  all  in  the  Antiquarian  Museum,  < 
Edinburgh,  together  with  a  socketed  celt  found  with  them. 

Bazors  of  the  olaes  last  described  have  been  found  In  Ireland,  ^aad 
throo  are  mentioned  in  Wilde's  Cataloguef  of  the  Museum  of  the  Bo^a/ 


Irish  Academy,  to  the  Council  of  which  body  I  am  indebted  for  the  use  of 
Fig.  274.  The  midrib  of  the  specimen  horo  shown  is  decorated  with  ring 
ornaments  formed  of  incised  concentric  circlos,  an  ornament  of  frequent 
use  in  early  times,  though  but  rarely  oecTirring  on  objects  of  bronze  in 
Britain.  There  is  a  large  razor  of  this  kind  in  the  Museum  of  Trinity 
Cullego,  Uuhiin.  Several  unomamented  blades  of  tliis  charoctor  were 
j)resent  in  tlio  DonTia  hoard.  Two  which  wore  found  in  a  crannoge|  in 
Uie  county  of  Monaghan  were  regarded  as  bifid  arrow-heads.  One  of 
those  {2g  inches)  is  in  the  British  Museum. 

r.  p.  *4Cli  "Catil.,"  ; 


t   P.  6*9,  Jig.  433. 


CONTmENTAL   FORMS. 


221 


9  of  thiB  kind,  but  witli  a  loop  instead  of  a  tang,  and  a  hole  at 
of  the  blade  as  well  as  one  near  the  bottom  at  the  notch,  fraa 
Deume,*  Guelderland,  and  is  in  the  Lejden  Uuseum. 
dy  remaining  form  of  razor  which  has  to  be  noticed  is  that  of 
■epresentation  ia  given  of  the  actual  size  in  Fig.  276. 
strument  waa  found  at  Kinloith,!  near  Currie,  Edinburgh,  and 
described  and  commented  on  by  Dr,  John  Alexander  Smith. 
3,  besides  being  perforated  in  an  artistic  manner  and  having  a 
16  end  of  the  handle,  is  of  larger  dimensions  than  usual  with 
its  of  this  kind.  The  metal  of  which  it  is  composed  consists  of 
;-97  per  cent,  tin  7'03  (with  a  trace 

'ds  the  only  instance  of  a  razor  of 
3  having  been  found  in  the  British 
he  form  much  more  nearly  ap- 
one  of  not  uncommon  occiurence  on 
incnt  than  any  other  British  ex- 
id  Br.  Smith  has  illustrated  this  by 
ipanying  figure  of  a  razor  from  the 
;,  near  Nidau.t  on  the  Lake  of 
rig.  276).  I  have  a  razor  of  nearly 
form  from  tho  Seine  at  Paris,  and 
ive  been  found  in  various  parts  of 

arest  in  charactert«  Fig.  275  is  per- 

found  in  the  hoard  of  Notre- Dame 

d  preserved  in  the  museum  at  Poi- 

■Btcad  of  the  blade  being  a  single 

it  consists  of  two  penannular  con- 

ades  with  a  plain  midrib  connecting  Fig.  ne.— Nidna 

,ich  has  a  ring  at  the  external  end. 

jnent  with  the  blade  formed  of  a  single  crescent  was  found  at 

nan  example  is  in  the  Museum  of  the  Deutsche  Gesellechaft,  at 


e  next  chapter  I  shall  treat  of  those  hlades  which  appear  to 
3ns  rather  than  tools. 


ra'a  •'  Catal.,"  No.  209. 
Sk.  AhI.  Seal.,  vol.  v.  p.  84  ;  vol.  x.  p, 
of  this  and  the  following  cut. 
eller,  5ter  Bericht,  Taf.  xvi. 
lanlre,  "  Age  du  Br.,"  IJre  psrtie,  p.  71 
laUtSocdt'  Ant.  dt  COueil,  1844,  pi.  i: 


141.     I  am  indebted  to  the  Society 


CHAPTER  X. 

DAGGERS    AND   THEIR   HILTS. RAPIER-SHAPED   BLADES. 

Among  all  unciyilised,  if  not  indeed  among  all  eirilised  nations, 
arms  of  offence  take  a  {rt  higher  rank  than  mere  tools  and 
implements ;  and  on  the  first  introduction  of  the  use  of  metal 
into  any  country,  there  is  great  antecedent  probability  that  the 
primarj"  service  to  which  it  was  applied  was  for  the  manufac- 
ture of  weapons.  So  far  as  there  are  means  of  judging,  a 
small  knife  or  knife-dagger  appears  to  have  been  among  the 
earliest  objects  to  which  bronze  was  applied  in  Britain.  Possibly, 
like  the  Highland  dirk,  the  early  form  may  have  served  for  both 
peaceful  and  warlike  purposes  ;  but  there  are  other  and  appa- 
rently later  forms  made  for  piercing  rather  than  for  cutting,  and 
which  are  unmistakably  weapons.  The  distinction  which  can  be 
drawn  between  knives,  such  as  some  of  those  described  in  the 
last  chapter,  and  the  daggers  to  be  described  in  this,  is  no  doubt 
to  a  great  extent  arbitrary,  tad  mainly  dependent  upon  size.  In 
the  same  way  the  distinction  between  a  large  dagger  and  a  small 
sword,  such  as  some  of  those  to  be  described  in  the  next  chapter, 
is  one  for  which  no  hard  and  fast  rule  can  be  laid  down. 

Nor  in  treating  of  daggers  can  any  trustworthy  chronological 
arrangement  be  adopted,  though  it  is  probable,  as  already  observed, 
that  the  thin  flat  blades  are  earliest  in  date.  The  late  Dr.  Thumam, 
in  the  paper  already  frequently  cited,  has  pointed  out  that  of 
bronze  blades  without  sockets  there  are  two  distinct  types.  These 
are  the  tanged,  which  he  regards  as  perhaps  the  more  modem,  and 
those  provided  with  rivet-holes  in  the  base  of  the  blade,  which 
seem  to  be  the  most  ancient.  I  purpose  mainly  to  follow  this 
classification  ;  and,  inasmuch  as  the  tanged  blades  are  most  closely 
connected  with  the  smaller  examples  of  the  same  character, 
described  in  the  last  chapter,  I  take  them  first  in  order,  though 
possibly  they  are  not  the  earliest  in  date. 


TAMO^U   KNIVES   OR  DAGGERS. 


223 


But  tm  its  size,  the  blade  shown  in  Fig.  277  mig:ht  have  been  regarded 
fts  a  knife  for  ordinaiy  use.    The  original  was  found  in  a  barrow  at 
Bonndvay,*  WUts,  oovered  with  a  layer  of  black  powder,  probably  the 
remains  of  a  wooden  sheath  and  handle,  the  upper 
outline  of  which  latter  is  marked  upon  the  blade. 
It  lay  near  the  left  hand  of  a  contracted  skeleton, 
with  its  point  towards  the  feet.     Between  the 
bones  of  the  left  fore-arm  was  a  bracer.f  or  anu- 
giuad,  of  chlorite  slate,  and  part  of  the  blade  and 
the  tang  of  some  small  instrument,   perhaps  a 
knife.     Near  tbo  head  was  a  barbed  flint  arrow- 
head. 

A  smaller  blade  X  {^i  inches),  of  nearly  the 
lune  shape  and  character,  was  found  in  one  of 
Ihe  barrows  near  Winterelow,  Wilts,  aa  well  as 
me  more  tapering  in  form. 

Another,  from  Sutton  Courtney,  Berks  (6^ 
inches  by  1{  inches),  is  in  the  British  Museum. 

Anotlwr  (6i  inches)  was  found  by  Mr.  Fenton 
in  a  borrow  at  Here  r>own,§  WUts.  In  this  case 
iln  there  was  a  stone  bracer  near  the  left  Bide 
of  the  contracted  skeleton.  Another,  imperfect, 
ud  narrower  in  the  tang,  was  found  at  Bryn 
Ciig.i  Camarron,  with  interments.  The  double- 
looped  celt  (Fig.  8S)  was  found  at  the  same 
^aoe. 

Canon  Greenwell,  F.It.S.,  has  what  appears  to 
be  a  tanged  dagger  (6  inches)  from  Sherbum 
Wold,  Torkehire. 

A  blade  of  this  character  (10  inches)  was  found 
hj  H.  Cazalis  de  Fondouce  in  me  cave  of 
Bonnias,^  near  Fonvielle  (Bouches  du  BJione], 
•Hociated  with  instruments  of  flint. 

Smaller  tanged  blades,  of  which  it  is  hard  to 
say  whether  they  are  knives  or  daggers,  are  not 
nnoommon  in  France.  Two  are  engraved  in  the 
"Uatlriaux."**  I  have  spedmens  from  Lyons, 
and  also  from  Brittany. 

Another  form,  which  appears  to  be  a  dagger 
laOier  than  a  knife,  has  the  tang  nearly  as  wide 
•I  the  blade,  and  towards  its  oase  there  is  a 
■ngje  rivet-hole.  A  da^er  of  this  kind  was 
fotmd  witli  a  contracted  interment  in  a  barrow 
■car  Driffield,  Yorkshire,  and  an  engraving  of  it 

*  Jrtk.,  voL  xliii.  p.  ISO,  flg.  \f^^,  from  vhlch  this  cut  ie  copied;  "  Wilts.  Arch. 
■*(-,"  toL  iii.  p.  186  ;  "  Cnn.  Brit.,"  pi.  42,  xixii.  p.  3. 
t  "Adc.  Stone  Imp.,"  p.  3BI,  fig.  35S. 
t  Artk.,  ToL  xliii.  pi.  ira.  2,  3,  p.  i4S. 
1  Hnre'B  "Anc  Wiltt,"  vol.  i.  H,  pi.  ii. 

tAnk.  Jaum.,  vol.  zxr.  p.  246. 
Quutfte,  "  Ago  da  Br.,"  Ire  partie,  p.  91 ;  Cazalis  de  Fondouce, "  All&js  cout.  de  la 
HeranCT^"  pi-  iv.  1. 
*•  VoL  xiT.  p.  461. 


Kb-  in.—BotmdnT. 


234    DAGGEKS  AXD  THEIR  HILTS. — BAPIER-QHAFBD  BLADES.    [CKAP.  Z. 

is  given  in  the  Archaokyia,*  from  which  Fip.  278  is  reproduced.  It  bad 
a  wooden  shoath  as  well  as  the  wooden  handle,  of  which  a  part  is  ahon. 
On  the  arm  of  tho  skeleton  was  a  stone  bracer. 

Another,  rather  narrower  in  the  tang  and  aboat  4^  inches  long,  vw 
found,  with  a  atone  axe-hammer,  and  bones,  in  an  um  within  a  bairowit 
Winwick,f  near  Warrington,  Lancashire.  One  (2^  inches)  witli  a  ant- 
hole  in  its  broad  tanff  was  found  in  an  um  on  lAncaater  Uoor.{ 

A  dagger  of  nearly  the  same  form  but  havinj;  two  Tivet-holei  wtt 
found  by  the  late  liov.  IL  Kirwan  in  a  barrow  at  Upton  I^ne,§  Deron. 

One,  only  3}  inches  long,  and  much  like  Fig.  278  in  form,  was  found  i> 
an  um  wim  burnt  bonee  in  Hoot  Low,||  near  Middleton,  Derbyshire. 

Another  was  found  with  burnt  bones  in  a  bamwit 
Lady  Low,^  near  Blore,  Staffordshire.  The  tati  <i 
the  nandle  in  tiiis  instance  was  straight,  and  not  hol- 
lowed. One  (5|  inches), with  a  broad  tang,  tluoiid 
which  passes  a  single  rivet,  was  found  in  the  Thames.** 
It  is  now  in  the  British  Museum. 

What  Sir  B.  0.  Hoare  terms  a  lance-head  (3  indiet), 
found  witli  amber  beads  in  the  Golden  BaiTO«,ft 
Upton  Lovel,  appears  to  have  been  a  knife-dagger  d 
this  character. 

A  knife,  1  inch  wide,  which  had  been  fastened  to  ib 
haft  of  ox-hom  by  a  single  rivet,  was  found  by  Cania 
Qreenwell  in  a  bairow  at  Rudstone,  Yorkshiia^ 
With  the  same  interment  was  an  axe-hammer  of  steiu 
and  a  flint  tool.  A  blade  like  Fig.  278  ^3  inches), 
from  the  sand-hills  near  Qlenluce,§§  Wigtousbire, 
has  been  figured. 

Dnpgers,  or  poesiWy  spear-heads,  with  a  broad  tang,  as  well  as  the 
moulds  in  whicti  thoy  were  cast,  were  discovered  by  ifr.  Schliemaun  on 
the  presumed  site  of  Troy.]||| 

The  more  ordinary  form  of  instrument  is  that  of  which  the  bWe 
was  secured  to  the  handle  by  two  or  more  rivets  at  its  broad  base. 
Tliose  may  be  subdivided  into  knife-daggers  with  thin  flat  blades, 
and  daggers  whidi  as  a  rule  have  a  thick  midrib  and  more  or  less 
ornamentation  on  the  surfiicc  of  the  blade.  The  former  varietj 
is  now  generally  accepted  as  being  the  more  ancient  of  the  two, 
and  may  probably  have  served  as  a  cutting  instrument  for  all 
purposes,  and  not  have  been  intended  for  a  weapon. 

Fig.  279,  representing  a  knife-dagger  from  a  barrow  at  Butterwick,^^ 
Yorkshire,  E.lt.,  explored  by  Cauon  GreenweU,  will  give  a  good  idea  oi 

•  Vol.  itixiv.  pi.  XX,  8,  p.  2S.i. 

t  Areh.  Auoe.  Journ.,  vol,  xvi.  p.  295,  pi.  xxt.  9. 

X  Afrh.  Auoe.  JeiiTH.,  vol,  xxi.  p.  160.        {  Traii:  Sewn.  Ante.,  vol.  iv.  p.  61^ 

II  "V«Bt.  Ant.  Derb.,"  p.  61:  Arch.  JaMt-n.,  vol.  i.  p.  247;  Batcroan's  "Calal./'p. '■ 

H  "Ti-nYunra' Digit.,"  P-  163;  "  CuUl.,"  p.  19. 

"  Pfof.  Snc.  Aiit.,  2nd  S,,  vol.  iii.  p.  15,      tt  ■'  Anc  Wills,"  vol.  i.  p.  99,  pi.  li. 

iJ  ■■  llrilUh  IdirrowK,"  p.  265.  j}  ''Ait  and  Wigton  Coll.,"  toI.  U.  p,  H- 

llil  "  Troy  iiDd  its  Rcmaina,"'  p.  330.  HH  "  britieh  BairowB,"  p.  186. 


KMPE-DACGERS   WITH   THREE   KIVETS. 


225 


il  form,  thongli  theso  inBtrumenfa  are  not  unfrequently  mora 
>ointed.  Thia  specimen  was  found  with  the  body  of  a  j-oimg 
i  had  been  encased  in  a  wooden  ebeath.     The  haft  had  been  of 

which  has  jieriahed,  though  leaving  marks  of  its  testure  on  the 
blade.  lu  f  no  same  grave  were  a  flat  bronze  celt  (Fig.  2),  a  bronze 
)r  awl  (Fig.  225),  a  flint  knife,  and  some  jet  buttons.     Another 

the  same  character,  but  rather  narrower  in  its  proportions,  was 
1  a  barrow  at  Eudstono,*  Yorkshire.     The  handle  had  in  this 

also  been  of  os-liom.  In  the  same  grave  were  a  whetstone,  a 
,  an  ornamental  button  of  iot,  and  a  half-nodule  of  pyrites  and 
IT  striking  n  light.  Of  the  winpe  of  the  handles  I  shall  Bubse- 
speak ;  I  will  only  here  remark  that  at  their  upper  part,  where 
sped  the  blade,  there  was  usually 
ircidar  or  horseshoe- shaped  notch, 

instances  very  wide  and  in  others 
row.      This  notch   is  ntora   rarely 
it  V-shaped  in  form. 
le  of  nearly  the  Rame  form  as  Fig. 

with  only  two  rivet  holes,  found 
rrow  at  lJlewbur\-,t  Berks,  is  pre- 
i  tlie  Ashmoleun  Sluscum  at  Oxford, 
also  with  two  rivets,  was  found 
ite  Mr.  Batemnn  in  a  barrow  near 

LoWjI  Derbjahire.    Its  handle  ap- 

havo  been  of  horn.      Its  owner, 

in  a  skin,  had  been  buried  enve- 

fem-loavea,  and  with  him  was  also 
■onzo  celt,  a  flat  bead  of  jet,  and 
scraper.      Dr.   Thumnm   mentions 

§  otJier  blades,    varying  from   2i 

6  J  inches  in  length,  us  having  been 
iriiig  the  liatemau  e.tcavations,  as  " 

<no  TJ  inches  long  and  sharply  pointed,  foimd  at  Lett  Low,||  near 
■,    Stafi'ordaliire.      Of  these  twenty,    sixteen  were   found  with 

bodies  and  four  with  burnt.  Some  of  tliese  were,  however, 
inged  variety,  nnd  some  fluted  or  ribbed.  At  Carder  Low  a 
:e-hammer  of  bo.'ialt,  as  well  as  a  knife-dagger  of  this  kind, 
I  edges  worn  hollow  by  use,  had  been  placed  with  the  body. 
lO  was  the  case  in  a  barrow  at  Parcelly  llaj',  near  llEirtington, 
ire. 

d  Iiow,  near  Ilartington,  there  was  a  rudely  formed  "spear- 
f  flint  beside  the  knife-dagger,  and  at  Thomctiff,^  on  Calton 
offordshire.  "  a  neat  Instrument  of  flint." 

ue  cases,  though  there  were  holes  in  the  blade,  there  were  no 
in  them,  which  led  Mr.  Bateman  to  think  that  they  were  attached 

ish  BaITOw^■'  p.  261,  6g.  125 ;  "  Anr.  Stono  Imp.,"  p.  284. 

Joiirn.,  vol.  V.  p.  282;  ^reh.  Auoe.  Joiirn.,  vol.  »vi.  p.  249. 

Aute.  JoHrn.,  vul.  vii.  p.  217;  Batcnian's "  Catal.,"  p.   15;  "Ton  Yoars" 
34. 
-  Ant.  DptIj.,"  pp.  61,  63,  66,  OR,  90,  9G:  "  Ten  Yews' Dig.,"  pp.  21,21,34, 

113,  U5,  119,  UH,  160,  163;  "Craii.  Brit,"  pi,  13,  xiii.  2. 
Team'  Dig.,"  p.  215 ;  Areh.  Aiioe.  Jevrn..  vol.  iviii.  p.  42. 
Ychth"  Dig.,"  p.  119.  ••  ()p.  ri(.,  pp.  67,  113. 

Q 


226    DAGGERS  AND  THEIR  HILTS.— RAPIEK-SHAPED  BLADES.     [CHAP.  X. 

to  their  handles  by  ligatures.  In  a  barrow  in  Yorkshire,*  Mr.  Bxt" 
land  found,  with  remains  of  a  burnt  body,  a  small  bronze  knife  irhkiL 
still  had  adhering  to  it  some  portions  of  cord  partly  charred,  apparently 
the  remains  of  what  had  formed  the  attachment  to  the  handle.  PinB  oi 
wood,  bone,  or  horn  were  no  doubt  frequently  used  instead  of  metal  riveti. 
Such  pins  seem  to  have  been  commonly  employed  for  securing  speiff- 
heads  to  their  shafts.  ^*  An  instrument  of  brass,f  formed  like  a  8pea^ 
head,  but  flat  and  thin,"  was  found  in  a  barrow  on  Bincombe  Down, 
Dorsetshire.  ''It  had  been  fixed  to  a  shaft  by  means  of  three  wooden 
pep;s,  one  of  which  remained  in  the  perforation  when  f ouind,  but  on 
bemg  exposed  to  the  air  feU  immediately  into  dust."  In  certain  dagger 
blades  with  four  or  more  rivet-holes  some  are  devoid  of  rivets,  while 
there  are  metal  rivets  in  the  others. 

A  remarkably  small  blade,  only  1 J  inches  long,  with  two  rivet-holes, 
was  foimd  in  a  timiidus  in  Dorsetshire.}    Another  (4^  inches)  lay  Trith 
burnt  bones,  in  what  was  regarded  as  a  deft  and  hollowed  trunk  of  a  tree, 
in  a  barrow  near  Yatesbury,§  Wilts.     Another,  more  triangular  in  shape,     ' 
and  also  with  two  rivet-holes,  was  found  in  a  barrow  near  Stonehenge.i 

Another  (2  J-  inches)  of  the  same  character  was  foimd  with  burnt  bones, 
a  needle  of  wood,  and  a  broken  flint  pebble,  in  an  urn  at  Tomen-y-Mur,f 
near  Festiniog,  Merionethshire. 

Of  knife-daggers  with  three  rivet-holes  found  in  our  southern  counties, 
may  be  mentioned  one  (Sj-  inches)  foimd  with  a  drinking  cup  and  a 
perforated  stone  axe,  accompanying  an  imbumt  interment,  in  a  barrow  at 
East  Kennett,**  Wilts.  Another  (4^^  inches),  also  accompanied  by  a  stone 
axe-hammer,  was  found  in  a  barrow  called  Jack's  Castle,  ff  near  Stourton. 
The  body  had  in  this  instance  been  burnt.  Another  knife-dagger,  alfio 
with  burnt  bones,  in  a  barrow  at  Wilsford,  J{  was  accomx)anied  by  two  flint 
arrow-heads,  some  whetstones,  and  some  instruments  of  stag*s-hom- 
Another,  protected  by  a  wooden  scabbard,  was  found  in  a  barrow  at 
Brigmilston.§§ 

What  appear  to  have  been  blades  of  the  same  kind  were  foimd  witli 
burnt  bones  in  the  barrows  nearPriddy,||||  Somerset,  and  Ashey  Down,^^ 
Isle  of  Wight  (6  inches).   The  latter  is  tapering  in  form.    One  (7f  inchest 
which  shows  no  rivets  was  found  at  Culter,***  Lanarkshire. 

An  unfinished  blade  without  rivet-holes  was  also  found,  with  castingT^ 
of  palstaves  and  flanged  celts,  at  Ehosnesney,ttt  ii^ar  Wrexham. 

From  Derbyshire  may  be  cited  that  from  Carder  Low, JJJ  already  de^ 
scribed,  and  one  from  Brier  Low.gp    Another  from  Lett  Low,  ||  ||  ||  Stafford- 
shire, has  already  been  mentionea,  as  have  been  others  described  by  Bate- 
man.'^ll^    One  from  a  barrow  at  Middloton  ♦***  was  regarded  by  Peg 
as  a  spear-head. 


«*  Arch.  iHsU  Salisb.  vol.  p.  110;  ^ir^^'/r''''^jf  Y'""' ^^'  v'- 
ft  Houre's  -  Anc  Wilte,"  vol.  i.  p.  39,  pi.  i. ;  .ir.A^ro/^,  ^'ol   xlni.  p.  4.52. 
^^ '^Anc.  WUts,"  vol.  i.  p.  209.  ^^ '* Anc.  ^\ ills,    vol.  i.  p   185. 

*T    /r^T  Touni    vol.  xvi.  p.  148,  151.  ^1^  -Irch.  Assoc.  Jovrn.,  vol.  x.  ^,.  . 

t:':^;,f"A::Z:trn.,  IV  x™,  p.  21       ^^-^-^f'  '•th  S    vol  v?  „. 
^  +  +   .lr<-/i<r»/..  vol.  xliii.  pi.  xxxrn.  hg.  4.      {^}  Ibid.  %.  3.  ||l,l|  Ibid.,  fi^ 

flfV"  Ten  W  Dig.,"  pp.  21,  115,  119.     ""  Archil,  vol.  i.x.  p.  94.  pi.  iii. 


METHOD    OF    HAFTING    DAQQERfl. 


227 


orkshire  Mr.  Batemaa  describes  one  (4^  inches)  with  a  crescent- 
irk  sbnwing  iixe  form  of  the  handle,  found  with  an  extended 
:  Cawthom*  Another  (6  or  7  inches),  from  a  barrow  near 
t  had  a  V-shaped  notch  in  the  handle,  to  which  had  been 
small  bone  pommel.  One  from  Bishop  Wilton4  belonging  to 
ner,  has  been  engraved  by  Dr.  Thumam. 

mtion  of  this  pommel  suggests  that  it  is  time  to  consider 
ler  in  which  these  blades  were  hafted,  as  to  which  the 
R  of  Sir  Richard  Colt  Hoare  in  the 

barrows,  and  of  Canon  Greenwell 
if  Yorkshire,  leave  no  doubt.  The 
sar  in  nearly  all  cases  to  hnve  con- 
ox-horn,  bone,  or  wood,  sometimes 
le  piece  with  a  notch  for  receiving 
,  and  sometimes  formed  of  a  pair 
■  pieces  riveted  together,  one  on 

of  the  blade.  The  lower  end  of 
was  often  inserted  in  a  hollow 
sually  of  bone. 

ture  of  tlie  arrangement  of  the  haft 
nod  of  two  pieces  will  be  readily 
d    on    reference    to    Fig.    280,   in 

presumed  outline  of  the  original 
laft  is  shown  by  dotted  lines,  and 

by  which  the  two  plates  of  horn 
nd  together  are  in  the  position 
nally  occupied  along  the  centre  of 
The  outline  of  the  upper  part  of 
le,  where  it  was  secured  by  two 
the  blade,  is   still  visible,  and  is 

darker  shading.     The  pommel  at        Fig.  m-Heip«ih«p..  * 

end  was  attached  by  pins  of  horn 
»d,    and  not  by  metal  rivets.       A  separate  view  and 
the  pommel  is  shown  in 
The  original  was  found  by  ~" 

eenwell,  F.R.S.,  with  a  con- 
iterment  in  a  barrow  at 
rpe,§  Yorkshire,  at  the  open- 
ich  I  was  present.      As  will 


Fig,  l&t.—B.dperOioTpe.     t 

I  he  seen,  the  blade  has  all 


are'  Dig.,"  p.  206, 


t  Op.  cit.,  p.  226, 
This  Bpecim^n  has  s 
the  British  Museum, 
Q2 


228    DAGGERS  AND  THEtB  HII.TS. — RAP1EB-8HAPED  BLADES.     [cHAP 

the  appearance  of  haviDg  been  much  worn  by  use  and  repei 
whetting. 

Bone  pommels  of  the  same  kmd  have  been  frequently  met  wit! 
boiTOwi,  but  their  purpose  was  not  known  to  some  of  uie  earlier  exploi 
One  from  a  barrow  on  Braesington  Moor*  is  described  by  Ur.  Batei 
as  a  bone  stud  perforated  with  sis  holes,  and  was  thoug^ht  to  have  I 
intended  for  being  sown  on  to  some  article  of  dress  or  ornament.  Ano 
was  found  in  a  barrow  at  Narrow-dale  Hill,t  nearAlstonefield,  and  is 
described  as  a  bone  button.  In  both  these  instances  the  dagger  il 
seems  to  have  entirely  perished. 

In  a  barrow  subsequently  opened  by  'iSi.  Ruddock  near  Pickering,} 
butt  end  of  a  dagger  handle  was  recognised  in  one  of  these  objects- 
this  instance  the  pommel  waa  made  of  three  pieces  of  bone  fastc 
together  by  two  bronze  rivets,  and  having  two  holes  for  the  peg8 
wuch  it  was  secured  to  the  handle. 


Fis.  iSl.— Outon. 


Two  others  in  sohd  bono  from  barrows  at  Garton  §  and  Bishop  Wil 
Yorkshire,  have  been  figured  by  Dr.  Thumam.  The  former  is  here 
permission  reproduced.  That  from  the  well-known  Gristhorpe  tumul 
near  Scarborough,  iu  which  the  body  lay  in  the  hollowed  trunk  of 
oak-tree,  is  more  neatly  made,  being  of  oval  outline  with  a  projoci 
bead  round  the  base.     It  has  holes  for  three  pins. 

Another  pommel  of  an  ornamental  character  was  found  with  bi 
bones  in  an  um  at  Wilmslow,  Cheshire,  and  is  engraved  in  the  Jon. 
of  the  Britith  ATchmologital  Astoeiaiion,\  from  which  Fig.  283  is  1 
reproduced.  The  receptacle  ia  so  small  that  the  haft  to  which  it 
attached  probably  consiBted  of  but  a  single  piece  of  ox-horn  or  wi 
It  appears  as  if  the  mortise  had  been  made  by  driUing  three  holes  i 
by  side. 

A  very  remarkable  and  beautiful  hilt  of  a  sword  or  dagger,  formed 
amber  of  a  riii  red  colour  and  inlaid  with  pins  of  gold,  was  found  i 
barrow  on  Hammeldon  Down,**  Devonshire.  By  the  kindness  of 
Committee  of  the  Plymoutli  Athenieum  I  am  enabled  to  give  two  vi' 

•  "Catol.,"  p.  1 ;  "Vest.  Ant.  Dorb.,"  p.  39. 

t  ■■Catal.,-  p.  12;  "Vest.  Ant.  Dcrb.,"  p.  98. 

J  "Ten  Years'  Dig.,"  p.  226.  {  Arch.,  vol.  lUii.  p.  41 

\  "Cran.  Brit.,"  62,4;  '' Bcliqunty,"  vol.  \-\.  p.  4. 

H  Vol.  ivi.  pi.  26,  fig.  6,  p.  288. 

■•  Tram.  Devon.  Alloc,  tol.  *.  p.  655,  pi.  it. 


AMBER    HILT   INt.AID    WITH   GOLD. 


attd  a  section  of  this  unique  object  is  Fig.  284.  IssteBd  of  a  socket  or 
mortise,  there  is  in  this  instance  a  tenon,  gr  projection,  which  entered  into 
a  toortiBe  or  hole  in  the  handle.  On  each  aide  of  this  tenon  is  a  amall 
moitiBe  of  the  same  lengiih,  and  through  the  tenon  have  been  drilled  two 
anitdl  holes,  one  from  each  side,  for  pins  tu  attach  the  ponunel  to  the 
hudle.  A  small  part  of  the  pommel  which  was  broken  oa  in  old  times 
seems  to  have  been  united  to  tiie  main  bodj  by  a  series  of  minute  gold 
mete  or  clips,  but  this  piece  has  again  been  severed,  though  the  pins 
toimd  the  margin  of  the  fracture  remain.  This  pommel  seems  dispropor- 
tioiiat«lj  large  for  the  slightly  fluted  blade,  of  which  a  fragment  was  found 
in  the  same  bnrrinv. 


AgmaU  object  of  amber,  apparently  the  pommel  of  a  diminutive  dagger, 
*w  found  in  a  barrow  at  Winterboum  Stoke,*  Wilts.  A  small  knife  or 
■"•per,  mounted  in  a  handle  formed  of  two  pieces  of  amber,  secured  by 
t*o  rivets  and  bound  with  four  strips  of  gold,  is  also  preserved  at  Stour- 
Wdf    The  blade  is  at  the  side  like  that  of  a  hatchet. 

Amber  was  used  fur  inlaying  some  of  the  ivory  hilts  of  iron  swords  at 
Hallstatt. 

The  bronze  object  shown  fuU  size  in  Fig.  285  may  not  improbably  be 
the  pommel  of  the  hilt  of  a  dagger  or  sword.  The  hole  through  the  base 
is  irregular  in  form,  and  may  be  accidental.  It  was  found  in  the  hoard 
^t  Beach  Fen,  Cambridge,  in  which  were  also  the  tip  of  a  scabbard  and 
wine  fragments  of  swords,  as  well  as  two  large  double-edged  knives. 


230    DAUQBRS  AMD  THBIE  HILTS. — RAPIBR-SHAPBD    BLADES.     [CHAP 

A  somewliat  Bunil&r  object  is  in  the  Mus4e  de  I'Oratoiie,  at  Nan 
Another,  found  at  Qrfisine,*  Savoy,  haa  been  r^^arded  as  the  tip  ft 
scabbard.     Another  was  found  in  the  department  of  La  Uanche.t 

What  appeaTB  to  be  the  hilt  of  either  a  sword  or  dagger  was  fount 
a  hoard  of  bronro  objects  at  AUhallowB.J  Hoo,  Kent,  By  the  kindnee 
Mr.  Humphrey  Wickham  I  am  able  to  engrave  it  as  Fig.  286.  It  i 
eisted  onginaily  of  a  rectangular  socketed  ferrule  with  a  rivet-1 
througli  it,  and  attached  to  a  semictrculax  end  like  the  half  of  a  groc 
pulley.  The  socket  itself  extends  for  soma  distance  into  this  sc 
circular  part.  From  portions  of  a  sword  having  been  found  wit! 
Mr.  Wickham  has  regarded  it  as  a  kind  of  pommel.     It  may,  howe 


Fen.   i 

have  been  the  end  of  a  scabbard  or  a  chape,  and,  if  so,  should  have  1: 
described  in  Chapter  XIQ.     The  knife.  Fig.  261,  was  found  in  the  s 

To  return,  however,  to  undoubted  examples.  The  most  remi 
able  of  all  dagger  handles  discovered  in  the  British  Isles  are  ii 
obtained  by  Sir  R.  Colt  Hoare  from  the  barrows  of  Wiltshire. 

One  of  these,  from  a  barrow  at  BrigmilBton,§  is  here  reproduce* 
Fig.  287,  taken  from  the  engraving  in  "Ancient  Wiltshire.  It  is  t 
described  by  the  late  Dr.  l^umam:  "It  is  of  the  tiiin  broad-bla 
variety.  The  handle  is  of  wood,  held  together  by  thirty  rivets  of  broi 
and  strengthened  at  the  end  by  an  oblong  bone  pommel  fastened  ^ 
two  pegs.  It  is  decorated  by  dots  incised  in  the  surface  of  the  wi 
forming  a  border  of  double  lines  and  circles  between  the  heads  of 
rivets."  He  goes  on  to  say  that  a  similar  dagger  of  the  broad  van 
having  exactly  the  same  number  of  rivets,  was  found  in  one  of  the  Dei 
shire  ||  barrows.  Two  buttons  of  polished  shale  accompaaied  this  in 
inent.  Another,  from  Gartoa,l|  Torkahiro,  in  the  collection  of 
Mortimer,  has  thirty-seven  rivets  and  two  strijia  of  bronze  at  the  a: 
of  Uie  handle,  in  addition  to  the  four  rivets  for  Bectiriiig  the  Made.  ' 
bone  pomuiel  is  shown  in  Fig.  28'2. 

■  "  Exp.  Arch,  do  k  Sav.,"  1878,  pi.  lii.  3.i7. 

t  ■'  Mem.  Sw.  Ant.  Noim,"  1827—8,  pi.  lii.  4,  5. 

1  Arci.  Canl.,  vol.  xi.  p.  126,  pi.  c,  18. 

i  "  Anok'nt  'Wiits,"  vol.  i.  p.  186,  pi.  xiiii. :  Jrch.,  W.  xliii.  p.  458,  pi.  xxxlv.  : 

I  Bottiiniui,  "  Vest.  Ant.  Durb.,"  p.  68.         H  Arek.,  vol.  xiiii,  p.  462,  pi.  uiiv. 


HILTS   WITH    NUMEROUS    1 


'iSi 


Another  dagger,  of  somewhat  the  same  character,  -was  found  at 
Leiceeter,  and  is  preserved  in  the  museum  of  that  town.  For  the  sketch 
from  which  Fig.  288  is  engraved  I  am  indebted  to  Ur.  C.  Kead.  In 
this  instauce  the  pommel  consists  of  two  pieces  of  bone  riveted  on  either 
aide  of  a  bronze  plate,  which,  however,  does  not  appear  to  have  been 
contiiiuouB  with  the  blade.     From  the  length  of   the   rivets  remaining 


Fi|.  987.  -  BrigmilatOD. 


in  the  blade,  the  handle  appears  to  have  beea  somewhat  thicker  in  the 
middle  than  at  the  sides. 

In  the  British  Mu-seum  is  a  dagger  from  a  barrow  nt  Standlow,  Derby- 
shire, with  a  bono  pommel  of  nearly  the  same  character  as  that  from 
Leit-eater. 

Perhaps  the  most  highly  ormimented  dagger  handle  ever  discovered  is. 


332     DAGGERS  AND  THEIR  HILTS. — R  API  EH -SHAPED  BLADES.     [cUAF. 

Ihat  whiuh  vas  found  b;  Sir  B.  Colt  Hoore  in  the  Bush  Barrow,*  m 
Nonaanton,  the  lower  part  of  which,  copied  from  the  engraTinK 
"  Ancient  Wiltehiro,"  is  shown  in  Fi^.  289.  A  drawing  of  the  woi 
dagger  with  its  handle  restored  has  been  published  by  Dr.  Thurnan 
The  blade  ia  10^  inches  long  and  slightly  fluted  at  the  sides,  so  that  it 
not,  strictly  speaking,  a.  knife-dagger  such  as  those  hitherto  described. 
apj>earB,  however,  bi>st  to  call  attention  to  it  in  this  place.  It  lay  with 
skeleton  placed  nortlk  and  south,  with  which  were  some  rivets  and  t) 
plates  of  bronze,  supposed  to  be  traces  of  a  shield.  At  the  shoulders  wa 
flanged  bronze  celt,  like  Fig.  9.  Near  tlie  right  arm  was  the  dagger  a 
"  a  spear-hrad  "  of  bwn^.e.  These  were  accompanied  by  a  nearly  squi 
]iliile  of  (bin  gold,  willi  a  projecting  flat  tongue  or  hook,  which  « 


tiiniit'iniimHiWiimiiiinii 


thought  to  have  decorated  the  sheath  of  the  dagger.  Over  the  breast 
another  lozenge-shaped  plate  of  gold,  7  inches  by  6  inches,  the  ed 
lapped  over  a  piece  of  wood.  On  the  right  side  of  the  skeleton  wa 
stone  hammrr,!  some  articles  of  bone,  many  small  rings  of  the  st 
material,  and  another  gold  lozonge  much  smaLLor  than  tliat  on  the  bre 
As  to  the  handle,  1  may  repeat  Sir  Eichard's  words :  "It  exceeds  a 
thing  we  have  yet  seen,  both  in  design  and  ese«!iition,  and  could  not 
Burpussed  (if,  indeed,  equalled)  by  tho  most  able  workman  of  mod 
times.  By  the  annexed  engraving  j-ou  will  iumiediately  recognise 
British  zig-zag  or  the  modern  Vandyke  pattern,  whicli  was  fm-nied.  wit 
labour  and  exactness  almost  unaccoimtnble,  by  thousands  of  gold  ri" 
smaller  than  tlio  smallest  pin.     The  head  of  the  handle,  thougli  exhibit 

t  -J-r^,.  to!,  xliii.pl,  xisv. 


i   AND   IVORY   HILTS. 


I  BO  rarietr  of  pattera,  was  also  formed  by 
the  Mine  Kind  of  studding.    So  very  minute, 

[  indeed,  were  these  pins,  that  our  labourers 
had  thrown  out  thousands  of  them  with  their 
■hoT«l8  and  scattered  them  in  every  direetion 
before,  by  the  neceReary  aid  of  a  magnifying 
slug,  we  could  discover  what  they  were,  but 
fantanately  enough  remained  attached  to  the 
wood  to  enable  us  to  develop  the  pattern." 
Some  of  the  pins  are  shonu  in  the  ligiire 
below  the  hilt. 

As  I>T.  Thumam  has  pointed  out,  the 
ornamentation  un  a  thin  piece  of  metui  (said 
to  have  been  gilt),  which  apparently  de- 
corated the  hilt  of  a  bronze  dagger,  foiind  in 
I  barrow  in  Dorsetshire,*  is  of  the  same 
thiincfur,  though  produced  in  a  different 
miUDor.  This  da^^  is  said  by  Douglas  to 
We  been  "  indsteil"  into  wood.  It  is  nncer- 
tata  whether  this  refers  to  the  hilt  or  to  the 
■Wath ;  but  in  several  instances  remains  of 
thesths  have  been  found  upon  the  bladea  of 
daggers,  some  of  which  have  been  already 
•ddaced,  and  others  will  hereafter  be  men- 
timed.  Sir  B.  Colt  Hoare,  in  a  barrow  near 
Amesbniy,!  found  an  interment  of  burnt 
bones,  and  with  it  a  bronze  dagger  which  had 
been  "aeoored  by  a  sheath  of  wood  lined 
nth Ijneii  cldth."  A  smalllaiice-head,  a  pair 
of  iraty  nippers,  and  an  ivory  pin  accom- 
[oiiied  the  mtermeut.  In  one  instance  the 
voodof  the  sheath  was  "ftpparentlywiIlow."J 
I  am  unable  to  guarantee  the  accuracy 
of  the  representation  of  a  large  dagger 
vitli  its  handle  given  in  Fig.  290,  the  ori- 
^nal  having  unfortunately  been  destroyed 
in  a  fire,  I  have,  however,  copied  it  from  Dr. 
TliDniam's§  engraving,  wluch  was  taken 
from  a  drawing  by  the  late  Mr.  8.  Solly, 
I'.S.A.II  It  was  found  in  1845,  in  a  barrow 
<a  Soke  Down,  near  Slaudford,  Dorsetshire, 
•odisthusdescribedbyMr.Shipp:  t  "The 
(^■de  is  exquisitely  finished,  and  the  handle, 
vhich  is  ivoiy,  as  perfect  and  as  highly 
pdished  as  any  of  more  recent  date.  It  was 
famd  with  two  small  bronze  spear-heads  at 
the  bottom  of  a  cist  cut  in  the  chalk,  and 

•  Donglaa,  "Kenin,"  p.  163,  pi.  uiiii.  fig.  3, 

t  "Aac.  Wilts,"  ToL  1.  p.  207. 

1  Of.  eil.,  p.  194. 

i  Arth.,  vol.  iliiL  pi.  zxiiv.  1, 

I  Pnc.  Soe.  AhI.,  Irt  a,  vol.  i.  p.  76. 

'  Areh.  Anat.  Jotirn.,  toL  ii  p.  96;  vol.  iv.  p.  228. 


234    DAGGERS  AND  THEIR  HILTS. — RAPIER-SHAPED  BLADES.     [cHAP.  X. 

covered  with  burnt  bones  and  ashes;  and  oyer  it  was  an  inverted  uin 
of  the  coarsest  make,  iinbumt  and  unomamented."  In  Mr.  Shipp's 
drawing  the  handle  expands  gradually  to  the  base  like  the  mouth  of  a 
trumpet.  In  a  subsequent  communication  *  Mr.  8hipp  describes  the  two 
spear-heads  as  of  iron. 

Mr.  Solly  f  says  that  with  it  was  a  second  small  blade,  also  of  bronze, 
which  may  have  been  a  knife,  and  makes  no  mention  of  iron  spear-heads. 
He  also  says  that  it  lay  beneath  a  stone  more  than  a  ton  in  weight 
Mr.  C.  Wame,  F.S.A.,  has  informed  me  that  the  spear-heads — ^if,  indeed, 
such  they  were — were  of  bronze  and  not  of  iron.  He  has  engraved  the 
dagger  in  his  Plate  X.,^  not  from  the  original,  but  from  the  figure  in  the 
Journal  of  the  ArcJuBohgical  Association. 

Hilts  made  of  bronze,  though  of  frequent  occurrence  in  Scandinavia, 
the  South  of  France,  and  Italy,  are  rarely  discovered  in  England  or  Soot- 
land.  That  said  to  have  been  found  at  Bere  Hill,  near  Andover,  cast  in 
one  piece  with  the  blade  and  with  a  raised  rim  round  the  margin,  and 
studs  like  rivet-heads  in  the  middle,  has  been  kindly  submitted  to  me  by 
Mr.  Samuel  Shaw,  its  owner,  and  I  believe  it  to  be  of  Eastern  and  pro- 
bably Chinese  origin.  Near  Little  Wenlock,§  however,  a  portion  of  a 
dagger  was  found  with  part  of  the  handle,  in  form  like  that  of  the  swoid 
from  Lincoln  (Fig.  350),  attached  by  four  rivets.  With  it  were  a  socketed 
celt,  some  spear-heads,  and  whetstones. 

A  beautiful  Egyptian  ||  bronze  dagffer  from  Thebes  is  in  the  Berlin 
Ikluseum.   It  has  a  narrow  rapier-likeblade  and  a  broad  flat  hilt  of  ivory. 

Others  of  nearly  the  scune  character  are  in  the  British  Museum.  The 
end  of  the  hilt  is  often  hollowed,  like  that  of  Fig.  277,  and  the  attach- 
ment to  the  blade  is  by  means  of  three  rivets. 

In  Ireland  a  few  daggers  have  been  found  with  bronze  hilts 
still  attached. 

In  the  Museum  of  the  Koyal  Irish  Academy  is  a  fine  example,  which  has 
frequently  been  published,  and  which  I  have  here  reproducei  as  Fig.  291, 
from  the  engraving  given  by  Wilde,  ^  but  on  the  scale  of  one-half.  BoA 
blade  and  handle  are  **  highly  ornamented,  both  in  casting  and  also  by 
the  punch  or  graver." 

A  portion  of  a  blade  with  a  bronze  hilt  still  attached  was  found  near 
Belleek,  Co.  Fermanagh,  and  has  been  engraved  in  the  Proceedings  of  the 
Royal  Historical  and  Arch(Bological  Associatmi  of  Ireland**  The  cut  is  by 
their  kindness  hero  reproduced  as  Fig.  292.  The  handle  is  hollow,  and 
the  blade  appears  to  have  been  originally  attached  by  four  pins  or  rivets, 
of  which  but  two  now  remain.     Possibly  the  other  two  were  of  horn. 

Another  Irish  form  of  hafted  dagger  has  also  been  frequently  pub- 
lished.f  t     It  is  shown  in  Fig.  293.     VaUancey  describes  this  specimen  as 

•  Arch.  Assoc.  Joum.y  vol.  ii.  p.  100.  f  Arch.,  vol.  xliii.  p.  459. 

+  "  Celtic  Tumuli  of  Dorset,"  pi.  ii.  p.  17. 

]  Hartshorao's  "  Salop.  Ant.,"  p.  96,  No.  7. 

II  Bastian  und  A.  Voss,  "Dio  Bronze  schwerter  dcs  K.  Mus.,"  Taf.  xvi.  31 ;  Wilkin- 
son's *•  Ancient  Egyptians,"  vol.  i.  p.  320.  Another  dagger  with  a  hilt  is  figured  at 
p.  23. 

H  **  Catal.  Mus.  R.  I.  A.,"  p.  458,  fig.  334 ;  *•  HoraB  Ferales,"  pi.  vii.  14. 

♦•  Proc,  4th  S.,  vol.  ii.  p.  196. 

ft  VaUancey,  "Coll.,"  vol.  iv.  p.  61,  pi.  xi.  4  ;  Gough's  **  Camden,"  vol.  iv.  pl.x\*iii. 
4;  Wilde,  "Catal.  Mus.  R.  I.  A.,"  p.  467,  tig.  354;  '*  Iloraj  Fer.,"  pi.  vii.  13. 


in  (me  piece,  the  riveta  being  either  ornamental  or  intended  to  stop 
inrt  the  top  of  the  scabbard.    No  doabt  theae  imitation  rivets  are 


Ig.  fil.— Inland.  Fig-.  0! -Belleek.    i  Fig.  M3.-lre[iad.    i 

"  survivals  "  from  those  of  the  daggers,  which  were  thus  fastened 
)ir  handles  before  it  was  found  that  it  saved  trouble  to  cast  the  whole 
e  pit'ce.     The  hole  in  the.  handle,  the  sides  of  which  are  left  rough. 


236    DAtiUEKS  ANU  THEIR  H1LT9. — RAPIER-8HAPBD  BLADES.     [cHiP.  S 

waa  probably  filled  by  two  slightly  overiapping  plates  of  wood  or  hot 
riveted  together.  > 

Another*  (14^  inches)  was  thought  to  have  the  "loop-fashioned" 
handle  fur  suKjiending  the  weapon  to  a  thosg  or  the  belt.  I  think, 
huwevrr,  that  when  ttie  daggers  were  in  use  the  handles  were  to  all 
appearance  solid.  In  oae  found  in  Dimshaiigb- 
lin  t  crannoge,  Co.  Meath,  there  is  a  secbnd  oral 
hole  at  the  end  of  the  hilt,  whitJi  may  hare 
bfen  used  for  auspension. 

There  ia  a  good  example  of  this  type  of  dagger 
in  the  Blackmore  Museum  at  Salisbury. 

A  small  dagger  (7i  inches),  found  near  Balli- 
nnmore,}  Co.  Leitrim,  has  an  extension  of  th« 
blade  in  the  form  of  a  thin  plate  with  a  button 
at  the  bottom  ao  as  to  form  the  body  of  the 
handle.  In  this  part  are  two  rivet  holes  for  iht 
attachment  of  the  plates  of  wood  or  horn  to 
form  the  handle. 

Some  handles  of  bronze  knivea  found  in  Scan- 
dinavia and  Switzerland  §  ore  formed  vith  aimilBr 
openings.  Daggers  with  the  blade  and  bandit 
cast  in  one  piece  have  been  found  in  the  Italian 
tMvamare.W  Ihaveadagger of  thesamekiiidfroni 
Hungary. 

I  must  now  return,  from  this  digressitu) 
OS  to  the  hafting  of  dag^rs,  to  the  thin 
blades   or   knife-dag^rs   of   which   I  was 

speaking. 

Of  those  with  four  rivets  but  few  can  he  cited. 
One  of  unusually  large  size  is  shown  in  Fig.  294. 
Tlie  original  was  fomid  by  Sir  E.  C-  Hoare  in  a 
barrow  at  Woodyates.^l  It  waa  protected  by  a 
wooden  scabbard.  A  perforatod  ring  and  two 
buttons  of  jet,  four  barbed  flint  arrow-neoda.  and 
a  bronze  pin  were  found  with  the  same  skeleton. 
This  blade,  like  many  others,  is  described  as 
having  been  gilt,  but  thia  mm  hardly  have  been 
the  case.     Dr.  Thumnni**  has  tested  such  bril- 

nB.SM.-W«)dyHt«.  *  ^i^„jjy  poiiHiied  surfacea  for  gold,  but  found  no 
traces  of  that  metal. 

A  blade  of  this  form  is  engraved  in  the  "  Biin-ow  Diggers,"  ff  l>it'* 
deficrlbed  as  a  etone  celt  split  in  two. 

•  ^rch.  Jaiiru.,  vol.  i.  p.  181. 
t  ■WiI<Ie,"C:itnl.  Mus,  R.  I,  A.."  p.  466,  fig.  3.53. 
t  Wildc,  "t^tiil.  Mus.  R.  I.  A.,"  p.  463,  fig.  346. 

i  "Cong.  pr£h.,"  Stockholm  vol.,  1874,  p-  621;  KcUer'a '•  Lnko- dwell.,"  Eng.  fti-, 
pi.  ili.  u. 

I  Strobol,  "ATana  Pwromnni,"  1863,  Tav.  ii.  35:  QaBtaldi,  -'NuoTi  Cenni,"  IMi. 
Tav.  ii.  7. 

"^Vilt^■'  vol.  i.  n.  239,  ol,  ixiiv. 

tt  R  74,  pi-  ii.  fig.  3. 


KXIPE-DAGGERS   WITH    FIVE   OR   SIX   1 


A  nearly  similar  blade  from  Oofeli*  (Lac  de  Bienne)  is 


[  to  be  of 


.pper. 


1  Fig.  295  is  shown  a  blade  with  five  rivets,  from  an  interment  at 
Homington.t  near  Salisbury,  which  is  now  in  the  British  Museum, 
side  is  still  highly  polished,  with  on  ahnoet 
of  the  hilt  is  very  distinct  upon  it. 

One  of  more  pointed  form,  and  with  a 
hilt,  was  found  with  an  unbumt  body  ii 


r-like  lustre.     The  mark 


[lore  V-shaped  notch  in  the 
a  cairn  at  North  Charlton, 


Vig.  iWi.— Sociiligli 


•II      II' 


Fig.  300.— Idmiator 


Northumberland,  and  is  in  the  Greenwell  Collection  in  the  British  Museum. 
The  portion  is  broken  oS  in  which  were  the  rivets. 

Occasionally  the  surface  of  these  thin  blades  is  ornamented  by  en^aved 
or  punched  patterns.  The  decoration  usually  consists  of  converging  bands 
of  paraUel  lines.  The  example  given  as  Fig.  296  was  found  in  a  barrow 
at  IdmistoD,  near  Salisbuiy,  and  is  now  preserved  in  the  Blackmore 
Masemn.  ii  one  found  in  Dow  Low,I  Derbyshire,  shown  in  Fig.  297, 
there  are  three  parallel  lines  on  either  side  which  meet  in  chevron.  This 
blade  has  two  rivets. 

In  a  barrow  near  Maiden  Caatle,§  Dorchester,  opened  by  Mr.  Syden- 
ham,   there  lay  in  the  midst  of  ^e  ashes  two  bronze  daggers.     One 

•  OroH,  "  Dmut  Stations,"  pi.  iv.  3. 

t  JVoe.  Sue.  AhI.,  vol.  iv.  p.  32S ;  "  Hons  Peralcs,"  p.  \S9,  pi.  vii.  21 ;  ^rch.,  vol. 


238    DAGGERS  AND  THEIR  HTLT& — RAPIER-SHAPED  BLADES.     [cHAP. 

(4  inches)  has  two  lines  ongraTod  on  it,  forming  a  ohevion  parallel  wit 
the  edges;  the  other  (5^  inches)  is  described  as  ''curiouslj  wrougii 
chased,  and  gilt."  This  latter,  to  judge  from  Mr.  Wame's  engravin| 
has  a  slight  projecting  rib  along  the  middle  of  the  blade,  between  tw 
others  converging  to  meet  it  near  the  point.  The  space  on  each  side  o 
the  central  rib  appears  to  be  decorated  by  small  circular  indentations. 

One  from  another  barrow  in  Dorsetshire  *  has  a  treble  chevron  on  th( 
blade  and  a  straight  transverse  groove  between  two  ridges  just  above  th( 
hilt: 

A  small  blade  found  in  an  urn  at  Wilmslow,f  Cheshire,  seems  to  hav< 
a  single  chevron  upon  it. 

A  dagger  from  a  tumulus  at  Howolinghen  (Pas  de  Calais),  and  now  ii 
the  museimi  at  Boulogne,  is  of  this  character.  It  has  double  lines  to  tb. 
chevron  and  four  rivet-holes. 

Another  was  found  with  an  interment  at  Hame }  (Hautes  Alpes)  L 
company  with  other  artidles  of  bronze.  It  has  six  rivet-holes.  A  narrowe 
blade  and  more  of  the  rapier  shape,  with  four  rivet-holes,  was  found  i 
the  Marais  de  Donges  §  (Loire  Inferieure). 

A  dagger  much  like  Fig.  296,  but  with  a  double  row  of  rivets,  ha 
been  found  at  Mcerigen,  ||  in  the  Lac  de  Bienne. 

A  dagger  with  a  pointed  blade  having  two  parallel  grooves  just  with£ 
each  edge  was  found  with  other  dagger  blades,  flat  celts,  flint  arrows 
heads,  &c.,  in  the  tumulus  of  Kerhue-Bras,  Finist^re.^  It  has  a  plai 
wooden  handle,  to  which  the  blade  is  attached  by  six  rivets.  The  characte 
of  some  of  the  other  blades  is  peculiar. 

A  beautifully  patinated  dagger  (7 J  inches)  from  the  Seine  at  Pane 
now  in  my  own  collection,  has  six  rivet-holes  at  the  base,  as  in  Fig.  296 
and  is  of  nearly  the  same  shape,  though  rather  more  sharply  pointed 
One  of  the  rivets  which  remains  is  i  inch  long.  The  blade  has  upon  it  i 
small  low  rib  on  either  side  running  paraUel  with  the  edge.  On  th 
inner  side  of  the  rib  there  is  a  groove,  on  the  outer  side  the  blade  is  flat 
The  edge  itself  is  fluted. 

I  have  a  small  thin  blade  (4|  inches),  like  Fig.  298,  found  in  th 
Palatinate,  which  has  four  rivet-holes  at  the  base.  There  is  a  band  c 
five  parallel  lines  running  along  each  edge,  and  in  the  centre  of  the  blad 
a  chevron  with  the  sides  slightly  curved  inwards  formed  of  two  simila 
bands.  The  lines  seem  to  have  been  punched  in.  The  mark  left  by  th 
hilt  is  like  that  on  Fig.  296. 

What  appear  to  be  knife-daggers,  some  of  them  with  notche 
at  the  side  for  the  reception  of  rivets,  have  been  found  with  intei 
ments  in  Spain,  and  have  been  described  by  Don  Gongora  ; 
Martinez**  as  lance-heads. 

Knife-daggers  of  much  the  same  character  as  the  Englisli  ha\ 
occasionally  been  found  in  Scotland. 

•  Arch.  Joum.y  vol.  v.  p.  322. 

t  Areh.  Assoc.  Jourv.,  vol.  xvi.  p.  288,  pi.  25,  fig.  6. 

X  "  Mat^riaux,"  vol.  xiii.  p.  155. 

§  Rev,  Arch.^  vol.  xxxiii.  p.  231. 

II   Gross,  "  Deux  Stations,"  pi.  iv.  4. 

f  "Mat^riaux,"  vol.  xv.  p.  289. 

•♦  "Ant.  Preh.  de  Andalusia,"  pp.  97,  106. 


n 


KNIFE-DAGGERS   FIU>M   SCOTLAND. 


That  ekawn  in  Fig.  298  was  found  in  a  Btoae  ciat  in  a  cairn  at  Cleigh," 
^>dL  Nell,  Ai^lesMre.  Along  the  margin  of  the  original  handle  is  u 
Gne  at  small  indentations  made  with  a  pointed  punch. 

Auodier  (4^  inoheB)  was  found  in  a  cairn  at  Linlathen,!  Forfareliire, 
loRether  wiUi  a  "  diiikking  cup."  Particulars  of  die  finding  of  several 
■Ana,   with   interments   in  sepulchral   cairns,  have    been  g^ren  l>y 


Tig.  BI.—Dow  Low. 


Fiff.  aiS.— CldBb.    1 


*».  Joseph  Anderson  t  in  an  interesting  iiaper,  to  wliich  the  reader  is 
Maiwd. 

Ilireo  others,  from  Dnmilanrick.S  near  Callander,  Perth  (4}  inches, 
'^  rivets),  Croesmicbael,  Kirkcudoright- 
^ian,  and  Callachallj,  Island  of  Mull,  are 
>&  the  Antiquarian  Museum  at  Edinburgh. 
'Another,  apparently  of  the  samo  typo,  was 
Wid  in  a  cairn  at  Colle3sie,||  Fife,  tbu 
Wdle  of  wluch  appears  to  have  been  en- 
isled hy  the  gold  fillet  shown  in  Fig.  290. 
^e  alieath  seems  to  have  been  of  wood  covered  with  cow-hide,  the  hairs 
on  the  outride. 

In  Ireland  the  thin  iint  blades  are  of  rare  occurrence.  Canon 
Greenwell,  F.R.S.,  has  one  from  Co.  Antrim  (4j  inches)  with 
three  rivet-holes,  and  witli  a  V-shaped  notch  in  the  mark  of  the 
bwdle. 

There  is  a  bim  of  blade  which  appears  to  bo  intermediate  bettreen  tho 
iat  knife^daggers  and  those  to  which  the  name  of  dagger  may  more 


•  ftw.  Soc.  Ant.  Snt.,  vol.  x.  pp.  8i 
tv  tlu  OM  of  thU  and  the  follonring 
t  Pne.  Ste.  Ant.  «nrf.,  vol.  lii.  p.  419. 
(  P.  S.  A.  8.,  TOL  »u.  p.  *56. 


4  J9.   I  am  inilctited  to  the  Council  of  the  Society 


240    UAGGEKS  ANB  THEIB  HILTS. — KAPIBR-SHAPKD  BLADES.    [CHAP.  X. 

X>roxKtrl7  be  applied,  irhich  aro  either  conBiderably  thiokOT  at  tia  centn 
than  towards  the  edges,  or  else  have  a  certain  number  of  strengtheBiiig 
ribs  miming  along  the  blade.  This  interniediate  form  has  a  nngb 
narrow  rounded  rib  miming  along  the  centre  of  the  blade.  That  slunrn 
in  Fig.  300  is  an  example  of  the  short  and  broad  TBiietr  of  this  kind. 
It  was  foiind  in  a  barrow  at  Musdin,*  Staffordshire,  and  luu  a  splendid 


}        Fig.  30j.— Wintetboiimii  Btoke.    ) 


pntina,  rivalling  malachite  in  colour.  The  relation  of  the  dagger  to  any 
intomieut  is  uncertain. 

A  dagger  of  this  class,  but  more  jwiuted  and  with  two  parallel  lines 
ougmvod  on  each  side  of  the  niidnb,  was  found  by  Canon  Greenwell, 
F.li.S.,  in  one  of  the  barrows  eaUed  the  Three  Tremblers,!  Yorkshire.  It 
showed  trat-es  of  both  its  handle  and  shoatli.  With  it  wa|  a  beautifully 
flaked  large  flint  knife. 

A  more  ^Jointed  blade,  with  the  central  rib  much  less  pronounced,  and 


•  Batcman's  '-Ton  Yenis'  Diggings 
Hp.  182,  from  which  my  cut  IB  copied, 
t  "  British  BatTOws,"  p.  3Se ;  Areh.  Journ. 


U8; 


Dgravoil  in  Areh.,  vol,  xliii.  p.Wl, 
txii.  p.  213. 


DAGGERS  WITH  ORNAMENTED  BLADES.  241 

the  notch  in  the  hilt  more  distinct,  was  found  with  a  skeleton  in  a  cist 
Mt  Cheewick,*  Northumberland,  and  is  now  in  the  Ghreenwell  Collection 
in  the  British  Museimi.     It  has  been  carefully  polished. 

Another,  with  a  small,  well-defined  central  midrib  and  two  rivets,  was 
fonnd  by  Canon  Greenwell  in  a  barrow  at  Aldboum,  Wilts.  It  accom- 
panied a  burnt  body. 

Some  of  the  Italian  dagger  blades  are  provided  with  similar  midribs. 

Of  the  English  weapons  just  described  some  closely  resemble  in 
character  the  much  larger  blades  of  whicli  I  shall  subsequently  have  to 
Bpeak,  and  which  not  improbably  were  those  of  some  form  of  halberd  or 
battle-axe. 

A  much  longer  and  narrower  form,  in  which  the  central  rib  is  partly 
the  result  of  two  long  lateral  grooves  along  the  sides  of  the  blade,  is  shown 
in  Fig.  301.  This  was  found  with  two  otliers  at  Plymstock,!  Devon,  in 
cwnpany  with  flanged  celts,  a  chisel,  and  a  tanged  spear-head  or  dagger. 
Fig.  327,  and  is  now  in  the  British  Museum. 

1  have  a  much  smaller  blade,  of  somewhat  the  same  character  (4^. 
inches),  but  imperfect  at  the  base,  found  in  a  barrow  near  Cirencester ; 
and  one  smaller  still  (4^  inches),  from  a  small  barrow  near  Ablington, 
Cirenoerter,  Gloucestershire.  This  latter  appears  to  have  had  two  rivet- 
holes. 

A  beautiful  example  of  the  form  of  dagger  of  which  Sir  Eichard  C. 
Hoare  found  numerous  examples  in  the  Wiltshire  barrows  is  shown  in 
K^.  302.  It  lay  with  burnt  bones  in  a  wooden  cist  in  a  barrow  near 
Vinterboom  Stoke.  ^  With  it  was  another,  which  was,  however,  broken, 
•n  ivory  pin  and  tweezers,  and  two  small  pieces  of  ivory  with  bronze 
riyets,  wmch  were  supposed  to  have  appertained  to  the  tips  of  e^  bow. 
They  may  more  probably  have  formed  part  of  the  hilt  of  the  dagger. 
Ilie  blade  is  ornamented  with  parallel  lines  as  usual,  but  it  also  has  a 
series  of  fine  dotted  lines. 

Two  other  blades  (8^  and  8  inches),  less  highly  ornamented,  and  one 
^  them  atraighter  at  the  edges,  were  found  with  a  skeleton  buried  in 
^hoQowed  trunk  of  an  elm- tree  in  the  King  Barrow,  §  Winterboum 
Stoka.  With  one  of  these  at  the  breast  of  the  skeleton  were  traces  of  a 
inodaa  scabbard,  with  indentations  which  were  thought  to  have  been 
gOL  The  handle  is  described  as  having  been  of  box-wood,  and  rounded 
Wmewhat  like  that  of  a  large  knife.  The  other  dagger  was  at  the  thigh. 
On  the  breast  was  also  a  bronze  awl  with  what  is  said  to  have  been  an 
inay  handle  (Fig.  227). 

Dr.  ThurDamll  thinks  it  not  improbable  that  one  of  the  blades 
nay  have  been  a  spear-head  for  use  in  the  chase.  In  writing  of 
hese  blades  he  observes,  "  Where  two  are  found  with  the  same 
Qtennent  they  are  not  exactly  of  one  type,  but  one  is  light  and 
hin  and  of  greater  breadth,  the  other  strengthened  by  a  stout 
aidrib  relatively  heavier  and  of  more  pointed  or  leaf-like  form ; 
he  rivets  also  are  larger.      In  such  cases  the  former  may,  perhaps, 

•  Raine,  "  North  Durham/'  p.  235. 

+  Areh.  Journ.,  vol.  xxvi.  p.  346 ;  Trans.  Devon.  Assoc.,  vol.  iv.  p.  304.     For  the  nse 
f  this  cut  I  am  indehted  to  Mr.  A.  W.  Franks,  F.R.8. 
X  "  Anc  Wiltft,"  vol.  i.  p.  122,  pi.  xiv.       {  Ibid.,  pL  xv.     jj  Areh,,  vol.  xliii.  p.  456. 

R 


242    DAGOEB8  AND  THEIR  HILT8. — RAPIER-SHAPED  BLADES.     [CHAF.  X. 

be  supposed  to  be  the  dagger,  the  latter  the  spear."  Sir  RichBid 
Hoare  in  some  cases  discriminates  between  the  spear  and  the 
dagger  when  two  blades  were  found ;  and  Mr.  Cunnington 
observed  in  a  barrow  at  Roundway,*  Wilts,  that  a  pointed  blade 
only  3  inches  long  with  three  rivets  had  a  wooden  shaft  about 
a  foot  in  length,  which,  as  Dr.  Thumam  remarks,  could  not  have 
been  the  haft  of  a  dagger. 

The  fact  that  many  of  these  blades  bore  traces  of  having  had  a 
sheath  is  in  favour  of  their  being  daggers  rather  than  spear-heads, 
though  it  must  not  be  forgotten  that  Homer  t  describes  Achillee 
as  drawing  the  spear  which  had  belonged  to  his  father  from  its 
sheath —  ,      c^,  •       / 

Eic  0  apa  avpiyyo^  TrarptiHOv  itnraaur  tyxpfi. 

Though  Sir  Richard  Colt  Hoare  at  first  regarded  all  these  blades 
as  spear-heads,  he  observes,  about  two-thirds  of  the  way  through  his 
first  volume, t  "daily  experience  convinces  me  that  those  implementiS 
we  supposed  to  be  spear-heads,  may  more  properly  be  denominate^ 
daggers,  or  knives,  worn  by  the  side,  or  in  a  girdle,  and  not  affixes' 
to  long  shafts  like  the  modem  lance."  Further  on,  however,  ki 
mentions  a  "  spear-head  "  from  a  barrow  near  Fovant,§  having  tha 
greater  part  of  the  wooden  handle  adhering  to  it,  so  that  the  mo(3 
by  which  it  was  fastened  was  clearly  seen.  From  the  figure  givc5 
in  the  Archceclogia,  and  in  an  impublished  plate  of  Hoare,  th: 
seems,  however,  to  have  been  a  dagger  rather  than  a  spear. 

Other  blades  of  much  the  same  character,  found  at  Everley  and  Lak« 
Wilts,  and  West  Cranmore,  Somerset,  are  figured  by  Dr.  Thumam 
This  latter  was  found  by  my  friend  the  late  Mr.  J.  W.  Flower,  F.G.6 
It  is  straight  at  the  bottom  of  the  blade,  which  went  only  ^  incs 
into  the  handle  at  the  part  where  the  usual  semicircular  notch  wa 
formed.  There  was  a  single  rivet  on  either  side.  The  one  preserved  : 
^  inch  long.  Another,  from  Lake,^  is  given  by  Hoare.  It  was  foun 
with  burnt  bones  and  was  accompanied  by  a  whetstone. 

Others  have  been  found  in  a  barrow  at  Ablington,**  near  Amesbun 
Wilts,  and  at  Rowcroft,tt  Yattendon.  Berks  {H  inches). 

A  fine  blade  of  this  character  (9^  inches  long),  with  three  rivets,  we 
foimd  near  Leeds.  The  midrib  ends  in  a  square  base.  It  is  not  unlili 
the  blade  of  a  halberd. 

A  hafted  blade  of  the  same  kind,**  from  Bero  Eegis.  Dorsetshire,  hs 
already  been  mentionetl ;  as  well  as  the  doooration  of  the  hilt  of  one 
the  same  form.     One  (9  inches)  was  found  in  a  barrow  at  Came,§§  a* 

♦   TTiV/ji  Arch,  Mag,y  vol.  vi.  p.  164.  t  Iliad,  lib.  xix.  r.  387. 

X  V.  185.  {  0/1.  cit,,  p.  242. 

;'   Arch.y  vol.  xliii.  pi.  xxxiv.  fig.  4 ;  xxxv.  figs.  2,  \. 

•1  "  Auc.  AVilts,"  vol.  i.  p.  211,  pi.  xxviii.  ••  Arch,  Joum,,  vol.  x.  p.  248. 

tt  Ar.h.  AitK-c.  Jonrn.^  vol.  x\-ii.  p.  o34.  *l  Ante,  p.  233. 

J}  Arch.  Journ.^  vol.  v.  p.  322. 


DAOGEBS   WITH   MIDRIBS.  243 

ohibited  to  the  Archieological  Institute.  Mr.  Warne,*  howerer,  records 
tk  finding  <k  tvo  at  tJiat  place.  One  seems  to  have  the  midrib  dotted 
ant  with  small  indentations. 

ITuit  shown  in  Fig.  303  {which  is  copied  from  Dr.  Thoraam's  f  engrav- 
lag)  is  from  Oamerton,  Somerset.  It  is  remarkable  as  having  a  kind  of 
Mamd  midrib  beyond  the  parallel  grooves  which  border  tho  first.  As 
<»ul  it  has  but  two  rivets. 

A  bronse  da^ier  (fij  inches)  of  the  Wiltshire  type  was  found  in  the 
vaD-known  barrow  at  Hove4  near  Brighton,  in  which  tho  interment  had 
Wa  made  in  an  oak  cofBn. 
in  imber  cnp,  a  perforated 
Ame  axe-hajnmer,  and  a 
;  Tbetrtone  had  also  been  de- 
posited with  the  body. 

In  a  blade  of  this  class  (7 
iticliM),  found  with  burnt 
bones  and  ohippinKS  of  flint 
in  a  banow  at  Teadington,§ 
the  midrib  appears  to  be 
fomed  of  three  beads. 

Another  (9  inches)  formed 
Pnrt  of  the  Arreton  Down  || 
and,  of  which  more  will  here- 
•*ter  be  said.  The  blade 
i«  ornamented  with  delicate 
flbtiags  and  carves,  and  the 
Ukidrib  ends  in  a  cresconted 
«<Jlow  exactly  opposite  to  the 
^Msal  notdi  in  the  handle. 
^U«  specimen  is  now  in  the 
^Biitiah  Uosenm. 

Abronze  da^er  (6J  inches) 
"•■itfi  three  rivets,  of  which 
*5w  blade  has  much  suffered 
KKm  decomposition,  was 
f«Qnd  with  a  lump  of  iron 
Pfritee  within  an  urn  in  a 
KMnow  at  Angrowse  Uul- 
lim.^  ComwalL  A  dagger  blade  of  nearly  the  same  kind,  but  with  six 
•irets,  found  in  a  barrow  at  Camoel,**  Finist^,  is  in  the  museum  at 
the  Hotel  CInny,  Paris. 

I  have  a  da^ser  (9  inohes)  much  like  Fig.  302,  only  somewhat  more 
^w,  found  in  tie  Seine  at  Paris.  It  has  had  three  rivot-hoIeB,  and  on 
tin  blade  are  two  bands  of  four  lines  parallel  with  the  edge. 

nie  strengthening  of  the  blade  is  somettmea  effected  by  forming  it 
litii  three  or  more  projecting  ribs  instead  of  a  single    midrib.      In 
^.  S04  ia  shown  a  dagger  blade  in  my  own  collection,  found  not  far 
•  "Celtic  Tmn."  pt.  i.  p.  36,  pi.  i.  K  uid  O.       t  AreM.,  vol-  iliii.  p.  4S3,  fl)r.  15", 
I  Jrtji. /oMW.,  vol.  xiii.  p.  1B4;  vol.  XT.  p.  90:  Shu.  Arrh.  G>U.,  toL  ii.  p.  120. 
I  Smrtf  Artk.  Soc.  Tnuii.,  vol.  i.  ;  Areh.  Jaiirn.,  vol.  xjii,  p.  SOS. 
I  Jreli.,T<A.  xxitL  p.  328,  pi.  UT.  fig.  6;  '•  Hone  F«r.,"  pi.  rii.  18 
'BoriMB.  "N«ni»Com.,"  p.  238. 

'     't,  "  Alt.  o.  h.  Voir.,"  vol.  i.  Hett  a.  Taf.  ii.  1. 
R  2 


244    DAGGER8  AND  THEIR  HILTS. — RAPIER-SHAPED  BLADES.     [cHAP.    1 

from  Cambridge.  On  either  side  of  the  central  rib  and  along  the  out« 
margin  of  the  two  other  ribs  are  lines  of  minute  punctures  by  way  o 
ornament. 

A  somewhat  larger  blade  (Sf  inches),  from  Little  Cressingham,*  Noi 
folk,  has  two  deep  furrows,  one  on  each  side  of  the  broad  central  midzil 
and  beyond  these  again  two  lateral  ribs.  This  was  secured  to  its  hilt  b 
six  rivets,  three  on  each  side.  It  was  found  with  a  contracted  mal 
skeleton,  accompanied  by  a  necklace  of  amber  beads  and  some  article 
made  of  thin  gold  plate. 

A  dagger  with  a  central  rounded  midrib,  and  apparently  two  laters 
ribs  like  those  on  Fig.  304,. was  found  in  a  barrow  near  Torrington, 
Devon.  It  has  three  rivets,  by  which  it  was  attached  to  a  wooden  handle 
and  the  blade  showed  traces  of  a  wooden  sheath,  which  like  the  hand! 
had  perished. 

A  very  small  dagger  or  knife,  with  apparently  a  well-marked  centri 
rib,  found  near  Magherafelt,J  Co.  Londonderry,  is  shown  in  Fig.  3C]^« 
It  has  a  haft  of  oak  attached,  which  is  thought  to  be  original.  Ai^ 
pins  or  rivets  that  may  have  existed  are  now  lost,  and  possibly  what  we'a 
used  may  have  been  formed  of  wood  or  horn.  Some  thin  wedges  of  oe» 
appear  to  have  been  used  for  steadying  the  blade  in  the  haft,  the  upp^ 
part  of  which  has  somewhat  suffered  from  fire. 

One  of  the  daggers  from  the  great  find  at  Arreton  Down,§  Isle  <^ 
Wight  (9f  inches),  has  the  blade  strengthened  by  three  raised  ribs.  It  i 
shown  in  Fig.  306.  It  was  found  with  several  tanged  blades  lik^ 
Fig.  324,  some  flanged  celts,  and  other  objects.  In  a  blade  (9  inched 
in  Canon  Greenwell's  collection,  and  found  at  Ford,  NorthumberlanJ 
there  are  two  slight  ribs  about  f  inch  from  the  edges  and  parallel  tc 
them.     There  are  punctures  along  the  sides  of  the  ribs. 

Possibly  some  of  these  weapons  may  have  been  halberd  blades,  suet 
as  those  hereafter  described. 

Another  form  of  dagger  widens  out  considerably  at  the  base,  so  as  t( 
give  the  edges  an  ogival  outline,  and  this  form  passes  into  what  hav< 
been  termed  rapier-like  blades.  As  is  the  case  with  the  leaf-shape< 
blades,  which  will  presently  be  described,  some  of  these  latter  are  s< 
long  that  it  is  hard  to  say  whether  they  ought  to  be  classed  as  swords  o 
as  daggers. 

The  example  engraved  as  Fig.  307  is  from  Scotland,  and  not  England 
the  original  being  in  the  Antiquarian  Museum  at  Edinburgh.  It  wa 
foimd  in  1828  upon  the  farm  of  Kilrie,  near  Kinghom,  Fifeshire.  Th 
blade,  as  is  usually  the  case,  shows  a  central  ridge  upon  it,  but  is  als 
ornamented  with  parallel  lines  engraved  on  either  side,  which  is  a  f  eatur 
of  far  less  common  occurrence. 

A  plain  blade  of  the  same  character  (7 J  inches),  but  narrower  in  it 
proportions,  was  foimd  at  Bracklesham,||  Sussex.  It  has  as  usual  tw< 
rivets  only. 

I  have  another  (7i  inches),  showing  four  facets  on  the  blade,  fron 

•  Proc.  Soc.  Ant.f  2nd  S.,  vol.  iv.  p.  456 ;  Arch.,  vol.  xliii.  p.  454,  fig.  158. 
t  Trans.  Bevtm.  Astoe.,  vol.  vii.  p.  104. 

X  Journ.  Royal  Hist,  and  Arch.  Assoc,  of  Ireland,  2nd  S.,  vol.  i.  p.  286,  whence  thi 
cut  has  heen  kindly  lent. 

§  Arch.,  vol.  XXX vi.  p.  328,  pi.  xxv.  6,  from  which  the  cut  is  copied. 

II  Dixon's  "Geol.  of  Sussex,"  p.  12;  Arch.  Journ.,  vol.  viii.  p.  112;  Suss.  Arch 
Coll.,  vol.  ii.  p.  260. 


DAGGERS   WITH   OOIVAL   OUTLINE. 


iham  Fen  j  the  two  rivet-boleB  cut  through  the  marpn  of  the  base,  as  in 

g.  304. 

I  have  Been  others  from  the  Cambridge  Fens. 

Another  (13J  inches)  with  four  rivets,  and  more  nearly  approaching 

9  rapier  form,  was  found  in  the  Thames  at  Ditton,*  Surrey,  and  was 

nested  to  the  British  Museum  by  the  Earl  of  Lovelace.    Another  of  the 


e  character  {7  inches)  was  found  in  the  Thames  near  Haidenhead.f 

another  (8  inches)  at  Battersea.} 

•no  [9J  inches)  wiUi  two  rivets,  and  the  base  forming  half  a  hexagon, 

found  at  New  BiIfon,§  near  Eugby.     I  have  another  of  nearly  the 
.e  form  (7J  inches)  from  Waterbeaci  Fen,  Cambridge. 

Rg.  in  Areh.  Journ.,  Tol.  lii.  p. 
A.  A.  J.,  vol.  xiv.  p.  329. 


246     DAGOEKS  AMU  THEIE  ItlLTS. — RAPIER-8HAFBD  BLADES 


In  eome  the  blade  is  oinamented  by  ribn  cast  in  r^ef  ant 
ing.  A  good  example  of  the  kind  from  the  collection  of  Mr. 
F.S.A.,  is  shown  in  Fig.  308.  It  was  fonnd  in  the  old  castle  ( 
Co.  Bligo.  Oneof  mu(£  the  same  form  as  the  Wiltshire  da^i 
found  in  the  Thamee,f  near  BJchmond  (7-^  inches),  has  ai 
Tandyke  border  and  hatched  diagonal  bands.  The  blade  is  si 
but  not  otherwise  ornamented.  It  is  now  in  the  British  Mi 
{H  inches),  ornamented  at  the  base  in  a  dmilar  manner,  but 


Fig.  MC-Iidud.       t 

broad  tang  and  one  rivet-bole,  was  found  on  Kekington 
WeetmortJand. 

A  blade  (7  inches)  also  ornamented  at  the  base  with  a  vain 
was  found  at  Pitkoithly,  Perthshire,  and  is  now  in  the 
IMinburgh. 

Many  blades  ot  daggers  from  Germany  are  ornamented. 
most  beautiful  that  I  have  seen  is  that  in  the  museum 
Camiola.  Another  (11 J  inches),  with  the  hilt  complete,  an 
and  pommel-plate  beautifully  ornamented,  was  found  near  Vi 
Sockes  poiuts  out  that  from  the  shortness  of  tlie  hilt  it  is  p: 
these  daggers  were  held  in  the  same  manner  as  among  tlie  '. 

•  J"™.  Sac.  ^nl.,  2nd  S.,  vol.  v.  p.  268. 

f  Areh.  Juurn.,  vol.  si,  p,  79;  "  Horno  Forales,"  pi.  vji.  10. 

I  Pfbc.  ,Sw.  AnL.'iaA.  %.,  vol.  ii.  p.  370. 

{  Von Katkca, " Die  FundenanderLanguQ  WiinJ  bti  Wiuntr  i^iula. 


EAFI£R-SUAFEO    BLADES. 


247 


it  da;,  with  the  two  first  fingers  not  round  the  hilt,  but  stretched 

blade. 

museum  of  ihe  Boyal  Irish  Academy*  is  a  broad  dagger  blade 

long,  and  engraved  with  a  kind  of  Vandyke  pattern  at  the  baae. 

nented  portion  is  shown  full  size  in  Fig.  309,  kindly  lent  me  by 

my.     It  is  rather  remarkable  that  the  ornaments  should  extend 

'  the  base,  as  they  must  have  been  intended  to  be  free  of  the 

lich,  in  consequence,  it  would  appear  that  only  a  small  part  of 

can  have  been  inaerted.   The  sidesof  tlie  socket  in  the  hilt  may, 

have  extended  some 

ip  the  slop: 

e  of  the  bla 

Amented    blade   of 

ngated    form    (16| 

I  engraved  on   the 

e- fourth  in Fig.310. 

lund  at  Kilrea,  Co. 

1  is  is  the  collection 

Greenwell,  F.B.8. 
a  Vandyke  pattern 
base,  which  ia  not 
the  cut. 

a  plain  blade  (14 
ith  merely  a  central 
d  with  two  rivet- 
tch  ia  also  from  Ire- 

of  much  the  same 

nail  English  blade 
of  the  same  charac- 
ire  no  rivet-holes  at 

1  from  the  Thames  f 
nary  rapier  shape  is 

the  scale  of  one- 
Fig.  311.  It  ispro- 
h  two  rivets,  and 
notches  at  the  side 
se  aa  if  to  allow  of 
ITS  being  passed 
the   hilt  to  steady 

<  of  the  same  form 

'),  but  with  only  two  rivet-holea  at  the  base,  was  found  at  the 

he  Castle  Tump,"  Newohurch.t  Badnorehire. 

shaped  blades  from  8^  inches  to  ISj-  inches  long,    found  at 

uchty,  Fife ;  at  Fairhohn,  Dumfries- shire ;   and  near  Ardoch, 

i,  are  preserved  in  the  Antiquarian  Museum  at  Edinburgh. 

2  represents  a  small  blade  of  this  character  dredged  up  from  the 
ad  Avon  Canal,  between  Theale  and  Thatcham,  Berks,  and 
"  Catal.;' 


248    DAGGERS  AND  THEIK  HILl-S. — RAPIER-SHAPED  BLADES.     [CHAP.  X. 


given  me  by  Mr.  W.  Whitaker,  F.G.S.     The  two  little  notches  at  the 
side  of  the  base  are  peculiar. 

A  number  of  blades  of  this  character,  but  without  these  small  notches, 
have  been  found  in  the  Cambridgeshire  Fens.  Mr.  Fisher,  of  Ely,  has 
four,  varying  in  leng^  from  8  inches  to  9  inches,  about  2  inches  wide  at 
the  base  and  1  inch  in  the  middle  of  the  blade.  They  all  have  two  rivet- 
holes,  in  some  of  which  are  rivets  f  inch  long. 

Two  blades  found  at  South  Kyme,*  Lincolnshire,  seem  to  have  been  of 
this  character.  Another  (13J  inches)  was  found  at  Corbridge,t  Northum- 
berland, in  company  with  a  leaf -shaped  spear-head.  One  from  Burwell 
Fen,  in  my  own  collection,  has  three  rivet-noles,  in  which  are  still  two  of 
the  rivets,  of  which  one  is  formed  from  a  nearly  square  piece  of  metal. 
A  long  blade  of  this  kind  (16J^  inches),  but  with  the  blade  tapering  more 
gradually  from  a  rounded  base,  was  dredged  from  the  Thames  |  near 
V  auxhall.  Other  rapier-shaped  blades  (18f  inches  and  HA  inches)  hav® 
been  found  in  the  Thames  near  Kingston. § 

The  base  of  these  blades  appears  sometimes  to  be  disproportionately 
broad  with  regard  to  the  blades  themselves.  An  example  from  Covene^ 
near  Downham  Hithe,  Cambridgeshire,  is  in  the  collection  of  Mr.  Fishet^ 
of  Ely,  and  is  shown  in  Fig.  313.  This  widening  was  no  doubt  intended 
to  aid  in  8tead3dng  the  blade  in  its  hilt. 

I  have  a  dagger  of  the  same  form  (8  inches),  but  with  a  more  tapering 
blade,  found  in  Waterbeach  Fen,  Cambridge.  Another  (11 J  inches)  ' 
from  Harlech,  Merionethshire,  is  even  narrower  in  the  blade  than  th^ 
Coveney  example,  but  it  has  lost  its  edges  by  corrosion. 

Some  blades,  from  12^^  inches  to  15^  inches  long,  and  rapier-like  ini 
character,  from  Maentwrog  in  the  same  coimty,  are  engraved  in  the  Archao^ 
lopiayW  and  are  now  in  the  British  Museum.  The  rivet  arrangements  vary. 
A  spear-head,  with  loops  attached  to  the  blade,  was  found  with  them. 
One  of  them  has  notches  at  the  sides  of  the  base,  as  in  Fig.  311. 

One  14}  inches  long,  and  of  much  the  same  outline,  but  flat  in  the 
centre  instead  of  ridged,  was  found  at  Fisherton,^  near  Salisbury,  and  is 
in  the  Blackmore  Museum.  Another  of  the  same  character,  but  broad 
in  the  blade  (16J^  inches),  was  found  in  the  Thames.** 

Canon  Greenwell  has  two  rapier-like  blades  from  the  Thames,  17^ 
inches  and  15f  inches  long,  from  Sandford.  With  the  latter  was  found 
a  leaf -shaped  blade  (19  inches)  with  two  rivet-holes  in  the  base. 

Such  blades  are  almost  long  enough  to  be  regarded  as  swords. 

A  weapon  of  this  form  (16J  inches),  with  the  blade  reduced  in  thickness 
towards  the  edges,  and  with  two  large  rivets,  one  of  them  still  tn  sttu^ 
was  found  in  the  Thames,  and  is  now  in  the  British  Museum.  Another  in 
the  same  collection  (12 J  inches),  from  the  Thames  at  Kingston,  is  much 
narrower  at  the  base. 

A  blade  of  this  character  from  Blair  Drummond  Moss  was  exhibited 
in  the  museum   at   Edinburgh,  and  is  preserved   at   Blair  Drummoud 

House. 

The  type  occurs  in  France.  One  found  at  Auxonno,f  f  Haute  Saoue,  is 
in  the  St.  Germain  Museum. 


*  Arch.  Journ.y  vol.  x.  p.  73. 

X  Arch.  Assoc.  Journ.,  vol.  iii.  p.  60. 

II   Vol.  xvi.  p.  365,  pi.  Ixx. 

**  Op.  cit.y  p.  158. 


t  Arch.  Jottm.t  vol.  xix.  p.  363. 
§  rroc.  Sac.  Ant.,  2nd  S.,  vol.  i.  p.  83. 
II  Arch.  Journ.,  vol.  xWii.  p.  160. 
ft  Cliantre,  "Alb.,"  pi.  xvi.  2. 


RAPIERS   WITH   M0TCHB8   AT  THE   BASE.  ■iio 

V,  rather  shorter  and  broader,  with  two  riveta  and  two  notches 
dea  of  the  base,  waB  found  in  the  bay  of  Penhouet*  (Loire 
■e). 

9  examples  from 
e  at  Paris,  and 
a  the  neighbour- 
\jmens. 

le  cases  the  rivet- 
throueb  the  mar- 

I  appear  some- 
have   been   cast 

p  rounded  notches 

ase  to  receive  the 

istead    of    having 

rilled    or    cast  in 

'hat  shown  in  Fig. 

of  this  charai-ter, 

IS  found  in  the 
at    London,      It 

en  to  me  by  Mr. 

■h    Smith,    F.S.A. 

f  the  same  charac- 

>  also  been  found 

Tham.eB.     One  of 

16|     inches),      of 

he  same  type  but 

unded  at  the  lower 

he  wings,  is  In  the 

Uuseum. 

1  Oreenwell  has  a 

.f     this    type    (8 J 

found  near  Meth- 

orfolk. 

•cimen  of  this  form 

les)  from  Edington 

Somerset,  is  in  the 

1  at  TatmtoQ. 

ide  from  Inchigec- 

.  Cork,  figured   in 

ehieohyieal  Journal, 

0  be  notched  in  a 
manner.  Another 
rent  form,  but  ap- 
7  notched  after  the 
Lsbion,  is  engraved 

1  of  the  rapier-shaped  blades,  and  especially  those  of  larger  size, 
seem  intermediate  between  swords  and  daggers,  are  ornamented 


+  Vol.  X.  p.  73. 


250     BAGGERS  ANU  THBIR  HILTS. — RAPIEE-8HAPED  BLADES.     [CHAF.  X. 

as  well  as  strenfi^ened  by  a  projecting  midrib,  while  their  weight  is 
diminished  by  nutings  along  either  side.  A  beautiful  exam]^  of 
this  kind,  found  at  the  bottom  of  an  old  canoe,  between  the  peat  ind 
clay,  near  Chatteris,  Cambs,  is  shown  one-quarter  size  in  Fig.  315. 
I  have  another  (14  inches)  with  the  midrib  not  quite  so  prominent,  and 
with  the  rivet-holes  cutting  the  margin  of  the  base,  found  at  Aston 
Ingham,  Herefordshire.  A  portion  of  another  was  found  near  Wator- 
beach,*  Cambs. 

A  broader  blade  of  the  same  character  (12}  inches),  with  two  very  lai^« 
rivets,  was  found  in  the  Thames  at  Kingston,  and  is  now  in  the  Britisl^ 
Museum.     A  narrower  blade  (12  inches)  with  the  rivet-holes  cottiaS 
through  the  base,  was  found  at  CsBsar's  Camp,  Famham,  Surrey,  and  S.« 
in  the  same  collection. 

A  long  blade  of  this  character  from  the  Thames  (21  inches  long  acB-^ 
2|  inches  wide  at  the  base),  with  central  ridge  and  slight  flutings  at  tb*^ 
edges,  may  more  properly  be  regarded  as  a  sword.     It  is  in  the  Briti^^ 
Museum. 

Six  blades,  all  of  the  rapier  character,  but  varying  in  details,  and  fro^^^ 
12  inches  to  22  inches  in  length,  were  foimd  at  Talaton,  Devonshire-^-^^^ 
Some  moulds  of  stone  for  blades  of  the  same  kind  were  found  at  Hennoc^^^ 
in    the  same  county,   and  will  subsequently  be   described.      Anoth^^^ 
blade  (17  inches)  was  found  at  Winkleigh,J  near  Crediton,  Devon. 

A  blade  of  the  same  character  from  Ireland  is  given  by  Vallanoey.^^^ 
A  fine  specimen  from  the  same  country  (18  inches)  is  in  the  Britis^*^ 
Museimi.ll    What  appears  to  be  a  part  of  a  blade  %  of  the  same  kind  ha  ^-^ 
been  regarded  as  a  kind  of  **  steel '*  for  sharpening  other  blades.  ^ 

A  rapier-shaped  blade  (21  inches)  with  two  rivet-holes  was  found,  witk^ 
socketed  celts  and  a  palstave,  at  Mawgan,**  Cornwall. 

Blades  of  this  character  are  also  found  in  France.  Two  from  th^^ 
departments  of  Aisne  and  Somme,tt  have  been  fig^ured.  One  (20  inche^^ 
long)  is  in  the  Museum  at  Nantes. 

A  rapier  blade  from  the  Chauss6e  Brunehault,  and  now  in  the  Boulogn< 
Museum,  is  almost  like  a  trefoil  in  outline  at  the  hilt  end. 

A  stiU  longer  blade  of  this  character,  which  perhaps  ought  with  greater* 
propriety  to  have  been  classed  among  swords,  is  shown  in  Fig.  316  on^ 
the  scale  of  one-fourth.    It  has  unfortunately  lost  its  point,  but  is  stilL 
17}  inches  long.    It  woidd  appear  to  have  been  originally  about  20^ 
inches  long,  as  shown  in  the  fig^ure.     The  blade  in  tms  case  has  three 

Projecting  ribs  between  which  and  again  towards  the  edges  it  is  fluted, 
t  was  found  in  the  Eiver  Ouse,  near  Thetford.  The  imperfect  rivet- 
holes  at  the  base  appear  to  have  been  cast  in  the  blade,  and  the  mecuis 
of  steadying  it  in  its  hilt  must  have  been  but  inadequate.  Such  weapons, 
however,  can  only  have  been  intended  for  stabbing,  and  not  for  striking. 
Another  blade  of  similar  form,  but  with  perfect  rivet-holes,  was 
found  in  the  fine  earthwork  of  Badbury,  Dorsetshire,  and  is  in  the 
collection  of  Mr.  Durden,  of  Blandford.  It  is  23^^  inches  long  and  2-A 
inches  wide  at  the  base  above  the  rivet-holes. 

Blades  of  this  kind  are  occasiontdly  found  in  Ireland.     In  the  British 

♦  Arch.  Joum.f  vol.  xii.  p.  193.  t  Arch.  Joum.y  vol.  xxiv.  p.  110.      %  Op.  cit^  p.  113. 

§  **  Collect.,"  vol.  iv.  pi.  xi.  10 ;  Gough*8  "  Camden,"  vol.  iv.  pi.  xviii.  10. 
II  "  IIoraB  Ferales,"  pi.  vii.  23.  IF  Areh.  Joum.y  vol.  ix.  p.  186. 

♦•  Arch.f  vol.  xvii.  p.  337.  ft  Diet.  Arch,  de  la  Gaule. 


LONG   RAFIBR-SHA?£D   BLADES. 


251 


fueom  is  one  (9  inches)  with  deep  notches  for  the  rivets,  found  in 
ithkennan  Bog,  Co.  Tipperary. 

Nearly  all  the  rapier-shaped  blades  which  have  still  to  be  noticed  may 
\  regnrdcd  as  prooably  those  of  swords  rather  than  of  daggers.    That 


fig.  81A.— Chatterii.    \ 


Fig.  816.— Thetford.    \ 


Fig.  SlT.'Londonderry.    \ 


loim  in  Fig.  317  is  in  my  own  collection,  and  was  found  near  London- 
nry.    The  method  of  attachment  to  the  hilt  by  two  rivets  fitting  into 
Itches  at  the  sides  of  the  base  of  the  blade  is  the  same  as  in  some  of  the 
lorter  weapons  already  mentioned. 
Another  (19  inches),  found  at  Killeshandra,*  Co.  Cavan,  has  similar 

♦  Wilde,  "  Catal.,"  p.  448,  fig.  326. 


252     DAGGERS  AND  THEIR  HILTS. — RAPIER-SHAPED  BLADES.     [CH 

notches  at  the  sides,  but  the  base  is  somewhat  differently  shaped, 
of  these  rapier-shaped  blades  have  been  found  in  Irelan* 
Canon  Ghreenwell  has  one  (27^  inches)  which  was  bou 
Scotland,  and  probably  found  in  that  country. 

A  blade  (14  inches)  found  in  the  Loire,  and  now  in  the  I 
Museum,  has  side  notches  of  nearly  the  same  character  aE 
in  Fig.  317. 

The  finest  example  of  the  rapier  kind  ever  found  in  L 
is  that  shown  in  Fig.  318,  which  by  the  kindness  of  the 
Irish  Academy  I  here  reproduce  from  Sir  W.  Wilde's 
log^e.  It  is  no  less  than  30^  inches  long,  and  is  only  \ 
in  width  at  the  centre  of  the  blade,  which  has  a  strong  m 
It  was  found  in  a  bog  at  Lissane,  Co.  Derry.  I  have  a  1 
found  at  Noailles,  near  Beauvais,  Oise,  France,  identic 
form  and  character,  but  only  23 J  inches  long.  Were  ; 
that  the  rivets  are  wanting.  Fig.  318  might  have  been 
from  the  French  instecid  of  the  Irish  specimen. 

Another  narrow  blade,  with  a  heavy  rounded  midrib 
inches  long  and  1}  inch  broad  at  the  base),  was  found  in 
at  Galbally,  Co.  Tyrone,  and  had  at  the  time  of  its  disc 
the  original  hilt  attached.  There  also  appear  to  have 
some  remains  of  a  scabbard,  but  this  is  uncertain.  Th 
has  been  engraved  in  the  Proceedings  of  the  Royal  Hiitorid 
Archaeological  Society  of  Ireland*  and  is  here  by  their  kin 
reproduced  as  Fig.  319. 

Mr.  Wakeman,  of  Enniskillen,   in  his  interestinj 
count  of  the  discovery,  describes  the  material  of  \ 
the  hilt  is  formed  as  bone,  or  rather  whalebone, 
blade  and  haft  are,  however,  now  in  my  own  colle( 
and  I  think  there  can  be  no  doubt  that  the  materi 
the  hilt  is  in  reality  a  dark-coloured  ox-hom.     On 
Danish  blades  I  have  seen  the  fibrous  texture  of 
substance  still  shown  by  the  oxide  or  salt  of  the  n 
forming  as  it  were  a  cast  of  its  surface,  which  has 
lasted  the  horn  against  which  it  was  originally  fori 
There  are  no  traces  of  the  rivets  in  the  Galbally  liil 
that  probably  pins  of  hard  wood  served  to  secure 
the  blade. 

Some  Scandinavian  daggers  have  been  fouuOL 
their  handles  of  horn  still  attached.  One  fron^  u.  \ 
in  Hassl6f,t  South  HallanJ,  Sweden,  had  x\^*5?»  ' 
sheath  with  a  long  rectangular  end  of  bron^^-vi  v: 
served.  The  length  of  the  sheath  is  about.  \n 
of  the  blade  of  the  dagger. 

*  4th  Sorios,  vol.  ii.  p.  197. 

t  "Hallanda  Fommiimee-Furenings  Aarskr.,"  1S69.  p. 


RAPIKR  WITH    OX-HORN    HILT. 


e  bronze  hilts  for  the  long  rapier-like  blades  are  rare,  but  not 
own, 

e  of  these  blades,   found  in  the  Co.  Tipperary,*  has  ita  hilt  still 


1^.  ns.— OilbaUT.        i 

ied  by  metal  rivets,  as  shown  in  Fig.  330.     The  hilt  is  hollow  and  ii 

^d«.  "  Catal.,"  p.  458.  Sg.  333.  from  which  the  fig.  in  the  t«it  ii  copied  m  i 
'n«t  Urger  soUe;  "  Horse  FecaJeit"  pi.  vii.  16. 


254    DAOOSRS  AND  THEIR  HILTS. — IUP1EB-5HAPED  BLADES.    [CHAF.  I. 

nnw  open  at  the  end,  though  probably,  as  "Wilde  mggests,  originally  doaed 
by  a  bone  stud. 

The  hilt  of  a  eword  in  the  museum  at  Tours  ia  joined  to  the  blade  in 
much  the  same  fashion,  but  has  a  mere  indentation  instead  of  the  centnl 
semicircidar  notch.  The  body  of  the  hilt  is  engisved  with  bands  of 
trianglos  and  circlea. 

A  rapier-ahaped  blade,  irith  a  bronxe  hilt 
of  nearly  the  same  form,  bat  with  aix  nntt, 
is  in  the  museum  at  Narbonne.*  Anotba 
nearly  similar  was  found  at  Che]rloiiiiet,t 
Haute  Loire. 

Some  Egyptiaii  bronxe  da^en  hare  tin 
hilts  f ormM  m  the  same  style. 

In  another  form,  the  blade  of  which  i> 
more  leaf-shaped,  like  the  ordinaij  bronn 
sword,  the  means  of  attachment  to  the  haA 
are  merely  slight  notches  at  the  ddee.  Thtt 
shown  in  Fig.  321  is  only  1 1  inches  Img,  but 
the  edge  has  been  removed  for  about  1^  indi 
from  the  base,  showing  the  portion  wbii 
presumably  was  inserted  in  the  hilt.  Ths 
original  was  found  near  Ely,  and  is  in  tlu 
collection  of  Mr.  M.  Fisher,  of  that  town. 

I  have  a  small  specimen  of  the  same  kind 
(6}  inches)  from  f^irdham,  Camba. 

A  more  leaf-shaped  blade  (14  inches),  with 
rivet  notches  at  the  side  of  the  base,  vu 
found,  with  Ieaf-Bh^>ed  spear-heads,  it 
Worth,  J  Washfield.  Devon.  Possibly  this, 
as  suggested  by  Mr.  Tucker,  F.8-A.,  wm 
onginfdly  a  sword  from  which  the  hilt  vu 
Fig.aso.-TitpmtT.      (        broken. 

A  blade  more  like  Fig.  321  (IS^  incbM 
long  and  1  inch  broad)  was  found  in  the  Mardyhe,  near  Grays  Thvi- 
rock,§  Essex.  Some  of  the  weapons  of  this  kind,  like  one  from  tha 
Thames  at  Kingston  (11}  inches),  appear  to  have  been  made  from  brokra 
sword  or  rapier-like  blades. 

A  long- tanged  form,  of  which  it  is  soroetimes  difficult  to  say  whether  it 
is  ft  sword,  a  knife,  or  a  dagger,  is  of  not  unfrequent  occurrence  in 
Ireland.     That  shown  in  Fig.  322  is  in  my  own  collection. 

I  have  another  found  near  Armagh  (8^  inches),  which  is  rather  broader 
in  ifa  proportions.  It  has  a  diagonal  row  of  circular  indentations  across 
cRch  side  of  the  blade  just  above  the  shoulders.  Not  improbably  theM 
and  other  specimens  originally  existed  in  a  somewhat  different  form,  bwt 
having  been  injured  at  their  base  were  refitted  with  a  tang  for  attach- 
ment to  the  hnft  instead  of  being  secured  by  rivets  at  the  sides  like  those 
last  mentioned. 

Pome  Danish  dag^ra  are  provided  with  merely  a  slight  tang  like  that 
of  a  modem  chisel. 

•  "  MHteriaiix,"  toI.  v,  pi.  ii.  1,  t  "  Matferiani,"  vol.  i.  p.  370, 

*  Arrh.  Joun.,  vol.  ixit.  p.  120. 

5  Arfh.  Jeam.,  vol.  xxvi.  p.  IBl ;  Froc,  Soe.  Ant.,  2nd  S.,  vol.  iii.  p.  406. 


BAYONET-LIKB   BLADRS.  355 

Another  form  of  blade  is  more  of  the  nature  of  a  bayonet  than  of  a 


Fig.  321.— Ht.       1  Fig.  aM.-NorthofIrelMJd-    )  Fig.  318,— n«I>(loa.       1 

.pier,  yet  this  would  appear  to  bo  the  proper  place  in  TMch  to  notice  it. 


256     DAGGERS  AND  THEIR  HILTS. — RAPIER-SHAPED  BLADES.     [CHAP.  ] 

The  example  shown  in  Fig.  323  is  in  the  collection  of  Canon  Gh*eenwd! 
F.B.S.,  and  was  found  at  Kaphoe,  Co.  Donegal. 

The  section  of  the  blade  is  nearly  square,  and  the  faces  are  omamente 
with  parallel  engraved  lines.  It  ends  in  a  tang  with  a  single  hoi 
through  it,  and  with  it  was  found  a  ferrule  of  bronze  for  receiving  the  en 
of  the  handle. 

In  the  Royal  Irish  Academy  Museum  is  another  blade  of  the  sair 
character,  33  inches  long  and  nearly  square  in  section,  but  having  tt 
faces  fluted.  With  it  was  a  ferrule,  3 J  inches  long,  having  four  ribs  i 
the  base,  with  hollows  between.  It  has  one  rivet-hole  through  it.  Tk 
specimen  was  found  in  a  bog  near  Glenarm,  Co.  Antrim. 

From  the  ferrules  and  general  form  of  the  blades  it  is  probable  thi 
they  were  lance  or  pike  heads  rather  than  of  the  nature  of  swords  c 
daggers.  The  **  javelin  with  loop"  found  in  Monaghan,  and  engrave 
in  the  ArcluBologiciU  Journal  *  seems  to  be  somewhat  of  the  same  nature. 

It  may  possibly  be  the  case  that  some  of  the  other  blad< 
described  in  this  chapter  have  served  as  the  points  of  spear-lil 
weapons,  though,  from  the  hilts  being  discovered  with  so  man 
of  them,  there  can  be  no  doubt  that  the  majority  must  be  regarde 
as  having  been  the  blades  of  daggers  or  rapiers.  Among  model 
weapons  we  have,  however,  some  which,  like  the  sword-bayone 
are  intended  to  serve  a  double  purpose;  and  though  there  a 
be  little  doubt  as  to  the  true  character  of  the  knife-daggers,  it 
hardly  safe  to  assert  that  all  the  dagger-like  blades  were  withoi 
exception  mounted  with  short  hilts  as  poniards,  and  that  none  we 
provided  with  straight  shafts  as  pikes,  or  placed  transversely  ( 
a  handle  to  serve  as  halberds  or  battle-axes. 

The  weapons  described  in  this  chapter  probably  range  over  tl 
whole  of  the  Bronze  Period  of  Britain.  The  knife-daggers,  whii 
have  almost  exclusively  been  found  in  barrows,  often  associate 
with  other  weapons  formed  of  stone,  may  be  regarded  as  amoi 
the  earliest  of  our  bronze  antiquities ;  while  the  rapier-shap 
blades,  though  of  rare  occurrence  in  hoards,  appear  to  belong  to 
period  when  socketed  celts  were  already  in  use.  Of  the  dagger-lij 
blades,  in  whatever  manner  they  were  mounted,  a  considerab 
number  belong  to  an  early  period.  The  analogies  of  the  differei 
forms  with  those  found  upon  the  Continent  have  already  from  tin 
to  time  been  noted  in  the  preceding  pages. 

♦  Vol.  iii.  p.  47. 


CHAPTER  XI. 

TAKOEO    AXD    SOCKiSTED     DAGGERS,    OR    SPEAR-HEADS,    HALBERDS, 

AND   MACES. 

Before  passing  to  the  leaf-shaped  swords,  which  would  seem 
Jiaturally  to  follow  in  order  after  the  blades  last  described,  it  will 
*^  well  to  notice  two  sets  of  weapons  which,  though  in  many 
'''Aspects  identical  with  daggers,  may  in  the  one  case  have  served 
^s  spear-heads,  and  in  the  other  most  probably  as  the  blades  of 
l^^e-axes  or  halberds.  To  the  first  of  these  two  classes  the  term 
**  Arreton  Down  type  "  has  been  conventionally  applied,  as  it  was 
^the  hoard  found  at  that  place  that  the  largest  proportion  of  such 
Weapons  occurred;  and,  indeed,  until  that  discovery  the  type  appears 
^^  have  been  unknown. 

The  tanged  blades  are  still  rare,  but  have  now  been  found  in 

^veral  other  places  besides  the  Isle  of  Wight.     The  centre  of  the 

^lade  is  usu^ly  thick  and  strong,  showing  a  central  ridge  and 

leaving  the  sides  more  or  less  decorated  with  flutings  or  lines 

^here  the  metal  is  reduced  in  thickness.     The  tang,  unlike  that 

^f  the  daggers  described  at  the  beginning  of  the  last  chapter,  is 

long  and  narrow,  and  tapers  away  from  the  blade.     At  its  end  is  a 

wle  for  a  rivet  or  pin.     In  one  instance  a  ferrule  was  found  upon 

the  blade,  as  will  be  seen  in  Fig.  324.     This  figure  is  copied  from 

^t  in  the  ArduBologia*  which  is  taken  from  a  drawing  made  in 

1737  by  Sir  Charles  Frederick.     Upon  the  ferrule  are  a  number 

^  raised  bosses  in  imitation  of  rivets,  but  there  seems  to  be  no 

rivet-hole  in  the  ferrule  itself,  though  there  is  one  in  the  end  of 

the  tang  of  the  blade  with  the  rivet  still  in  it. 

Accounts  of  the  discovery  of  this  and  other  weapons  at  Arreton 
Down,  near  Newport,  in  the  Isle  of  Wight,  were  communicated  to 
the  Society  of  Aiitiquaries  in  the  years  1735  and  1737,  and  the 
latter  has  been  printed  by  Mr.  A.  W.  Franks,  F.RS.t     At  least 

*  Vol.  zzxri.  pi.  zlv.  2.  t  Areh.y  vol.  xxxvi.  p.  326. 

8 


3S8  TAKQBD  AKD  SOCKKI'ED   DAGCBHS,    ETC.  [CHAF.  It 

sixteen  articles  were  found  ia  a  marl-pit,  and  they  are  eaii  t» 
have  been  arranged  in  a  regular  order.  Of  these,  nine  were  of  thii 
tanged  type,  but  varying  in  details.  One  (Fig.  328)  was  proTided 
with  a  socket ;  two  were  di 
blades,  already  mentioned  (one  of 
which  is  given  in  Fig.  306),  and 
four  were  flanged  celta,  like  Fig.  8, 
but  varying  in  size.  Six  specitnem 
from  this  hoard  are  now  in  the 
British  Museum.  Mr.  Franks,  in  the 
paper  already  mentioned,  i^ardi 
these  tanged  weapons  as  speu- 
heads,  and  is  I  think  right  in  lo- 
doing  ;  the  blades,  however,  present 
such  close  analogies  with  the  daggm 
from  the  Wiltshire  barrows,  and  the 
socketed  variety  (Fig.  328)  is  » 
dagger-like  in  character,  that  it  is 
hard  to  speak  with  any  d^ree  of 
confidence  upon  this  point. 

In  1855  Mr.  Franks  observed 
that  the  type  was  quite  new  to  him, 
but  since  that  time  several  other 
specimens  have  been  found  besides 
those  from  Arreton  Down.  One  of 
these,  discovered  in  the  River  Lea 
at  Stratford-le-Bow,  Essex,  is  now 
in  the  British  Museum,  and  is  shovni 
in  Fig.  323.  As  will  be  seen,  it 
has  a  rounded  midrib,  with  several 
parallel  grooves  on  each  side  of  it 
engraved  or  punched  on  the  blada 

Some  of  the  weapons  from*  Arreton 
Down  are  of  nearly  the  same  descrip- 
tion, but  the  midrib  is  more  ridgeo, 
and  ia  ornamented  with  rows  of  engraved  or  pimohed  dots.  One  has 
a  double  creecent-ehaped  line  of  dots  punched  in  at  the  base  of  the  blade. 
I  have  a  blade  (10  mches)  of  the  same  form  and  character,  but  without 
any  engraved  dota  upon  it,  from  Burwell  Fen,  Cambridge.  The  parallel 
flutings  on  the  blade  appear  to  have  been  produced  in  the  casting,  ami 
not  by  engraving  or  punching.  The  hole  in  the  tang  was  also  made  b 
•  Arch.,  vol.  xxxvi.  pi.  iiv.  1 ;  "  Horas  Ferales,"  pL  yi.  21. 


THE    ABRETON    DOWN    TYPE. 


•eing  irregular  in  foim.  It  is  nowKere  I^bb  than  i  inch 
Another  weapon  (7^  inches)  of  the  Bame  character,  but 
ihout  any  fluting,  waa  found  near  Newbury,*  Berks. 

es  are  of  extremely  rare  occurrence  in  Ireland,  but 
i)  closely  resembling  Fig.  325  was  found  in  the  county 
ath,  and  is  now 
on  of  Mr.  Robert 
of  Cork. 

ifferent  variety  of 
1  in  Fig.  326.  It 
g  the  centre,  and 
Dn  each  side  run- 
to  the  edge,  such 
Eord  facility  for 
te  edge  by  ham- 
The  end  of  the 
broken  off  at  the 
s  said  to 
r  Matlock, 


ad  i 


mch  broailer  and 
8  on  each  side  of 

0  inches),  found 
Fen,    is   in    the 

e  Cambridge  An- 
.ety. 

imilar  blade,  but 
ght  channels  on 
itend  of  one,  is  in 
at  Copenhagen, 
havo  been  found 

these  blades,  but 

lateral  flutings, 
ter  similar  to  Fig. 
d  near  Preston,  J 

1  of  Plymstock, 
s  shown  in  Fig. 
jw  in  the  British 

this  instance,  as 
'own,  the  accom- 
les   were   flanged    Fi».  sm.- 

9,  of  which  there 

and  three  dagger  blades  (: 

(Fig.  190). 


).    There  was  also  a 


il.  svi.  p.  322,  pi.  26,  No.  I. 

tiHgea  vol.,  p.  183. 

i.  p.  349.     For  tbe  uso  of  thU  cut  I  a 


I  indebted  to  Ur. 


260  TAGGED   AND   SOCKETED    DAGGBIU,    ETC. 

Two  apecimens  from  Suffolk  (8  inches  and  10^  inches), 
from  Hindesham,*  formed  part  of  the  collection  of  the  late 
copp,  and  are  now  in  the  British  Museum. 

One  of  the  Arreton  Down  f  specimeiiK,  without^  ferrule,  is 
this  type. 

Id  the  Arreton  Down  hoard  there  was  a  single  ex 
weapon  of  this  kind  which  was  pro 
a  socket  for  the  insertion  of  a  hand 
instead  of  having  a  tang.  Fig.  32i 
fi*om  the  engraving  published  in  tl 
logia.*  As  will  be  observed,  the  soc 
made  to  abut  on  the  blade,  much  aft( 
ner  of  a  dagger  handle,  and  has  ci 
two  bosses  in  imitation  of  the  hea<i 
for  securing  the  blnde.  A  weapon  i 
which  there  can  hardly  be  a  doubt  is  ■ 
from  which  Sir  Charles  Frederick  mad 
ing  for  the  Society  of  Antiquaries, 
Canon  Greenwell's  collection,  and  I  I 
other  example.  It  differs  from  th 
knives  in  the  character  of  the  blail 
thicker  and  more  highly  omamentcti 
of  the  daggers  from  the  Wiltshire  barr 
ther  it  was  itself  intended  to  be  a 
whether  it  was  the  head  of  a  spear 
will  not  attempt  to  determine. 

Wiat  has  somewhat  the  appearance 
weapon  of  the  same  character  was  fmiii 
near  Campbeltown. §  Argyleshiro,  togct 
bronze  aword.  It  may,  however,  as  alread 
be  merely  a  socketed  knife. 

A  very  beautiful  weapon  of  this  kind  if 

seum  ftt  Ijiusauiio.     The  blade  is  oniiiiii 

what  in  the  enmo  manner  as  that  of  Fi^ 

Kg.  sss,— Anrton        socket  is  shorter  and  ornamented  with  pi 

^■"^  *  and  bands  of  triangles,  alternately  hatt'lie 

There  appear  to   be   six   rivets,    and   wl 

termed  the  hilt  has  a  deep  half-oval  notch  in  it.  like  that  wl 

mon  on  swords  and  daggers.     The  margin  of  this  notch  is  de* 

punctured  dots.     It  was,  I  believe,  found  near  Sion.  \'alaii 


iiri.  pi.  JL3V.  3;  "Ho™  FiralM,'  pi.  vi.  25. 

vi.  p.  328,  pi.  i\T.  3. 

"Prali.  Ann.,"  vol.  i.  p.  390;  C»t«l.  Mm.  Arch.  Imt., 


SCANDINAVIAN    AND   QBRMAN    HALBERDS. 


ot  what  may  have  been  the  omamentB  of  a  sheath,  and  also  with 
g  narrow  celt,  flanged  at  the  upper  part.     The  general  resemblance 
een  the  Swiss  and  the  English  specimens  is  very  remarkable. 
I  Egyptian  *  blade,  with  the  side  edges  slightly  curved  inwards,  and 
the  socket  rather  shorter  than  in  Fig.  328,  is  in   ' 
aq.    It  is  attached  to  the  socket  by  three  rivets. 


Fi«.  S».-Anip.  ) 

^  e  second  series  of  blades  of  which  it  is  proposed  to  treat  in 
aad  Mli^v."^  usually  from   six  to  sixteen  inches  long,  rather 
^  oase,  and  not  unfrequeiitfy  curved  lonfritndinally.    This 


t  unfrequeiitfy  c 
"UatiiiBuz,"  vol.  t.  jil.  i 


262  TANGED    AND   SOCKKTED    UAOOER8,   ETC.  [cHAP.  ZI. 

latter  circumstance,  as  well  as  their  shape  and  weight,  proves  that 
Honio  of  these  broad  blades  were  not  intended  for  use  as  daggers  ; 
and  this  being  admitted,  it  seems  to  follow  that  others,  which 
resemble  the  curved  blades  in  all  respects  except  their  curvature, 
must  be  regarded  as  belonging  to  the  same  class  of  weapons. 
What  these  weapons  were  may  I  think  be  best  shown  by  some 
examples  from  Scandinavia  and  Northern  Germany,  which  also 
show  the  manner  in  which  .similar  blades  were  attached  to  their 
shafts  so  as  to  form  a  kind  of  halberd  or  battle-axe. 

That  which  I  have  selected  by  way  of  iUuatration  is  one  that  is  engraved 
in  l>r.  Os<;ar  Uontelius'  "  Sveriges  Fomtid,"  *  who  has  kindly  lent  me  tlie 
block  of  ¥ig.  329.  In  this  instance  the  scale  adopted  is  one-third  linear 
measurfl.  In  A  is  given  a  view  of  the  upper  end,  seen  from  above,  and 
in  II  a  view  from  Ix'hind  tlie  blade,  showing  tlie  great  projection  of  the 


rivet-like  knobs.  The  handle  as  well  as  the  Wade  is  in  bronze.  This 
specimen  was  found  at  Arup,  in  Scania.  Another  is  engraved  in  Liscli's 
"  Frederico-Francisceum."  t  It  was  found,  with  two  others,  at  Blen- 
gow,  near  Buckow,  Mecklenburg  Schwerin,  and  is  regarded  by  Lisch  as 
a  kind  of  battle-axe,  or  possibly  as  a  "commander's  staff"  or  b&ton  of 
hoaonr.  GooiJ  examples  of  the  same  kind  are  in  the  museums  at  Malmoe 
and  Kiel,  and  others  have  been  described  by  Klemm.J  Two  have  been 
found  n(!ar  Nea  Euppin.  Others  are  in  the  Schwerin  fifuseum. 
Another,  with  n  separate  socket,  having  three  rivot-Uke  bosses  upon  it. 
is  in  the  Berlin  Huseum.§  There  can  be  little  doubt  that  this  last-men- 
tioned weapon  is  a  representative  of  an  earlier  form,  when  the  shaft  was 
merply  of  wood  and  the  transverse  blade  was  secured  in  it  by  means  of 

•   Fii-.  131.  +  Tftf.  vii.  1;  mill,  I;  "  Ilonr  Feralcs."  pi.  i.  2, 

I  "HsiKih.  ilcrOpnn.  Alterth.."p.  209.    Soe  niso  Prpiwker,  "  Ulioke,"  Tnf,  iii,  44  f.  : 
Klemm.  "Alli?.  Ci.Itiim'iss."  p.  112. 
J  Bastiun  unJ  A,  Vmw,  '■  UI»  llronzc  St'hverttrr  d.'S  K.  Mid.,"  Taf.  vi.  li. 


IRISH    HALBERDS.  263 

rets.  An  intermediate  form,  in  whieli  the  blade  fits  into  a  kind  of 
»rk  bronze  socket  for  receiving  a  shaft,  is  preserved  in  the  Berlin 
I* 

stance  of  the  use  of  an  analogous  form  of  weapon  in  another  part 
'orld  is  afforded  by  some  bronze  blades  from  China,  of  which  one 
sented  in  Fig.  330.  For  the  loan  of  the  original  of  this  figure 
idebted  to  Mr.  A.  W.  Franks,  F.E.S.  As  will  be  readily  seen, 
de  is  adapted  for  bein^  attached  at  nearly  a  right  angle  to  a 
ito  which  the  flat  tang  oehind  the  stop-ridge  would  be  inserted, 
i  blade  would  then  be  secured  in  its  position  by  laces  or  straps 
through  the  slots  at  the  base  of  the  blade.  The  antiquity  of 
japons  in  China  it  is  hard  to  ascertain,  but  they  probably  date  back 
•iod  many  centuries  remote  from  the  present  day. 
•al  of  them  are  engraved  in  a  Chinese  work  on  antiquities,  "The 
Study,"  to  which  Mr.  H.  N.  Moseley,  F.R.S.,  has  kindly  called 
ntion.  What  appear  to  be  bronze  spear-heads  and  swords  are 
in  the  same  work 

onze  weapon  of  the  same  kind,  but  with  a  socket,  which,  like 
de,  is  highly  ornamented,  was  found  on  the  Yenissei,t  in  Siberia. 
3  the  figure  of  a  kind  of  antelope  projecting  from  the  socket  oppo- 
>  blade.  Another,  from  Viatka,  in  Russia,  has  the  head  of  an 
in  the  same  position. 

ron  weapon  with  a  socket  at  right  angles  to  the  blade,  from  the 
Perm,  appears  to  be  a  halberd  of  much  the  same  kind, 
form  of  weapon  closely  approximates  to  the  Australian  "malga"  § 
lome  other  wooden  weapons  in  use  in  New  Caledonia. 

I  is  in  Ireland  and  Scotland  that  the  most  characteristic  of 
herd  blades  have  been  discovered,  it  will  be  well  to  com- 
with  the  examples  from  those  countries  rather  than  with 
rom  Enirland. 


'O' 


g.  331  is  represented  a  fine  specimen  of  a  form  not  unusual  in 
,  tliough  the  central  rib  is  somewhat  more  ornamented  than  is 
ly  tlie  case.  The  rivets,  as  usual,  are  three  in  number,  and  are 
eserved  in  the  blade.  In  this  case  they  are  about  f  inch  in 
ir  and  J  inch  between  the  heads,  which  are  about  f  inch  in 
T  and  have  been  carefully  hammered  into  an  almost  hemispherical 
The  midrib  ends  abruptly  in  a  straight  line  where  it  abutted  on 
ift.  The  metal  appears  to  have  a  considerably  less  proportion  of 
opper  than  is  usual  with  bronze  weapons.  It  looks  in  fact  almost 
re  copper. 

coj)pory  appearance  is  by  no  moans  uncommon  in  these  blades.  I 
aother  specimen  of  the  same  form  (9 J  inches),  but  without  the  bead 
midrib.  It  was  found  at  Letterkenny,  Co.  Donegal.  A  specimen 
ike  Fig.  331  is  termed  by  Vallancey,||  **  the  brass  head  of  a  I'ua^h 

orte  Ferales,"  pi.  x.  3 ;  Von  Ledebur,  **  Konigl.  Mua.,"  p.  15. 
ateriaux,"  vol.  viii.  pi.  xvi.  14 ;  vol.  xiii.  p.   232 ;  Chantre,  "  Age.  du  Br.,** 
tie,  p.  283 ;  Mem.  des  Ant,  du  Nord,  1872—7,  p.  116. 
itech.  fur  Ethnol.,*'  vol.  ix.  1877,  Proc,  p.  34,  Taf.  vi.  3. 
A.  Lane  Fox,  *'  Prim.  Warfare,"  lect.  2. 
'i-  Hib.,"  vol.  iv.  p.  62,  pi.  xi.  11. 


TAKOED    AND    SOCKETED   DACQERB,    ETC. 


[CHAF.  II. 


^. 


Q" 


raiha,  a  s|eneral  name  for  the  w 
axe."  "The  lai^  riretB  of  thii 
weapon  show  it  was  mounted  on  > 
veiy  strong;  shaft." 

Sir  W.   Wilde  has  descnbed, 
under  the  two  distinct  headingi 
'    of  "  Broad  scythe-shaped  Swonb,'    i 
and  "  Battle-axes,"  the  wefl|>oiA 
which  I  have  here  classed  toge- 
ther.   Of  the  former  he  mentioDS 
forty-one  specimena  in  the  l£u' 
seum    of  the  Royal  Irish  Acs- 
demy,  of  the  latter  but  two    oi 
three.     Tlie  "  swords  "  •  he  de- 
scribes as  thick,  heavy,  and  rouxi^- 
pointed,    averaging     about      1^ 
inches  in   length  by  about     't 
inches  in   breadth   at  the  ba9«  > 
twenty-two  of  the  blades  bei«iB 
curved.     With  the  strong  bhwi^s, 
however,  he  classes  some  whic*' 
are  quite  thin  and  flat,  and  whi*''^ 
have    more    the   appearance     ** 
having  been  intended  for  dagger^ 
The  curved  shape  is  much  agairJ** 
their    having    been    attached    t*3 
staves    "  spear-ways ;"     so     th-f'' 
Wilde's  other  suggestion  of  tli^ 
scythe-shaped  swords  having  been 
mounted  like  axes,  or  "  sfBxed  to 
long   handles    like    modem  hal- 
berds,"   seems    much   more  rea- 
sonable.    As  to  the  shorter  and 
broader   blades,   whether  curved 
or  not,  he   appears  to  have  liad 
no  donbt  of  their  bt'ing  a  kind  of 
batlle-axcs. 

Wihle   has   inferred   from   the 
largo    size    of    the   rivets,    some 
bi'ing   \\    indies  in    length  and 
t.  H.  I.  A.;'  (i.  44it. 


COPPER   BLADES   LESS   BRITTLE  THAN   BRONZE.  265 

nearly  1  inch  across  the  burr  or  head,  that  they  must  have  been 
attached  to  massive  metal  handles,  of  which,  however,  no  frag- 
ments have  been  preserved.  If  this  view  had  been  correct,  the 
disappearance  of  the  handles  would  be  a  remarkable  circumstance  ; 
but  the  large  rivets  appear  rather  intended  for  securing  the  blades 
to  wooden  shafts,  the  disappearance  of  which  from  ordinar}'^  decay 
is  exactly  what  might  be  expected.  In  one  instance  there  are 
large  conical  washers  or  broad  rings  of  bronze  li  inches  in  diameter 
beneath  the  rivet-heads,  and  these  in  the  case  of  a  metal  hantlle 
would  have  been  superfluous. 

Wilde  appears  to  me  to  have  fallen  into  another  error  with 
respect  to  the  antiquity  of  this  form  of  weapon.*     Arguing  from 
the  fact  that  many  of  the  specimens  are  formed  either  of  red  bronze 
or  of  pure  copper,  he  thinks  it  probable  that,  like  the  celts  of 
that  material,  they  are  of  immense  antiquity.     And  in  another 
place  he  says  that  their  antiquity  may  be  gathered  from  the  fact 
of  many  being  of  copper,  the  use  of  which  metal  invariably  pre- 
ceded that  of  bronze.     As  I  have  already  had  occasion  to  observe, 
it  is  perfectly  true  that  many  of  these  blades  have  the  appearance 
of  being  made  of  copper,  but  the  absence  of  tin  in  their  composi- 
tion has  not  as  yet  been  proved.     Even  were  they  of  pure  copper  the 
form  and  character  of  the  blades  show  them  to  be  derivatives  from 
the  dagger,  as  the  dagger  itself  sprang  from  the  simpler  knife;  and 
the  cause  for  using  a  less  proportion  of  tin,  or  indeed  none  of  that 
^etal  in  them,  appears  to  me  to  have  been  the  wish  to  make  them 
^^  brittle  than  if  they  had  been  of  bronze.     A  weapon  used  as  a 
Wtle-axe  would  not  be  less  deadly  from  having  a  somewhat  duller 
cutting  edge  than  if  formed  of  bronze,  and  should  it  get  bent  in 
^  encounter,  the  straightening  of  it  might  quickly  be  efiFected, 
while  the  loss  of  a  blade  by  its  breaking  would  be  irreparable. 
I  have  elsewhere  contended  that  the  Hungarian  perforated  double- 
^lided  axes  (like  pickaxes)  of  copper,  with  but  Uttle  or  no  tin  in 
them,  were  made  of  this  material,  not  because  tin  was  unknown,  but 
hecause  the  ductile  and  malleable  copper  was  found  better  adapted 
for  certain  purposes  than  the  more  fragile  bronze.      In  the  same 
Dumner  copper  rather  than  brass  sets  or  punches  are  in  use  among 
engineers  at  the  present  day,  when  an  intermediate  piece  of  metal 
is  required  to  convey  the  blows  of  a  hammer  to  an  iron  key  or 
other  object  which  would  be  injured  by  receiving  the  blows  direct. 
Sir  William  Wilde,  in  his  Fig.  360,  has  shown  a  hollow  tube  of 

•  P.  449. 


TAKGED   AND   SOCKETED    DAGGERS,    ETC. 


[chap. 


broiizfl  as  forming  the  Imndle  of  a  wide  halberd  blade;  but  tA»i 
juxtfiposition  of  the  two  objects  has  been  questioQed.  Not  o^^kl 
are  the  projecting  spikes  upon  the  tube  somewhat  inconsist^sT 
with  its  use  as  a  handle,  but  from  a  comparison  with  some  8inw.3.< 
objects  since  discovered  there  can  be  no  doubt  of  the  presuKz^* 
halberd  shaft  being  in  reality  a  portion  of  a  trumpet 


Tlie  blade  which  is  figured  in  counectioii  with  this  handle  was  found 
near  Koacrea,  Co.  Tipperary,  and  closely  resembies  Fi^.  332  both  in  fonn 
and  size,  beino^  7|  inches  long  and  8|  inches  wide  at  the  base,  in  which 
are  two  rivet-holes  and  also  two  notches  in  the  margin.  It  has  a  kind  of 
treble  midrib.  The  blade  shown  in  Fig.  332  has  but  a  single  midrib,  but 
near  the  edges  and  following  the  same  curve  is  a  minor  ri^e.  A  section 
is  given  at  the  side  of  the  figure.  The  original  was  found  near  Cavan, 
and  is  in  my  own  collection.  From  the  absence  of  rivet-holes  it  seems 
doubtful  whether  it  was  ever  mounted  on  a  shaft  so  as  to  form  a  complete 
weapon,  unless,  indeed,  tlie  sliarp  bnse  was  merely  driven  into  the  wood. 
The  metal  appears  to  have  a  larger  admixture  of  tin  in  it  than  ia  usual 
in  the  seythe-like  blades.  I  am  not  aware  of  the  existence  of  any  other 
specimens  of  this  very  broad  form  besides  the  two  now  mentioned, 

A  curved  blade,  of  much  the  same  section  as  Fig.  332,  hut  15}-  inches 
long  and  3^  inches  broad  at  the  base,  found  at  the  foot  of  Slieve  Kileta 
Hill,  Co.  Wexford,  is  in  the  British  Museum.    It  has  three  stout  rivets. 


IRISH   HALBERDS.  267 

31ie  long  and  narrow  blade  shown  in  Fig.  333  BePmfi  also  to  belong 


Fi?.  3».— BillraiwlsT. 


268  TANGED    AND  SOCKETED   DAGGERS,    ETC,  [CHAP.  XI. 

to  the  Gaten>ry  of  halberds,  tbong'h  the  rivet-hoIeB  are  smaller  than  uau  £>!. 
and  the  blade  itaeU  thiimor.  It  is  strengthened  by  a  number  of  sm^l 
converging  ribs  formed  in  the  casting,  instead  of  by  a  broad  midrib,  a.K3d 
is  also  straight  and  not  curved.  The  uriginal  vns  found  near  Newtowni 
Limavady,  Co.  Derry,  and  is  in  the  collection  of  Canon  Greenwell,  F.E-  S. 
The  shorter  and  much  more  massive  blade  shown  in  F^.  334  is  also  zn 
Canon  Greenwell's  collection,  and  was  found  at  Ballygawley,  Co.  Tyroo-e. 
It  has  probably  seen  much  service,  as  what  appear  to  have  been  tbe 


original  three  rivet-holes  have  in  two  cases  been  partly  closed  by  hammer- 
ing, while  in  the  third  the  base  of  the  bkde  has  broki^n  away.  In  order 
to  mate  use  of  the  weapon,  three  fresh  holea  have  been  drilled  rather 
farther  from  tlie  base,  in  which  the  rivets  are  still  preseiTed. 

yome  of  the  Irish  *  blades  are  more  rounded  than  this  at  the  point,  and 
have  been  secured  to  the  shafts  by  foiir  rivet*  arranged  as  in  Fig.  336. 
There  ia  also  occasionally  a  shoulder  between  the  blade  and  the  part  let 
into  the  liaiidle,  as  in  that  from  Stranraer. 

•  Conf.  Wilde,  ap.  cit.,  p.  tS9,  figs.  350  and  3o7;  and  -  Hone  Kit.,"  pi.  i.  i3 


SCOTTISH    ASD    EKGLISH    HALBERDS. 


la  Fig.  335  is  bLmwr  another  blade  much  like  that  from  Ballygawley, 


n».  tSI. —Slhjiaiigga.       ) 

but  fooiid  near  Falldand,  Fifeehire.    The  metal  appears  to  be  nearly 


270  TANGED   AND   SOCKBTEU    DAGGERS,   ETC.  [CHAP.  XI. 

pure  copper,  and  it  i8  doubtful  whether  it  ever  had  more  than  one  rivet- 
nole,  though  there  are  notches  for  the  reception  of  two  besides  the  rivet 
still  left  in  the  blade.  It  would,  however,  be  fairly  secured  in  its  handle 
by  a  second  livet  in  the  notch  on  the  left,  while  a  third  at  the  back  of 
the  midrib  would  prevent  the  blade  from  being  driven  into  its  handle  by 
a  blow. 

In  the  Antiquarian  Museum  at  Edinburgh  are  several  of  these  halberd- 
like blades,  some  of  them  curved.  One  from  Sluie,*  Edinkillie,  Elgin- 
shire, is  1 1  by  3^^  inches,  and  has  four  rivet-holes  arranged  in  a  semi- 
circle. It  was  found  with  two  flat  celts.  Three  others,  from  10  to  13J 
inches  by  3  inches,  were  found  together  at  Kingarth,f  Bute.  They  are 
described  as  of  reddish  bronze. 

The  original  of  Fig.  336  was  foimd  near  Stranraer,  J  Wigtonshire,  and 
is  now  in  the  Antiquarian  Museum  at  Edinburgh.  It  is  12^  inches  long 
and  4^  broad,  and  weighs  nearly  1}  lbs.,  so  that  if  mounted  as  a  halberd, 
it  must  have  been  a  formidable  weapon.  The  rivets  are  an  inch  in 
length. 

In  England  and  Wales  the  blades  which  can  with  any  degree  of 
confidence  be  regarded  as  those  of  halberds  are  by  no  means 
common.  I  think,  however,  that  the  example  from  Harbyrnrigge,§ 
Crosby  Ravensworth,  Westmoreland,  shown  in  Fig.  337,  must  be 
looked  upon  as  a  halberd  rather  than  as  a  dagger.  It  is  in  the 
collection  of  Canon  Green  well,  F.R.S. 

Another  blade  of  much  the  same  character  is  shown  on  the  scale  of  one- 
fourth  in  Fig.  338.  It  was  found  in  Shropshire,  ||  but  the  exact  locality 
is  not  known.  Another  (11 J  by  4  inches),  bearing  much  resemblance  to 
that  from  Shropshire,  was  found  near  Manea,^  Cambridgeshire.  It  is 
provided  with  four  rivets,  and  has  a  small  rib  running  down  the  thickened 
centre  of  the  blade.  It  is  now  in  the  Museum  of  me  Cambridge  Anti- 
quarian Society. 

The  late  Mr.  J.  W.  Flower,  F.G.S.,  bequeathed  to  me  a  blade  of  this 
character  (9 J  by  3  J  inches)  thickened  out  in  the  middle  like  Fig.  334,  and 
with  three  large  rivet-holes  in  the  base,  which  is  somewhat  of  a  trefoil 
form.  It  was  found  with  broken  sword-blades  and  spear-heads  at  Stoke 
Ferry,  Norfolk,  and  appears  to  be  formed  of  copper. 

The  only  Welsh  example  which  I  have  to  mention  was  found  in  the 
parish  of  Uansanffraid,**  Cwm  Deuddwr,  Radnorshire.  It  is  9  inches 
long  and  4  inches  wide,  and  weighs  15  oz.  In  form  and  character  it  closely 
resembles  the  Irish  and  Scotch  specimens  (Figs.  334  and  335),  having 
a  plain  midrib,  bevelled  edges,  and  three  rivet-holes. 

A  large  blade,  with  a  strong  midrib  and  three  rivets,  found  in 
Zealand,  and  engraved  by  Madsen,tt  niay  have  belonged  to  a  halberd  of 
this  class. 

•  Proe.  Soe.  Ant.  Scot.,  vol.  iv.  p.  187.  t  Ibid.f  vol.  iv.  p.  396. 

X  Jbid.f  vol.  vii.  p.  423.     I  am  indebted  to  the  Council  for  the  use  of  this  cut. 

§  Proc.  Soe.* Ant. f  2nd  S.,  vol.  iii.  p.  258. 

jl  Arch.  Journ.,  vol.  xi.  p.  414 ;  vol.  xviii.  p.  161 ;  Proc.  Soc.  Ant.^  2nd  S.,  vol.  v.  p.  403. 

f  Arch.  Journ.f  vol.  xu.  p.  193 ;  "  Hone  Far.,"  pi.  x.  7. 

♦•  Arch.  Camb.f  4th  S.,  vol.  vi.  p.  20  (figured). 

ft  "  AfbUd.,"  vol.  ii.  pi.  xi.  14. 


MACES,    PKOBABLY    MEDIJEVAL. 


271 


I  h&ve  already  raeutioned  the  halberd  blades  from  Scandinavia 
and  North  Germany,  and  have  seen  but  one  example  from  any  of 
the  western  countries  of  Europe.  This  is  from  Spain,  and  was 
found  near  Ciudad  Real.  It  is  about  8|  inches  long,  and  more 
T-shaped  at  the  base  than  any  British  specimen,  the  blade 
suddenly  expanding  from  2  inches  in  width  to  o.  In  this 
expanded  ji&rt  are  the  usual  three  rivets,  each  about  1  inch  in 
length,  llie  discovery  of  a  weapon  of  this  type  in  Spain  seems 
to  lend  support  to  those  who  maintain  that  there  was  some  con- 
nection between  the  Iberians  and  the  early  iohabitants  of  Ireland. 
The  curious  similarity  of  some  of  the  Portuguese  forms  of  flint 
arrow-  and  javelin-heads  to  those  of  Irelimd  is  also  worthy  of  notice. 


Fig.  IM.— Udgate. 


Besides  the  battle-axe  or  halberd  there  is  another  form  of 
weapon  for  hand-to-hand  encounters — the  mace — of  which  it 
will  be  well  to  say  a  few  words ;  for  though  I  do  not  for  a  moment 
believe  that  the  bronze  mace-heads  so  frequently  found  in  this 
and  other  European  countries  belong  to  the  Bronze  Age,  yet  by 
many  they  have  been  classed  among  the  antiquities  of  that  period. 
These  weapons  vary  considerably  in  size  and  weight,  but  the  cuts 
will  show  the  more  common  forms. 

That  shown  in  Fig.  339  is  in  the  Museum  of  the  Cambridge  Antiquarian 
Society,  and  ia  stated  to  have  heen  found  at  Lidgate,*  Suffolk.  In  the 
Ueyrick  f  Collection  is  one  precisely  similar,  which  was  brought  from 
Ituy.  The  mace  to  which  these  dentat«d  rinses  were  attached  ia  thought 
to  have  been  a  kind  of  "morning  star"  or  flail.    Others  from  Lauark- 


•  AreA.  /•ttm.,  toI.  ri,  p.  181. 


t  Skdtoa't  U«7rick,  yol.  i.  pi.  xlv. 


272  TANGED   AND  SOCKETED    DAGGERS^    ETC.  [cHAP.  XI. 

shire  *  are  of  similar  character.     Professor  Daniel  Wilson  refers  these  to 
the  time  of  the  Boman  occupation. 

I  have  three  heavy  rings  with  four  long  and  eight  short  spikes  each, 
from  Hungary. 

Another  form  is  provided  with  a  socket,  and  is  evidently  intended  for 
mounting  on  a  straight  staff.  That  shown  in  Fig.  340  was  foimd  in  a 
well  at  Great  Bedwin,t  Wilts,  and  is  now  in  the  British  Museum. 
Another  of  the  same  class,  with  a  longer  socket,  is  in  the  Museum  J  of 
the  Cambridge  Antiquarian  Society;  and  two  are  in  the  collection  of 
Mr.  M.  Fisher,  at  Ely.  Others  have  been  found  in  London,  §  and  at 
Stroud,  II  Gloucestershire. 

An  Irish  example  from  Wilde  %  is  shown  in  Fig.  341.  There  are  three 
such  in  the  Museum  of  the  Academy,  varying  in  length  from  2  to  5  inches. 
One  from  Tipperary  ♦*  (4  inches)  is  of  the  same  kind. 

I  have  specimens  of  this  kind  from  Hungary,  one  {4i  inches)  with 
three  rows  of  four  spikes,  and  one  (4i  inches)  with  five  rows  of  five 
spikes.  I  have  eaiomer  ht)m  the  Seine  at  Paris  (4i^  inches)  with  six 
longitudinal  ribs  instead  of  spikes. 

Lindenschmit  f f  has  figured  seven  examples,  from  various  parts  of 
Germany  and  Italy,  some  more  or  less  similar  to  each  of^the  three  figures 
I  have  given.  Some  of  these  are  decorated  with  spirals  in  relief.  Lisch  X\ 
has  also  engraved  some  specimens. 

In  the  British  Museum  §§  are  some  foreign  specimens  decorated  with 
patterns  of  a  decidedly  mediseval  character. 

An  instrument  of  this  kind,  with  eight  lateral  spikes  and  a  long  iron 
spike  coming  out  from  the  end,  was  found  with  numerous  medisBval  relics 
in  the  ruins  of  Soborg,||||  in  North  Zealand.  Such  a  discovery  seems  to  me 
conclusive  as  to  the  date  to  be  assigned  to  this  class  of  weapons. 

I  must  apologise  to  the  reader  for  this  digression,  and  now 
proceed  to  the  consideration  of  the  leaf-shaped  bronze  swords, 
which  are  far  more  closely  allied  to  the  arms  described  in 
Chapter  X.  than  to  the  objects  which  have  been  discussed  in  the 
present  chapter, 

•  Arch.  Assoc.  Journ.,  vol.  xvii.  p.  111.  f  Arch.  Journ.,  vol.  vi.  p.  411. 

I  Arch.  Journ.,  vol.  vii.  p.  302. 
f  Arch.  Assoc.  Joum.y  vol.  i.  p.  249,  vol.  iii.  p.  60. 

II  Arch.  Journ. f  vol.  xviii.  p.  160. 

IT  "  Catal.  Mu8.  R.  I.  A.,"  p.  493,  fig.  361.  I  am  indebted  to  the  Council  for  this  cut. 
••  Proe.  Soc.  Ant.,  2nd  S.,  vol.  v.  p.  12. 
ft  "Alt.  u.  h.  Vorzeit,"  vol.  i.  Heft  viii.  Taf.  2. 

XX  "  Frodor.  Francisc./*  Taf.  xxv.  13,  14.  §§  Proc.  Soc.  Ant.,  nbi  sup. 

JIH  Annalen  for  Nord.  OldkjTid.,  1851,  Taf.  v.  1. 


CHAPTER  XII. 

LEAF-SHAPED   SWORDS. 

Among  ancient  weapons  of  bronze,  perhaps  the  most  remarkable 
both  for  elegance  of  form  and  for  the  skill  displayed  in  their  cast- 
ing are  the  leaf-shaped  swords,  of  which  a  considerable  number 
have  come  down  to  our  times.     The  only  other  forms  that  can  vie 
with  them  in  these  respects  are  the  spear-heads,  of  which  many 
are  gracefully  proportioned,  while  the  coring  of  their  sockets  for 
the  reception  of  the  shafts  would  do  credit  to  the  most  skilful 
modem  founder.     Neither  the  one  nor  the  other  belong  to  the 
earliest  period*  when  bronze  first  came  into  general  use  for  weapons 
and  tools,  the  flat  celts  and  knife-daggers  characteristic  of  that 
period  being  as  a  rule  absent  from  the  hoards  in  which  fragments 
of  swords  and  spear-heads  are  present. 

There  is  also  this  remarkable  circumstance  attaching  to  the 
bronze  swords,  viz.,  that  there  is  no  well-authenticated  instance t 
of  their  occurrence  with  any  interments  in  barrows.  It  is  true 
that  Professor  Daniel  Wilson  J  speaks  of  the  frequent  discovery  of 
broken  swords  with  sepulchral  deposits,  and  mentions  one  found 
alongside  of  a  cinerary  urn  in  a  tumulus  at  Memsie,  Aberdeenshire, 
and  another  which  lay  beside  a  human  skeleton  in  a  cist  under 
Carlochan  Cairn,  Cannichael,  Galloway.  But  one  of  these  dis- 
coveries took  place  so  long  ago  as  1 776,  and  in  both  cases  there  may, 
as  Canon  Greenwell  has  suggested,  either  have  been  some  mistake 
as  to  the  manner  of  finding,  or  the  connection  of  the  sword  with  the 
interment  may  have  been  apparent  rather  than  real.  A  portion  of  a 
sword  6i  inches  long,  said  to  have  been  found  in  a  cairn  at  Ballagan,§ 
Strathblane,  Stirlingshire,  in  1788,  is  in  the  Antiquarian  Museum 
at  Edinburgh.  A  "  sarcophagus  with  ashes  "  is  said  to  have  been 
in  the  cairn.     Another  sword,  broken  in  four  pieces,  is  said  to 

«  Cool.  OreenwaU,  **  Brituh  Barrows,"  p.  49.        t  Op,  cit.,  p.  44. 

t  "  Freh.  Ann.  of  Soot,"  toL  L  p.  394.  {  Areh,  Scot,^  toI.  iiL  App.  p.  67. 

T 


274  LEAF-SHAPED  SW0KD6.  [CHAP.  XIL 

have  been  found  in  a  barrow  in  Breconshire.*  Another,  found  at 
Wetheringsett,  Suffolk,  is  said  to  have  lain  fourteen  feet  deep  in  clay, 
with  a  great  number  of  human  bones,  but  no  pottery  or  other 
remains.  In  this  case,  however,  there  is  no  mention  of  a  barrow. 
The  sword  is  elsewhere  said  to  have  been  found  in  a  sandpit,  t 

In  Scandinavia,  however,  bronze  swords  have  not  unfirequently 
been  found  with  interments  in  barrows ;   and  inasmuch  as  the 
owners  of  the  bronze  swords  in  Britain  were,  after  death,  in  all 
probability  interred,  either  in  a  burnt  or  unbumt  condition,  there 
appears  no  reason  why  in  some  instances  their  swords  may  not     ! 
have  been  buried  with  them,  though  as  yet  the  evidence  of  these 
weapons  having  been  found  in  tumuli,  is  fiEir  from  satisfactoiy. 
Possibly  at  the  time  when  the  swords  were  in  use  the  practice  of 
erecting  moimds  over  graves  had  ceased,  and  there  are  now  no 
external  marks  upon  the  ground  to  indicate  the  graves  of  tho 
warriors   who  wielded   the   bronze  swords,  and  who  have  thu^ 
escaped  disturbance  in  their  "  narrow  cells  *'  from  the  hands  o^ 
treasure-seekers  and   archsBologists ;   or   possibly  the  custom   O^ 
burying  weapons  with  the  dead  may  at  that  time  have  ceased. 

But  not  only  has  there  been  a  question,  as  to  what  was  the  methoC^ 
of  interment  in  vogue  among  the  owners  of  the  bronze  swords 
but,  as  already  mentioned  in  the  Introductory  Chapter,  seriou^ 
dispute  has  arisen  whether  the  swords  themselves  are  not  Roman,^ 
or  at  all  events  of  Roman  date.     The  late  Mr.  Thomas  Wright  t^ 
was  the  most  ardent  advocate  of  this  latter  view,  and  he  has  been  to^ 
some  extent  supported  by  Mr.  C.  Roach  Smith.  §     The  contrary 
view,  that  the  swords  belong  to  a  Bronze  Age  before  the  use  of^ 
that  metal  was  superseded  by  that  of  iron,  has  been  ably  advocated 
by  the   late    Mr.  A.  Henry  Rhind,  F.S.A.Scot.,||  and   Sir    John 
Lubbock  IF    It  seems  almost  needless  for  me  here  to  enter  further 
into  this  controversy,   in  which,   to  my  mind,  as  already  stated 
in  the    Introductory   Chapter,  the   whole    weight   of   the    argu- 
ment is  in  favour  of  a  pre-Roman  origin  for  these    swords  in 
Western  and  Northern  Europe.     There  was  no  doubt  a  time  when 
bronze  swords  were  in  use  in  Greece  and  Italy,  and  the  substitu- 
tion of  iron  or  steel  for  bronze,  so  far  as  we  can  judge  from  the 
early  iron  swords  found  in  the  ancient  cemetery  at  Hallstatt  and 

♦  Arch.  Aisoc,  Journ.y  vol.  iii.  p.  60.  f  A.  A.  J.,  vol.  xv.  p.  230. 

X  "  On  tho  Truo  Assignation  of  the  Bronze  Weapons,"  &c.,  Trans,  Ethn.  Soe,,  N.S., 
to',  iv.  p.  176.     The  Celt,  Roman  and  Saxon,  2nd  Ed.  p.  7,  et  neqq, 

§  "  Catal.  Lond.  Ant.,"  p.  80.  ||  Proe.  Sor.  Ant.  Scot.,  vol.  ii.  p   72 

H  **Preh.  Times,"  4th  Ed.  p.  17;  Trans.  Ethn,  Soc.,  N.S.,  vol.  v.  p.  105. 


THE   ROMAN   SWORD.  275 

elsewhere,  involved  little  if  any  alteration  in  the  fonn  and  character 
of  the  weapon,  which  was  better  adapted  for  thrusting  than  for 
striking.  Even  here  in  Britain,  by  the  time  when  the  Roman 
invasion  took  place,  not  only  were  swords  made  of  iron  in  use,  but 
the  form  of  what  is  known  as  the  Late-Celtic*  sword  was  no 
longer  leaf-shaped,  but  slightly  tapering,  with  the  edges  nearly 
straight  almost  as  fieur  as  the  point.  Among  the  Romans  it 
would  seem  that  more  than  one  change  was  made  in  the  form 
of  their  swords  after  the  introduction  of  iron  as  the  material 
from  which  they  were  formed.  As  Mr.  Rhind  has  pointed 
out,  Polybius  speaks  of  the  swords  wielded  by  the  soldiers  of 
iEmilius  at  the  battle  of  Telamon,  b.c.  225,  as  made  not  only  to 
thrust  but  to  give  a  falling  stroke  with  singular  effect  ''  During 
the  Second  Punic  War,  however,  which  immediately  succeeded  the 
battle  of  Telamon,  the  Romans  adopted  the  Spanish  sword,"  the 
material  of  which  we  have  no  difficulty  in  definitely  ascertaining,  as 
"Diodorus  Siculust  particularly  mentions  the  process  by  which  the 
Celtiberians  prepared  their  iron  for  the  purpose  of  manufacturing 
swords  so  tempered  that  neither  shield,  helmet,  nor  bone  could  resist 
them."  How  far  their  process  of  burying  iron  underground  until 
a  part  of  it  had  rusted  away  would,  in  the  case  of  charcoal  iron, 
leave  the  remaining  portion  more  of  the  nature  of  steel,  I  am  un- 
able to  say.  Perhaps  the  amount  of  manipulation  in  charcoal 
necessary  to  restore  the  rusted  plates  to  a  serviceable  condition 
may  have  produced  this  effect  of  converting  the  iron  into  mild  steeL 
The  steel  of  the  sabres  made  in  Japan,  j:  which  will  cut  through  an 
iron  nail  without  their  edge  being  injured,  is  said  to  be  prepared 
in  a  similar  manner  from  iron  long  buried  underground. 

Most  of  the  bronze  swords  are  shorter  than  those  of  the  present 
day ;  but  the  Roman  sword  would,  in  the  time  of  Julius,  appear  to 
have  been  longer  than  ours.  Otherwise  Cicero's  joke  about  his  son- 
in-law,  Lentulus,  would  have  but  little  point,  however  small  in 
person  he  may  have  been.  Indeed,  Macrobius§  expressly  s%}'s  that 
it  was  a  long  sword  that  Lentulus  was  wearing  when  Gcero  made 
the  inquiry.  Who  has  tied  my  son-in-law  to  a  sword  ? 

The  swords  in  use  among  the  Britons  at  a  somewhat  later  period 
appear  to  have  been  of  great  size,  for  Tacitus  speaks  of  them  as 
ingentes  "  and  "  enormes."     They  were  also  bluntly  pointed,  or 
sine  mucrone."     Such  a  description  is  entirely  inconsistent  with 

*  See  "  Hand  Fenlee,"  pit.  xiv.,  zv.,  and  xviii.  t  Lib.  v.  c.  33. 

t  Beckman,  **  History  of  InyentioDA,"  vol.  u.  p.  328.      §  **  Saturn.,"  lib.  ii.  cap.  3. 

t2 


« 


276  LXAF-^LkFD  sw»&  [chap.  xn. 

the  ftwm  and  me  of  oar  bmae  swmiaL  thciiigii  it  nu^it  wdl  lefier 
to  9omft  of  die  iroa  biaiies  of  tiie  Lise^Tdtie  Fioiod.  which  are  Sfi^et 
in  length.     OrhiTs  are.  hower^r.  shorter. 

Of  the  compazadre  nrirr  oc  fanxue  swords  in  Italy,  and  of  their 
abundance  in  ScandmaTia  and  Iidaod.  eoontzies  nerer  oocnpied 
by  the  Romans.  Sir  John  Labboek^  has  already  qwhen ;  and  he 
has  alao  sommanzed  the  reasons  which  conTince  him,  as  they  do 
me,  that  onr  bronze  wes^wns  cannot  be  refenned  to  Roman  times. 
I  win  only  repeat  one  of  the  argmnents.  of  whk^  perhaps  not 
snffieient  use  has  faeiai  made.  It  is  that  at  the  time  when  Jnlins 
Caesar  was  inTsding  Britain,  and  its  inhabitants  were  thus  for  the 
first  time  brought  in  contact  with  Roman  weapons^  inm  had  been 
so  long  in  nse  for  swords  in  Italy  that  the  term  for  the  weapon 
was  "fernun." 

Another  feature  in  bronze  swords,  which  has  been  frequently 
commented  on  by  archsological  writers,  is  the  comparatiyely  small 
size  of  the  hilt.     *^  The  handles  are  alwavs  yery  small,  a  hct  which 
tends  to  prore  that  the  men  who  used  these  swords  were  but  oi 
moderate  stature."  f     '*  The  handles  ol  the  bvonze  swords  are  veiy"^ 
short  and  couLl  not  have  been  held  comfortably  by  hands  as  large 
as  ours — a  characteristic  much  relied  on  hv  those  who  attributes 
the  introduction  of  bronze  into  Europe  to  a  people  of  Asiatics 
origin.   ^ 

I  must  confess  that  I  regard  this  Tiew  of  the  smallness  of  the 
hilts  as  being  somewhat  exaggerated  My  own  hand  is  none  of 
the  smallest,  and  vet  where  the  bronze  hUts  of  the  Danish  and 
Hungarian  swords  have  been  preserved  I  have  no  difiSculty  in 
finding  room  to  clasp  them.  The  part  of  the  hilt  where  it  expands 
to  embrace  the  base  of  the  blade  was,  I  think,  probably  intended 
to  be  within  the  grasp  of  the  hand,  and  not  to  be  beyond  it  as  a 
guard.  In  the  case  of  some  of  the  short  dagger-like  weapons  it 
seems  possible  that  the  projecting  rim,  which  forms  a  kind  of 
jK^mmel  at  the  end  of  the  hilt,  was  intended  to  rest  between  the 
fourth  and  the  little  finger,  and  thus  to  assist  in  its  being  grasped 
finnly  when  in  use  as  a  stabbing  weapon.  WTien  the  plates  of 
horn  or  wowl,  which,  as  we  shall  subsequently  see,  once  covered 
the  hilt  portion  of  the  sword,  have  perished,  it  is  hard  to  realise 
wliat  was  the  exact  form  of  the  hilt ;  but  it  is  quite  evident  that 
we  must  not  assume  that  because  the  bare  bronze  does  not  fill  the 

•  "  Proh.  Timoii,"  p.  22.  f  Woraaae's  "  Prim.  Ant.  of  Denmark,"  p.  29. 

X  Lubbock,  "Preh.  Times,"  p.  32. 


HILTS  FBOPORTIOKAL  TO  BLADES.  277 

Iiand  so  as  to  give  it  a  good  grip>  the  same  was  the  case  when  it 
had  a  plate  of  some  other  material  on  each  face,  which  also  possibly 
projected  beyond  the  sides. 

There  is,  moreover,  one  peculiarity  about  the  hilt-plates  of  these 
swords  which  I  have  often  pointed  out  by  word  of  mouth,  but 
which  I  think  has  not  as  yet  been  noticed  in  print.  It  is  that 
there  is  generally,  though  not  universally,  a  proportion  between 
the  length  of  the  blade  and  the  length  of  the  hilt-plate ;  long  sword 
blades  having  as  a  rule  long  hilt-plates,  and  short  sword  blades 
short  hilt-plates.  So  closely  is  this  kind  of  proportion  preserved, 
that  the  outline  of  a  large  sword  on  the  scale  of  one-sixth  would 
in  some  cases  almost  absolutely  correspond  with  that  of  one  which 
was  two-thirds  of  its  length,  if  drawn  on  the  scale  of  one-fourth. 

This  relative  proportion  between  the  length  and  size  of  a  blade 
and  its  handle  is  by  no  means  restricted  to  the  swords  of  the 
Bronze  Period,  but  prevails  also  among  various  tools,  such  as  the 
saws  and  chisels  of  the  present  day.  If,  for  instance,  we  were  to 
argue  from  the  saw-handles  in  a  carpenter's  shop  as  to  the  size  of 
the  hands  of  the  carpenters,  we  should  soon  find  ourselves  in 
difficulties.  The  handle  of  an  ordinary  hand-saw  is  sufficiently 
large  to  admit  the  hand  of  any  one  short  of  a  giant,  while  the 
orifice  in  the  handle  of  a  small  keyhole-saw  will  not  admit  more 
than  a  couple  of  fingers,  and  the  handles  of  saws  of  intermediate 
size  range  between  these  two  extremes.  This  fact  suffices  to  incul- 
cate caution  in  arguing  from  the  hilt-plates  of  the  bronze  swords 
as  to  the  size  of  the  hands  of  those  who  used  them.  It  is  a 
question  which  will  be  more  safely  determined  on  osteological  than 
archffiological  evidence ;  but,  owing  to  the  remarkable  absence  of 
bronze  swords  from  the  interments  in  our  barrows,  it  may  be  some 
time  before  a  sword  and  the  bones  of  the  hand  that  wielded  it 
are  found  in  juxtaposition. 

Professor  Rolleston*  has  well  said,  "  I  am  not  quite  clear  that 
this  bronze  sword,  leaf-shaped  or  other,  has  always  a  very  small 
hilt."  "At  any  rate,  there  can  be  no  doubt  that  in  this  country  the 
skeletons  of  the  Bronze  Period  belonged  to  much  larger  and 
stronger  and  taller  men  than  did  the  skeletons  of  the  Long  Barrow 
stone-using  folk  who  preceded  them.  In  some  parts  of  England 
the  contrast  in  this  matter  of  size  between  the  men  of  the  Bronze 
and  those  of  the  Stone  Age  is  as  great  as  that  now  existing  between 
the  Maori  and  the  gentle  Hindoo." 

*  Ihint,  Briit,  and  Olcm,  Arch,  Soc, 


78  LBAF-BHAPED   SWORDS  [CHAP.  XII. 

The  stature  of  several  of  the  men  interred  in  the  Yorkshire 
barrows,  examined  by  Canon  Greenwell,  was  not  leas 
than  five  feet  nine  inches,  and  the  bones  of  the  hands 
were  proportional  to  those  of  the  bodies ;  but,  unfor- 
tunately, no  bronze  swords  accompanied  them,  though 
many  of  the  interments  were  of  the  Bronze  Age. 

The  usual  form  of  sword  to  which  the  term  "  leaf- 
shaped  "  has  been  applied  is  that  shown  in  Fig.  342. 
Their  total  length  is  generally  about  2  4  inches,  though 
sometimes  not  more  than  16  inches,  but  they  are 
occasionally  as  long  as  SO  inches,  or  even  mot& 
The  blades  are  in  most  cases  uniformly  rounded,  but 
with  the  part  next  the  edge  slightly  drawn  down  so 
as  to  form  a  shallow  fluting.  In  some  instances,  how- 
ever, there  is  a  more  or  less  bold  rounded  central  rib, 
or  else  projecting  ridges  running  along  the  greater 
part  of  the  blade  near  the  edges.  They  differ  consi- 
derably in  the  form  of  the  plate  for  the  hilt,  and  Id 
the  number  and  arrangement  of  the  rivets  by  which 
the  covering  material  was  attached.  This  latter,  as 
will  subsequently  be  seen,  usually  consisted  of  plates 
of  horn,  bone,  or  wood,  riveted  on  each  side  of  the 
hilt-plate.  In  rare  instances  the  outer  part  of  the 
hilt  was  of  bronze.  Of  the  scabbards  of  such  swords 
and  the  chapes  attached  to  them  I  shall  subsequently 
speak. 

The  Bword  shown  in  Fiff.  342  was  found  about  the  year 
1864  in  the  Thames,  near  Battersea  Bridge,  and  is  now  in 
my  own  collection.  Its  length,  is  25^  inchee,  and  the  blade 
is  2^  inches  broad  in  its  broadest  part,  though  at  the  top  of 
the  hilt  it  is  2|  inches  in  breadth.  Just  above  this  point 
the  edge  of  the  blade  has  been  removed  ao  as  to  form  two 
broad  notches,  the  object  being  probably  to  save  the  band 
of  the  warrior  from  being  cut  should  the  sword  be  drawn 
back  in  his  hand,  there  Deing  apparently  no  transverse 
guard.  The  hilt  has  been  attached  by  rivets  or  pins  pass- 
ing through  three  longitudinal  slots,  which  have  been  pro- 
duced in  the  casting,  and  not  subsequently  drilled  or  made. 
The  hilt-plate  expands  into  a  kind  of  fish-tail  termination, 
which  was  probably  enclosed  in  a  pommel-like  end  formed 
by  the  plates  of  horn,  or  other  material,  of  which  the  hilt 
was  made. 
^  I  have  another  sword,  about  21  inches  in  length,  which 

**itt^l'*^     ^aa  found  in  the  year  1851  near  the  circular  encampment 


WITH    CENTRAL   SLOTS   IN    HILT. 


&t  Hawridge,  on  the  soath-eastem  border  of  Buckingham- 
diire.  The  hilt-pUte  ia  of  the  same  character  as  mat  of 
Fig.  342,  but  the  lower  slot  ia  longer  and  the  upper  ones 
■hortOT.  In  the  latter  were  found  the  bronze  nveta  for 
faataning  on  the  hilt.  Thig  blade  ia  figured  on  a  small  scale 
in  the  Profeedingt  of  the  Society  of  Antiqaariet.* 

Another  eword  (22  inches)  of  the  same  character,  with 
three  pointed  oval  slots  for  the  rivets,  waa  found  at  Wash- 
ingborough,'!'  Lincolnahire.  Two  other  leai-ahaped  sworda 
were  found  near  the  same  spot.  Another  (24  inches),  found 
near  Midsummer  Norton,^  Somerset,  haa  the  central  slot 
nearly  rectangular. 

The  central  slot  is  sometimes  accompanied  br  two  or  more 
rivet-holes  in  the  projectiag  wings  of  the  hilt-plate.  A 
Bword  (24  inches)  with  two  rivets  was  found  between  Wood- 
lands and  Ghissage  St.  Michael, §  Dorset.  Another,  broken, 
was  found,  with  fragments  of  others,  socketed  celte,  spear- 
heads, a  sickle,  and  other  objects,  near  the  Pierre  du  Villain, 
Aldemey.ll 

'"     ■  incl     , 

1  Collection,  has  a  long  rectangular  slot  and 
four  rivets.  One  of  two  (24  inches),  found  in  broken  condi- 
tion, with  a  spear-head  and  two  ferrules,  on  Fulboum  Com- 
mon,** near  Cambridge,  waa  of  thia  type.  Another,  from 
Aldreth,  Cambe.  (23}-  inchea),  is  in  the  Museum  of  the  Gam- 
bridge  Antiquarian  Society. 

I  have  an  example,  originallT  26  inchea  long,  found  with 
a  leaf-nhaped  spear-head  near  Weymouth. 

The  type  occurs  also  in  France.  I  have  one  (18}  inches), 
with  a  slot  and  four  rivets,  from  Albert,  near  Amiens. 
Another  waa  found  near  Argenteuil,|t  Seine  et  Oiae.  I 
have  seen  a  bronze  sword  from  Spain,  also  with  the  three 
dots. 

In  the  collection  of  Canon  Greenwell,  F.R.8.,  is  a  re- 
markably fine  sword  (27J  inches)  from  Barrow,  Suffolk,  in 
which  the  long  slot  in  the  hilt-plate  is  combined  with  ten 
small  rivet-holea.  The  central  ndge  on  the  blade  ie  well 
pronounced,  as  will  be  seen  by  Fig,  343.  The  blunted  part 
of  the  blade  near  the  hilt  is  engraved  or  milled  diagonally. 
The  number  of  rivets  is  here  larger  than  usual ;  but  in  a 
Bword  (2Si  inchea)  from  the  Thames,  near  Yauzhall,^^  there 
are  five  rivet-holea  in  the  centre  of  the  plate  in  lieu  of  the 
slot,  and  four  in  each  of  the  wings— thirteen  in  all.  In 
onothw  (23^  inches)  from  the  same  locality  there  are  eleven, 

>.  216. 

"     "  p.  263 ;  vol.  XV.  230.  pi.  23,  6. 
X  Somertt  Areh.  and  N.  H.  Sot.  Prut.,  vol.  xxii.  p.  70,  pi.  iii. 

IAnk.  Auoe.  Jount.,  vol.  xv.  p.  2i9,  pi.  23,  3. 
Of.  at.,  vol.  iii.  p.  9. 
1  Op.  eit,,  vol.  xiv.  p.  328,  pi.  xxiv.  6. 
••  jirdi.,  vol.  Di.  p.  B8,  pi.  iv. 
tt  St.  Arth.,  N.S.,  vol.  V.  pi.  ix.  1. 
It  Artk.  Ante.  Jaum.,  vol.  iii.  p.  60. 


280  LEAF-SHAPED  8WOBD6  [CHAP.  XIL 

three  in  each  wing  and  five  in  the  centre.  One  ^27  inches)  from  the 
Thames,  in  the  Museum  of  the  Society  of  Antiquanes,  has  ten  rivets,  of 
which  four  are  in  the  centre. 

Another  (28^  inches)  with  ten  riyet-holes,  four  in  the  hilt-plate  and 
three  in  each  wing,  was  found  in  the  Thames*  in  1856,  and  is  in  the 
British  Museum. 

A  sword  from  the  Eoach  Smith  Collection  (20f  inches)  has  a  well- 
marked  midrib  to  the  blade,  which  is  somewhat  hollowed  on  either  side 
of  it.  The  hilt-plate  has  the  central  slot  and  four  riyet-holes,  in  which 
two  riyets  remain. 

In  the  British  Museum  is  another  sword  (27f  inches)  of  much  the  same 
form  at  the  hilt,  but  with  ten  riyet-holes,  three  in  each  wing  and  four  in 
the  central  plate,  which  is  prolonged  beyond  the  fishtail-like  expansion  in 
the  form  of  a  flat  tang,  1  inch  by  f  inch.  It  was  foimd  in  the  Lea,t  near 
London.  The  lower  part  of  the  hilt  has  been  united  to  the  blade  by  a 
subsequent  process  of  bumine^  on,  as  will  shortly  be  mentioned. 

This  prolongation  of  the  hilt-plate  is  not  singular.  In  the  Bouen 
Museum  is  a  sword  with  thirteen  riyets  which  exhibits  this  peculiarity. 
The  same  exists  in  a  Swiss  Lake  ^  sword,  and  is  not  imcommon  in  swords 
found  in  Italy. 

Another  sword  from  the  Thames  (23  inches)  has  fiye  holes  in  the  hilt- 
plate  and  four  in  each  wing.  The  blade,  which  expands  from  1^  inch 
near  the  hilt  to  2^  inches  at  two-thirds  of  its  length,  is  ornamented  with 
a  single  engrayed  line  skirting  the  edge. 

In  the  British  Museum  is  another  remarkably  fine  sword  from  the 
Thames,  ornamented  in  a  similar  manner,  but  with  a  slot  in  the  hilt-plate 
and  three  riyet-holes  in  each  wing.  The  blade  is  24i^  inches  long  and 
from  li  inch  to  2f  inches  wide. 

Ano^er,  from  Battle,  Sussex  (29^  inches),  has  eleyen  riyets,  three  in 
the  hilt-plate,  which  is  in  form  much  like  that  of  Fig.  343.  The  blade  is 
drawn  down  towards  the  edges.  The  lower  end  shows  where  the  runner 
was  broken  off  after  it  was  cast,  and  is  left  quite  rough,  thus  raising  the 
presumption  that  it  was  covered  by  some  kmd  of  pommel.  Five  riyets 
are  still  preserved. 

A  sword  from  the  Medway,  at  Upnor  Beach,  is  31^  inches  long  and 
li  inch  wide  at  the  broadest  part.  It  has  no  less  than  fifteen  riyet-holes 
for  the  hut,  in  three  groups  of  five  each. 

One  from  the  Thames  (28 1  inches),  with  plain  blade  and  thirteen  riyet- 
holes,  has  fiye  small  rivets  still  in  situ. 

More  commonly  the  rivet-holes  are  fewer  in  number.  One  (24^-  inches) 
in  Canon  Green  well's  Collection,  from  Broadway  Tower,  Broadway, 
Worcester,  has  nine  rivet-holes,  three  in  the  tang  and  three  in  each  wing. 
One  from  the  Thames  at  Battersea  §  (26  inches),  and  one  from  Ebberston, 
Yorkshire,  in  the  Bateman  Collection,  have  the  rivets  arranged  in  the 
same  manner,  as  has  one  which  was  found  near  Whittingham,  ||  Northimi- 
berland,  with  another  sword  subsequently  to  be  described,  and  also  with 
three  spear-heads. 

♦  See  "HoraB  Fer.,"  pi.  ix.  2,  p.  161. 

t  Froe.  Soe.  Ant.,  2nd  S.,  vol.  ii.  p.  60 ;  Areh,  Joum.y  vol.  xix.  p.  91. 

X  Keller,  8ter  Bericht,  Taf.  iii.  1. 

j  Arch.  Assoc.  Joum.,  vol.  xiv.  p.  329 ;  op.  cit.,  vol.  xxii.  p.  244. 

IJ  I*roe.  Soc.  Ant.y  2iid  S.,  vol.  v.  p.  429. 


WITH  MANY   RIVET-HOLKS. 


281 


ve  one  (19  inclies)  with  eight  rivet-holes,  four  in  the 
and  two  in  each  wing,  found  near  Cambridge.  The 
appear  to  have  been  either  made  or  enlarged  by  a 
naving  been  driven  through  them,  the  rough  burr 
Left  on.  On  either  side  of  the  central  ridge  of  the  blade 
s  a  pair  of  engraved  lines  parallel  to  the  ed^es  and  at 
i  inch  distant  from  them.  The  base  of  the  blade  next 
pansion  for  the  hilt  has  been  neatly  serrated  or  en- 
1,  like  that  of  the  sword  from  Barrow,  but  in  this 
ransversely.  Unfortunately  this  blade,  which  is  beau- 
patinated,  has  been  broken  into  three  pieces, 
ich  swords  of  this  class,  both  with  a  ceni3*al  slot  com- 
with  rivets  and  with  rivets  only,  are  by  no  means 
mon.  Specimens  of  each,  from  the  department  of 
dt  Oise,  are  figured  in  the  **  Dictionnaire  Archeologique 
Gaule."  One  with  a  slot  and  four  rivets  is  in  the 
m  at  Nantes.  Two  with  seven  rivet-holes  were  found 
Nazaire-sur-Loire  *  (Loire  Inferieure). 
m  is,  indeed,  a  more  usual  number  for  the  rivet-holes 
ny  of  these  higher  numbers.  In  Fig.  344  is  shown  a 
;ample  of  a  sword  with  seven  rivet-holes,  found  in  the 
near  Newcastle,  and  now  in  the  collection  of  Canon 
^ell,  F.K.S.  It  is  28  inches  in  length,  and  has  a  bead 
just  within  the  edges,  which  is  somewhat  exaggerated 
figure.  The  hilt-plate  is  provided  with  slie-ht  flanges 
;aining  the  horn  or  wood  that  formed  the  hut,  and  has 
circular  notch  at  the  base,  possibly  for  the  reception  of 
.     See  Fig.  356. 

^ord  from  the  Thames  near  Battersea  (28  2  inches),  in 
*itish  Museum,  is  of  nearly  the  same  form  as  Fig.  344, 
e  end  of  the  hilt-plate  has  no  notch,  and  there  is  no 
•  running  down  it.  The  hilt  has  been  fastened  by 
rivets,  which  fit  tightly  in  the  holes  and  are  nearly  aU 
ition.  Their  ends  have  conical  depressions  in  them, 
pimch  had  been  used  as  a  riveting  tool.  In  some  the 
have  been  closed  by  a  hollow  punch,  so  as  to  leave  a 
stud  projecting  in  the  middle  of  each  surrounded  by 
hollow  ring.  Some  French  swords  present  the  same 
irity. 

vord  of  the  same  form  (23j^  inches),  but  with  a  plain 
and  only  five  small  rivet-holes,  was  found  in  the  Med- 
:  Chatham  Beach,  and  is  now  in  the  same  collection. 
It  seems  to  have  been  burnt  on. 

word  of  this  form  (25^^  inches),  with  raised  ridges 
)1  to  the  edges,  has  a  rounded  end  to  the  hilt-plate  and 
'or  six  very  small  pins  or  rivets  at  the  base  and  for  one 
>ne.  The  hilt-plate  has  been  much  hammered.  It  was 
in  the  Thames.  A  second  (24  j^  inches),  almost  identical 
ry  respect,  has  retained  five  of  its  pins, 
re  are  two  swords  in  the  Norwich  Museum,  each  of 
with  seven  rivet-holes,  both  21^  inches  long,  but  the 

*  £ev.  Arch.,  vol.  xxxiii.  p.  231. 


Hg.  844.— New- 
oaetlt.    i 


282  LEAF-SHAPED  SWORDS  [CHAP.  XII. 

one  found  at  Woolpit,  Suffolk,  and  the  other  at  Windsor.  One  of 
the  swords  found  at  Fulboum,*  Cambridge,  had  its  rivets  arraliged 
as  in  Fig.  344.  The  blade  is  somewhat  fluted  between  the  centnl 
ridge  and  has  smaller  ridges  running  parallel  to  the  edges.  An- 
other (23j^  inches),  found  in  Glamorganshire,!  is  of  the  same  character. 
Another  like  this  was  foimd  in  the  bed  of  the  Lark,t  at  Icklingham, 
Suffolk. 

I  haye  two  swords  (about  23  inches)  with  seven  rivet-holes,  which  were 
found  with  spear-heads,  a  halberd,  and  other  objects  at  Stoke  Ferry, 
Norfolk.  They  are  unfortunately  broken.  One  of  them  appears  to  have 
been  a  defective  casting,  and  to  have  wanted  a  portion  of  its  hilt-plate. 
This  has  been  subsequently  supplied  by  a  second  lult-plate  having  been 
cast  over  the  broken  end  of  the  original  plate,  a  hole  m  which  has  been 
stopped  with  a  rivet,  which  has  been  partly  covered  over  by  the  metal  of 
the  second  casting.  This  is  not  an  unique  instance  of  mending  by 
burning  on  additional  metal.  I  have  a  small  leaf -shaped  sword  (17i 
inches),  for  whidi  I  am  indebted  to  the  Earl  of  Enniskillen,  found  near 
Thomnill,  KiUina,  Co.  Cavan,  which  has  in  old  times  had  a  new  hilt-plate 
cast  on  the  original  blade  in  this  manner. 

Other  sworou3  with  seven  rivet-holes  arranged  as  in  Fig.  344  have 
been  found  near  Alton  Castle,  ||  Staffordshire,  and  at  Billinghay,§ 
Lincoln. 

A  sword  with  six  rivet-holes  (23  inches)  was  found  near  Cranboume,^ 
Dorset.  Another  of  the  same  length  was  dug  up  at  Stiff ord,**  near  Gray's 
Thurrock,  Essex.  Another  (20j^  inches)  was  found  in  the  Severn  f f  at 
Buildwas,  Salop.  The  rivet-holes  are  two  in  the  middle  and  two  in  each 
wing. 

A  leaf-shaped  sword,  the  hilt  broken  off,  but  the  blade  still  22^  inches 
long,  was  found  with  a  bronze  spear-head,  a  palstave,  and  a  long  pin,  in 
the  Thames,  Jf  near  the  mouth  of  the  Wandle.  It  is  now  in  the  British 
Museum. 

A  sword  with  the  hilt-plate  like  that  of  Fig.  344  has  been  found  in 
Bhenish  He8se.§§ 

Another  variety  of  the  sword  has  a  strong  central  rounded  rib  along 
the  blade,  of  which  kind  a  good  example  is  shown  in  Fig.  345.  The 
original  is  in  the  collection  of  Mr.  Eobert  Fitch,  F.S.A.,  who  has  kindly 
lent  it  to  me  for  engraving.  It  was  found  at  Wetheringsett,{|||  Suffolk, 
and  is  said  to  have  had  remains  of  a  wooden  hilt  and  scabbard  attached 
to  it  when  found.  Human  bones  are  also  reported  to  have  been  found 
near  it.  It  is  25^  inches  long,  with  engraved  lines  on  the  hilt,  and 
has  only  two  rivet-holes  besides  the  ceni3*al  square-ended  slot. 

Mr.  Fisher,  of  Ely,  has  a  sword  of  the  same  character  (25  inches),  but 
with  four  rivets  and  a  slot,  found  in  the  Fens  near  Ely. 

A  fragment  of  what  appears  to  have  been  a  sword  of  the  same  character, 

♦  Arch.,  vol.  xix.  p.  66,  pi.  iv. ;  Skelton's  "Meyrick's  Anc.  Armour,'*  pi.  xlvii.  14. 

t  Arch.  Joum.y  vol.  iii.  p.  67 ;  Arch.,  xliii.  p.  480. 

{  Burif  and  West  Suff.  Proc.,  i.  p.  24.  §  "  Reliquary,"  vol.  iii.  p.  219. 

II  Arch.f  vol.  xi.  p.  431,  pi.  xix.  9. 

51  Arch,  Assoc.  Joum.,  vol.  xv.  ^.  229,  pi.  xxiii.  2. 

♦•  Proc.  Soc,  Ant.,  2nd  S.,  vol.  iii.  p.  406;  Arch.  Joum.,  vol.  xxvi.  p.  191. 

ff-  "Horse  Fer.,"  pi.  ix.  6,  p.  162.  XX  Arch.  Joum.,  vol.  ix.  p.  7. 

§§  Lindenschmit,  **A.  u.  h.  V.,'*  vol.  i.  Heft  iii.  Taf.  iii.  6. 

Iljj  Areh.  Assoc.  Journ. ,yol.  iii.  p.  264;  xv.  p.  230,  pi.  xxiii.  No.  4. 


WITH   CENTRAL    RIB    OS    BLADE. 

b  two  liret-holea  inetead  of  the  central  slot,  was 

vith  socketed  celts  and  spear-heads  at  Bilton,* 

ire. 

e  a  fragment  of  a  blade  of  this  kind  in  the  Seach 

ird.     Another  fragment,  from  Chrishall,  Essex,  is 

British   Museum,    as  is  also   one  found    under 

Head.f  It  has  two  rivet-holes  in  each  wing, 
Tee  considerably  larger  in  the  centre.     They  ap- 

be  cast,  and  not  drilled.  With  this  fragment 
)und  palstaves,  socketed  eelte,  lumps  of  copper, 
d  armlets. 

type  also  occurs  in  France.  I  have  a  specimen 
le  Seine  at  Paris,  with  the  hilt  and  lower  part 
identical  with  Fig.  346,  but  the  blade  does  not 
in  the  same  manner,  and  has  two  lines  engraved 

side  of  the  central  rib,  the  inner  pair  meeting 
rib  some  little  way  from  the  point,  the  outer  con- 
»  nearly  the  end  of  the  blade.  1  liavo  fragments 
ord  of  similar  character  from  the  hoard  found  at 
near  Amiens.  The  fragment  from  Beachy  Head 
mentioned  may  possibly  be  of  Gaulish  origin. 

in  Italian  oblong  bronze  coin  or  quincussis, 
les  by  3^  inches,  and  weighing  about  3^  lbs., 
'epresentatioD  of  a  leaf-shaped  sword  with  a 
rib   along  the  centre  of  the  blade,  and  in 

character  much  like  Fig.  345.     A  specimen 

coin  13  in  the  British  Museum,+  and  bears 
he   reverse   the  figure  of  a  scabbard  with 

sides,  and  a  nearly  circular  chape.  Another 
'  the  same  type,  engraved  by  Carelli,§  has  a 
;imilar  scabbard  on  the  reverse,  but  the  swonl 

obverse  is  either  represented  as  being  in  its 
■d  or  is  not  at  all  leaf-shaped,  the  sides  of  the 
)eing  parallel.  The  hilt  is  also  curved,  and 
!  a  cross-guard.  In  fact,  upon  the  one  coin, 
ipon  has  the  appearance  of  a  Roman  sword 

and  on  the  other  that  of  a  leaf-shaped  sword 
Qze.  These  pieces  were  no  doubt  cast  in 
t,  probably  in  the  third  century  B.C.,  but  their 
Lion  to  Ariminum  is  at  best  doubtful  From 
I  varieties  of  sword  appearing  on  coins  of  the 
."pe,  the  inference  may  be  drawn  either  that 

*  Arek.  Allot.  Jmtm.,  vol.  v.  p.  349. 
h  Are!,.,  vol.  jri.  p.  363. 
n-^i    „»n_   n      .  ._  n., Kg.  M5.— WethM- 


384  LEAF-SHAPED   BWORD0,  [cHAF.  ZII. 

Bt  the  time  when  they  were  cast,  bronze  swords  were  in  Umbiu 
being  superseded  by  those  of  iron ;  or  that  the  type  originaliy 
referred  to  some  sacred  weapon  of  bronze  such  as  is  represented 
on  the  coin  in  the  British  Museum,  but  was  subsequently  made 
more  conventional  so  as  to  represent  the  sword  in  ordinary  use 
at  the  period. 

The  sword  witii  a  central  rib  was  sometimes  at- 
tached to  the  hilt  in  a  different  manner  from  any 
of  tlie  blades  hitherto  described,  as  will  be  seen 
by  Fig-  346,  copied  from  the  Arehaologieal  Auo- 
eiation  Journal.*  This  sword  was  found  at  Tiver- 
ton, near  Bath,  and  it  is  provided  with,  four 
rivets,  a  pair  on  each  side  of  the  continuation  of 
the  central  rib  along  the  hilt-plate.  Human  re- 
mune  and  Btag's-homs  are  said  to  have  been 
found  near  it. 

In  the  British  Museum  is  a  blade  of  the  same 
kind  (194-  inches],  with  Bemicircular  notches  for 
the  four  rivets.  It  was  found  in  the  Thames  at 
Kingston.  Another  from  the  Thames  (21  inches) 
has  the  two  upper  holes  perfect. 

Leaf-shaped  swords  of  the  ordinary  type  also 
occasionally  had  their  hilts  attached  m  tiie  same 
manner.  Fig.  347  shows  a  blade  from  the 
Thames,!  "^^^  Eingeton  (16^  inches)  with  the 
rivet-holea  thus  arranged.  I  have  another,  from 
the  Hugo  Collection  (18  inches),  found  in  the 
Thames  about  a  mile  west  from  Barking  Greek.J 
which  has  had  four  rivet-holes  arranged  in  the 
same  manner,  though  the  maigins  are  now  broken 
away,  so  that  only  traces  of  the  holes  remain. 
Another  apparently  of  this  type  was  found  in 
Lincolnshire.! 

In  Canon  Greenwell's  Collection  is  a  leaf-shaped  , 
blade  of  the  same  character  (15}  inches),  which, 
however,  has  only  two  rivet-holes,  one  on  each 
side  of  the  hilt-plate.  It  was  found  at  Sand- 
ford,  ||  near  Oiford,  together  with  a  rapier-shaped 
blade. 

Another  variety  has  a  narrower  tang  and  rivet    Tirfnon.' )     Ki^tS;.  t 
holes  in  tie  median  line.     A  blade  of  this  kind, 

which  is  in  Mr.  Layton's  Collection,  was  found  in  the  Thames  at 
Greenwich,  and  is  engraved  in  the  Arckaologieal  Journal.^ 

Before  proceeding  to  the  consideration  of  the  swords  with  more  perfect 
hilts  and  pommela  found  in  England,  it  will  be  well  to  give  references  to 

•  Vol.  iv.  p.  1*7  :  vol.  iu.  p.  33). 

t  Areh.  JoHrn.,  vol.  v.  p.  327 ;  Pmc.  Sac.  Ant.,  2nd  S.,  vol.  i.  p.  83,  No.  U. 

J  Fror.  Sot.  A'll.,  2nd  S.,  Tol.  i.  p.  *4- 

!  Arri.  JaurH.,  vol.  lix.  p.  91.  H   Arek.  Jeurn.,  vol.  ixiiv.  p.  301. 

It  Auth.  iMt.  Jwra.,  vol.  iu.  p.  230. 


LOCALITIES  WHERE  FOUND.  285 

ome  of  the  other  instances  of  leaf -shaped  swords  found  in  this  country 
nd  in  Wales.  Several  have  been  found  in  the  Thames  *  besides  those 
Iready  mentioned.  Others  have  been  discovered  in  the  Isle  of  Portland ;  f 
it  Brixworth,!  Northamptonshire ;  and  in  the  sea-dike  bank  between 
?leet  and  Gkldney,§  Lincolnshire.  Two,  one  with  the  chape  of  the 
icabbard,  of  which  more  hereafter,  were  found  at  Ebberston,||  Yorkshire. 

Two  were  foimd  at  Ewart  Park,f  near  Wooler,  Northumberland,  one 
of  which  is  in  the  Museum  of  the  Society  of  Antiquaries  of  Newcastle-on- 
Tyne. 

Some  fragments  of  swords,  regarded  as  bein^  of  copper,  were  found, 
wiUi  spear-heads,  celts,  and  lumps  of  metal,  at  Lanant,**  and  also  at  St. 
Hilaiy,  Cornwall,  about  the  year  1802. 

There  were  also  some  fragments  in  the  Broadward  find,ff  Shropshire, 
which  consisted  principally  of  spear-heads  and  ferrules.  Occasionally  a 
ooQsiderable  nimiber  of  swords  are  said  to  have  been  foimd  together. 
No  less  than  twenty  are  reported  to  have  been  discovered  about  the  year 
1736  near  Alnwick  Castle,  |^  in  company  with  forty-one  socketed  celts  and 
ozieen  spear-heads ;  and  two  broaa  swords,  one  sharp-pointed  sword,  a 

SEur-point,  and  a  socketed  celt  were  found  '*  in  a  bimdle  together  "  at 
bleside,  Westmoreland,  §§  about  1741. 

Two  swords,  some  spear-neads,  celts,  and  other  relics  were  discovered 
at  8henstone,||||  StafPorashire,  in  1824.  Near  them  are  said  to  have  been 
aoflaie  fragment  of  human  bones.  Some  swords  are  reported  to  have 
heea  found  in  a  marsh  on  the  Wrekin  Tenement,  ^^  Shropshire,  with  a 
oelt  and  about  one  himdred  and  fifty  fragments  of  spear-heads. 

Two  swords  and  a  fragment  of  a  third  were  found  in  the  Heathery 
Bom  Gave,  in  company  with  numerous  bronze  and  bone  instruments  and 
a  gold  armlet  and  penannular  hollow  bead.  Most  of  these  objects  are 
now  in  the  collection  of  Canon  Greenwell,  F.E.S.  Three  swords  were 
foond  atBranton,  Northumberland,  and  are  now  in  the  Alnwick  Museum ; 
where  are  also  two  which  had  pommels  of  lead,  and  were  found  with 
two  rings  near  Tosson,  parish  of  Eothbury,  in  that  county.  Another, 
which  was  also  accompanied  by  two  rings,  were  found  near  Medomsley, 
Durham.  These  rings  may  in  some  manner  have  served  to  attach  the 
•words  to  a  belt. 

Most  of  the  swords  found  in  Wales  appear  to  be  in  a  fragmentcuy 
condition.  Engravings  of  some  leaf-shaped  swords  are  said  to  exist  on  a 
rock  between  Barmouth  ♦**  and  Dolgellau,  North  Wales. 

A  fragment  of  a  sword  was  found,  with  a  bronze  sheath-end,  looped  pal- 
staves, spear-heads,  and  a  ferrule,  near  Ouilsfield,fft  Montgomeryshire. 
Fragments  of  three  swords  were  found,  with  lance-heads,  ferrules,  a  chape, 
and  other  objects,  at  Glancych,^ f{  Cardiganshire.  They  appear  to  have 
had  six  rivets. 

•  Areh.  Joum,,  vol.  xviii.  p.  168  (24J  inches) ;  Arch.  Assoc,  Joum.,  vol.  xxii.  p.  243 ; 
AnKj  ToL  zzyL  p.  482  (said  to  have  had  a  bone  or  wooden  hUt  when  found). 

t  Areh,  Jowm,^  vol.  xxi.  p.  90.  %  Areh,  Assoc.  Joum,^  vol.  ii.  p.  366. 

i  StiUceley,  "It.  Cur.,"  vol.  i.  p.  14.  ||  Areh,  Assoc,  Joum,,  vol.  xvii.  p.  321. 

%  Areh,  ASiiana,  voL  i.  p.  11,  pi.  iv.  3.  ••  Areh.,  vol.  xv.  p.  118. 

tf  Areh,  Can^,,  4ih  S.,  vol.  iu.  p.  363.  XX  Areh.,  vol.  v.  p.  113. 

§J  Areh,,  vol.  v.  p.  116.  ||||  Arch.,  vol.  xxi.  p.  648. 

VI  Areh,,  voL  xxvi.  p.  464.  *♦*  Areh.  Joum.,  vol.  ix.  p.  91. 

ttt  Proe,  Soc,  Ant.,  2nd  S.,  vol.  ii.  p.  260 ;  Areh,  Camb.,  3rd  S.,  voL  x.  p.  214. 
XXI  Arch.  Cmmk,^  Srd  S.,  vol.  x.  p.  221. 


286  LKAF-8HAFBD   SWORDS  [cHAP.  XIL 

English  swords,  with  the  hilts,  or  pommels,  or  both,  formed  of 
broQzo,  are  not  of  common  occurrence.     The  first  which  I  hi« 
selected  for  illustration  hu 
j  the  side  edges  so  Btiai^ 

that  it  hardly  beloi^  to 
the  class  usually  known » 
leaf-shaped.  Thehilt-plrte 
is  peculiar  in  having  well- 
developed     side     flange! 
which  expand  at  the  base 
so  as   to  form    an  onl 
pommel.     The  hilt  has  u 
usual  been  formed  of  two 
plates  of  bone  or  wood, 
which  have  been  secured 
to  the   hilt-plate  by  six 
rivets.    This  sword,  which 
was  found  in  the    Fens, 
near    Ely,    has    unfortu- 
nately lost  its  point,  but 
is  still  19^  inches  long. 
It  was  lent  me  for  engrav- 
ing (as  Fig.  3-*  8)  by  Mr. 
M.    Fisher,    of   Ely.     In 
some  Dimish  examples  the 
high   flanges  of  the  hilt- 
pljites  are  covered  by  thin 
plates    of    gold,    beyond 
which,  of  course,  the  hilt 
of  Wno,  wood,  or  horn  did 
not  pn^jeot,  and  no  doubt 
in  ihis  ini>tanoe  also  the 
si.ii-  rt:Hig>.'s  wore  left  vi- 
sil>'o  and  not  in  any  way 
iwt'rt\l.     They    are    up- 
war\is    of    4     inches     in 
IiHirth,  so   that  the   hilt 
^t  t^::M    tit     into    a    large 

;"".   bu;  very  in:i"n-i;inj:  swoi\I   »;;h  a  jvriVvt  bronze  hilt 
imel  is  fiiowu  in  Fig.  S4i>.      It  «-as  found  in  the  River 


i 


WITH   HILTS  OF   BRONZE. 


287 


rell,*  and  is  now  in  the  Museum  at  Oxford.     It  was  kindly 

Qe  by  Professor  Rolleston  for  the  purpose  of  engraving.     The 

length  of  the  weapon  is  21  inches,  of  which  the  pommel  and 

v^hich  is  adapted  for  a  decidedly  large  hand,  occupy  about  5 

3.     The  hilt  has  the  appearance  of  having  been  cast  upon 

[ade,  and  seems  to  be  formed  of  bronze  of  the  same 

cter.     There  are  no  rivets  visible  by  which  the  two 

igs  are  attached  the  one  to  the  other. 

im  of  opinion  that  the  same  process  of  attaching 

ilt  to  the  blade  by  casting  the  one  upon  the  other 

n  use  in  Scandinavia  and  Germany.     Some  of  the 

e  daggers  from  Italy  seem  also  to  have  had  their 

cast  upon  the  blades  in  which   the   rivets   were 

ly  fixed. 

the  British  Museum  is  a  sword  blade  with  slight  ribs 

the  edges,  retaining  a  portion  of  the  hilt,  which  is  cast 

Bparate  piece  and  attached  to  the  wings  by  two  rivets. 

said  to  have  been  found  in  the  Thames.f    The  hilt  has 

bs  round  it  at  intervals  of  about  half  an  inch  apart. 

a  fragment  of  a  sword  blade,  ornamented  on  each  side 

ive  parallel  engraved  lines,  the  upper  margin  of  the  hilt 

'ked  out  by  a  raised  and  engrailed  line  of  the  same  form 

upper  end  of  the  lult  of  Fig.  360.     It  was  found  in  the 

near  Wieken,  Cambs,  with  a  part  of  a  scabbard  end, 

heads,  and  other  objects  now  in  the  British  Museunf. 

remarkably  fine  sword,  found  in  the  River  Witham,  J 

Lincoln,  in  1826,  is  shown  in  Fig.  350,  for  the  use  of 

I  am  indebted  to  the  Council  of  the  Society  of  Antiqua- 

The  original  is  in  the  museum  of  the  Duke  of  Northum- 

id,  at  Alnwick.     It  presents  the  pecidiarity  of  having 

>irals  attached  to  the  base  of  the  hilt  with  a  projecting 

etween  them,  the  whole  taking  the  place  of  the  pom- 

The  blade  appears  to  be  engraved  with  parallel  linos 

her  side  of  the  midrib.     These  spirals  are  of  far  more 

on  occurrence  on  the  Ck)ntinent  than  in  Britain,  and  this 

.,  though  found  so  far  north  as  Lincoln,  is  not  impro- 

of  foreign  origin. 

eral  such  have  been  found  in  France.     One  with  the 
s  but  a  different  form  of  hilt    was  foimd    at  AH^, 

)ronze  sword  foimd  in  the  Rhone  at  Lyons,  but  now  in 
useum  at  Rennes,  ||  Brittany,  has  a  nearly  similar  hilt  and  pommel 
s  three  raised  bands  on  the  lult,  but  no  pin  between  the  spirals 
of  the  swords  from  the  Swiss  Lake-dwellmgs  have  similar  hilts 


Fig.  860. 


vm,  Anthrop.  Intt.,  vol.  iii.  p.  204.      t  "  Horae  Fer.,**  pi.  ix.  9,  p.  162. 
•c.  8oe.  Ant.f  vol.  ii.  p.  199.  §  lUv.  Areh.^  N.S.,  vol.  xxiv.  pL 

Antre,  '<  Alb.,"  pi.  ziv.  bit,  3;  Diet,  Arch,  de  la  GauU. 


XXV.  3. 


288 


LEAF-SHAPED  SWORDS 


[chap.  I 


They  have  been  found  at  Concise^*  in  tl 
Lake  of  Neuchatel,  and  in  the  Lac  < 
Lui8sel.t 

Another  of  the  same  kind  is  in  t! 
Johannemn  at  Gratz,  Styria.  The  san 
form  was  also  found  at  Hallstatt}  An 
other  was  found  near  8tettin.§  Anothe 
from  ErxlebenJ  Magdebui^,  is  in  th 
Bnmswick  Museum. 

The  hilt  of  a  sword  with  spirals  an 
a  central  pin  was  f  oimd  in  the  g^reat  Bo 
logna  hoaid.  A  perfect  example  is  in  th 
Boyal  Armoury  at  Turin.^ 

There  are  several  swords  with  this  kin 
of  hilt  in  the  Museum  of  Northern  Ant 
quities  at  Copenhagen,**  some  of  whi< 
are  figured  by  Madsen.-ff  The  spirals  a 
sometimes  found  detached.  A  highly  inl 
resting  paper  by  Dr.  Oscar  Montelius  i 
the  different  fonns  of  hilts  of  bron 
swords  and  daggers  is  published  in  t] 
Stockhohn  volume  of  the  Congress  i 
Prehistoric  Archfeology.  JJ 

The  remarkable  sword  with  a  somewl 
analogous  tennination  to  the  hilt,  shoi 
in  Fig.  351 ,  was  found  at  Thrunton  Farm, 
in  the  parish  of  Whittingham,  Northu: 
berland,  and  is  in  the  collection  of  Lg 
Eavensworth.  With  it  was  found  anotl 
sword  already  mentioned,  a  specur-he 
with  lunate  openings  in  the  blade  (F 
418"^.  and  some  smaller  leaf -shaped  spei 
heads.  They  are  said  to  have  been 
foimd  sticking  in  a  moss  with  the  poii 
downwanis,  and  arranged  in  a  circle.  T 
pommel  end  of  the  hilt  is  in  this  instaz 
a  distinct  casting,  and  is  veiy  remarkal 
on  account  of  the  two  curved  horns  c 

•  KoUor,  :xeT  Boncht  Taf.  in.  4 ;  Ster  Bene 
T»f.  iii,  W :  I\>^-ir  and  Favre,  *•  Le  Bel  Age 
Br.."  pi.  V.  10;  Trovon,  ••Habit.  Lacust 
pi.  i\.  IL 

t  KtUt  r,  Tt*r  B..  Taf.  xxiv.  9. 

*  Von  Saokcn,  -  Gnibf.  v.  Hallst,**  pi.  v.  10. 
M.indonsv-hn;iU   "A.   u.  h.   V.,**   Heft  i.  T 

IK  I. 

I  "  iVit>'^*h.  fur  V*.lhn.."  rcJ.  Tii.  Taf.  x.  2. 

^  -  BuU.  ai  r.^U  t.  It&l-."  anno  ii.,  p.  26. 

••  **  Ai:.^s  for  Nord.  Oidk.,"  pi.  B.  iv.,  40 

AVorsAJic,  "  Noixi.  Old*.."  fig*.  135,  136. 

t-^  "  ,\fiv;*d,"  vol.  ii.  pi.  ▼.  vi. 

*  *  i\  ss*. 

J^*  7Sv.  S/v*.  -4*»f..  2nd  S,.ToL  T.  p.  429;  **1^ 
For,;*  pi.  ix.  fif.  31,  p.  161. 


I^OUND    IN    SCOTLAND.  289 

tending  from  it,  whioh  are  somewhat  trumpet-mouthed,  with  a  projecting 
cone  in  the  centre  of  each. 

In  Scotland  a  number  of  bronze  swords  have  been  found  which 
bear,  as  might  have  been  anticipated,  a  close  resemblance  to  those 
from  England. 

That  shown  in  Fig.  352  was  found  in  a  moss  at  Leuchland,  Brechin, 
in  Angus,  and  is  now  in  the  collection  of  Canon  GreenweU,  F.E.S.  Its 
length  is  26^  inches,  and  the  six  rivets  for  attaching  the  hilt  are  still  in 
the  hilt-plate,  which  is  doubly  hooked  at  the  end.  A  rib  from  the  thicker 
part  of  the  blade  is  prolonged  part  of  the  way  down  the  hilt-plate  as  in 
tig.  344.  Another  sword,  broken  at  the  hilt,  but  still  26^  inches  long, 
iras  found  on  the  same  farm.  A  find  from  Brechin  is  mentioned  further  on. 
1  sword  with  four  rivet-holes,  like  those  from  Arthur's  Seat,  found  on  the 
^orders  between  England  and  Scotland,  and  engraved  by  Orose,*  has  the 
ame  peculiar  end  to  the  hilt-plate,  as  has  one  with  five  rivets  from 
lethlick,  Aberdeenshire,  now  in  the  Antiquarian  Museum  at  Edinburgh. 
hrose  has  also  engraved  two,  each  with  six  rivet-holes  in  the  wings  and 
wo  or  three  in  the  hilt- plate,  foimd  in  Duddingston  Loch,f  near  Edin- 
urg^h,  as  well  as  the  hilt-plate  of  another,  foimd  near  Peebles,  with  slots 
1  tne  wings  and  a  slot  and  rivet-hole  in  the  tang. 

Some  fni^ents  of  swords  from  this  loch  are  in  the  Antiquarian 
[ueeum  at  Edinburgh.  Almost  directly  above  Duddingston  Loch,  on 
jrtliTir's  Seat,]:  two  other  swords  were  foimd  during  the  construction  of  the 
tueen's  Drive.  They  are  26^  inches  and  24 ^  inches  long,  in  outline 
ke  Fig.  342,  with  one  rivet-hole  in  each  wing  and  two  in  me  centre  of 
le  hilt-plate. 

Two  (23}  inches  and  20^  inches)  of  the  usual  character,  with  nine  rivets 
nd  hilts  much  like  Fig.  354,  have  been  found  in  Lanarkshire.  § 

In  Gordon's  ''Itinerarium  Septentrionale"  ||  a  sword  (24^  inches)  found 
eax  Irvine,  Argyleshire,  is  engraved,  as  is  also  one  (26  inches)  found  in 
rraham's  Dvke  near  Oarinn,  which  is  said  to  be  in  the  Advocates'  Library 
t  Edinburgn.  The  figures  do  not  seem  accurate,  but  show  seven  rivets 
a  one  and  three  in  the  other.  Gordon  makes  no  doubt  that  these  swords 
ire  Homan. 

Other  specimens  have  been  foim'd  at  Forse,^  Latheron,  Caithness  (25 
nches),  near  the  Point  of  Sleat,**  Isle  of  Skye  (22^  inches),  with  two 
ipear-heads  and  a  pin.    Another  was  found  in  Wigtonshire.ff 

In  the  Antiquarian  Museum  are  specimens  from  &e  following  counties : 
Aberdeen,  Argyle,  Ayr,  Edinburgh,  Fife,  Forfar,  Kincardine,  and 
Stirling. 

In  peat,  atIochdar,|^  South  Uist,  were  found  two  swords  like  that  from 
Arthur's  Seat,  the  hilts  of  which  are  said  to  have  been  formed  of  wood. 
A  leather  sheath  is  also  reported  to  have  been  present. 
A  bronze  scabbard  tip,  such  as  will  subsequently  be  described,  was 

•  *'Trettiae  on  Anc.  Armour,'*  pi.  Ixi.  1.  f  Op.  eit.^  pi.  Ixi.  2,  3,  4. 

X  Wilion'i  "Pwh.  Ann.,"  vol.  i.  p.  362,  fig.  62. 

\  -^rck,  Auoe,  Joum.,  vol.  xvii.  p.  210,  pi.  xx.  10,  11.     ||  PI.  li.  2,  3,  p.  118. 

J  iVw.  8de.  Ant,  Scot.,  vol.  ii  p.  33.  ••  P.  8.  A.  5.,  vol.  iii.  p.  102. 

tt  Ayr  and  Wigton  Coll.,  vol.  ii.  p.  14.  JJ  Prof.  5oc.  Ant.  Scot.,  vo^  vi.  p.  252. 

U 


290 


LHAF-SHAFBD   SWOBIM 


[chap.  J 


found,  with  four  bronze  Bvords  (about  24  indiu)  and  a  loif^  KtearJuid, 
neiLT  Brechin,*  Forfarshire  ;  and  in  Corsbie Moea.t  L^erwood,  Berwick,  > 
bronze  aword  and  epear-head  were  found,  the  former  naving,  it  18  Bsid,  * 
Msbbard,  apparently  of  metal,  but  ho  much  corroded  aa  to  fall  in  jfteoai 
on  remoTal.  This  also  maj  have  been  of  leather  stained  hy  the  metoL 
A  Bvord  with  a  large  pommel  (24  inches),  closely  resembling  Fig.  3S), 
was  found,  together  with  two  other  sword 
blades  (one  25  inches  with  slots),  a  scab- 
bard end,  and  two  bronze  pins,  with  Uige 
circular  flat  heads,  at  Tarves,t  Aberdeen- 
shire. Borne  of  these  were  presented  to  du 
British  Museum  by  the  Earl  of  Aberdeen. 
There  is  a  recess  on  the  hilt-pl»te  t<a  the 
reception  of  the  horn  or  bone  of  the  hilt, 
which  was  fastened  by  three  riretB  stiU 
remaining. 

Another  sword,  the  blade  22  inches  long, 
the  handle,  including  a  round  hollow  pom- 
mel, 6^  inches,  was  found  in  Skye,  and  is 
engraved  in  "  Pennant's  Tour."§  It  shows 
four  rivet-holes  arranged  like  those  in  the 
sword  from  Arthur's  Seat,  so  that  the  hilt 
was  probably  formed  as  usual  of  horn  or 
wood  and  not  of  bronze. 


A  few  other  swords  with  pommels  to 
their  hilts  have  been  found  in  Scotland. 
That  shown  in  Fig.  353  was  found  in 
Edinburgh,!!  with,  it  is  said,  thirteen  or 
fourteen  more,  a  pin,  and  ring,  and  a 
kind  of  annular  button,  of  bronze.  It 
is  now  in  the  Antiquarian  Museum  at 
Edinbui^h.  The  hilt  appears  to  have 
been  added  to  the  hilt-plate  by  a  sub- 
sequent process  of  casting.  The  pom- 
mel has  been  cast  over  a  core  of  clay, 
which  it  still  retains  within  it.  An- 
other of  the  swords  (2  4  J  inches)  has 
the  Iiilt-plate  pierced  for  six  rivets. 
Two  others  which  have  been  examined 
are  imperfect. 

Mr.  Joseph  Anderson,  who  has  dc- 
that  this  liilt  must  have  "  been  cast  in 
word  which  liad  the  grip  mode  up  of 


i 


scribed  this  find,  points  out 
a  matrix  modelled  from  a  s 

•  Froc.  Soe.  AnI.  Seet.,  toI.  i.  pp. 
t  Prof.  Soc.  Atit..vo\.  iii.  \y  121, 
{  Vol.  ii.  p.  33*,  pi.  iliv. 


,  rol.  xLiJ.  p.  203. 
■•pi.  ii.  *,  p.  161. 
(.  Seet.,  Tol.  liii.  p.  321. 


FOUND  IN  IRELAND.  29^1 

two  convex  plates  attached  on  either  side  of  the  handle  plate,  and 
their  ends  covered  by  a  hollow  pommel" — in  fact,  from  such  a  sword 
as  that  from  Tarves,  already  mentioned.  He  also  observes  that  the 
holes  in  the  hilt  are  not  rivet- holes,  and  thinks  that  they  may  have 
been  caused  by  wooden  pins  used  to  hold  the  clay  core  in  position, 
for  the  handle  as  well  as  the  pommel  is  hollow.  I  am  rather 
doubtful  as  to  the  accuracy  of  this  theory,  as  such  pins  would, 
I  think,  produce  blow-holes  in  the  metal  in  casting.  There  may, 
however,  have  been  clay  projections  from  the  inner  core  which 
would  leave  holes  such  as  these,  into  which  studs  of  wood,  bone, 
or  horn  might  afterwards  be  inserted  by  way  of  ornament  and  to 
add  firmness  to  the  grip.  For  details  of  the  finding  of  from 
thirty  to  forty  bronze  swords  in  Scotland,  the  reader  is  referred 
to  Mr.  Anderson's  paper. 

The  bronze  leaf-shaped  swords  from  Ireland,  of  which  nearly  or 
quite  a  hundred,  either  perfect  or  fragmentary,  are  preserved  in 
the  Museum  of  the  Royal  Irish  Academy,  have  been  treated  of  at 
some  length  by  the  late  Sir  William  Wilde,*  whose  Catalogue 
the  reader  may  consult  with  advantage.  In  general  appearance 
they  closely  resemble  the  swords  from  the  sister  countries,  and  vary 
in  length  from  about  eighteen  to  thirty  inches.  The  blades  are 
usually  rounded  on  the  faces,  or  have  a  faintly  marked  median 
ridge,  and  are  slightly  fiuted  along  the  edges.  This  fluting  or 
bevelling  is  sometimes  bounded  by  a  raised  ridge.  The  form 
with  a  rounded  rib  along  the  middle  of  the  blade  is  almost  un- 
known. There  is  considerable  variation  in  the  form  of  the  end 
of  the  hilt-plate,  in  which  occasionally  there  is  a  deep  V-shaped 
notch,  or  several  smaller  notches.  The  most  common  termination 
is  that  like  a  fish-tail  as  seen  in  Fig.  354.  The  number  of  rivet-holes 
is  various,  ranging  from  four  to  eleven.  There  are  occasionally 
slots  t  in  the  hilt-plate  and  in  the  wings  at  the  base  of  the  blade. 

They  have  been  found  in  most  parts  of  the  kingdom. 

A  common  type  of  Irish  sword  is  shown  in  Fig.  354  from  a  speci- 
men found  at  Newtown  Limavady,  Co.  Derry,  in  1870.  One 
wing  of  the  fish-tail  termination  is  wanting  and  has  been  restored 
in  the  sketch.  The  nine  rivet-holes  seem  to  have  been  cast 
and  not  drilled,  though  they  may  have  been  slightly  counter-sunk 
subsequently  to  the  casting.  The  hilt-plate  is  slightly  fluted,  per- 
haps with  the  view  of  steadying  the  hilt.  In  a  fragment  of  a 
sword  found  with  spear-heads,  a  socketed  dagger,  and  a  fragment 

•  "Cmtal.  Mai.  R.  I.  A.,"  p.  439.  t  Op.  fit,  p.  454. 

U2 


392  L8AT-SHAFBD   SWOHDS  [cHAF.  XU. 

of  a  hammer  on  Bo  Island,  Enniskillflu,  there  are  fire  deep  flutings 


Fig.  Mi.— Inlnnd.  1 


FOUND   IN   IBEtAND   AND   FRANCE.  293 

on  each  side  of  the  hilt-plate.  As  is  the  case  with  some  of 
the  English  examples  already  mentioned,  this  hilt-plate  has  been 
joined  to  the  blade  by  some  process  of  burning  on.  One  of  the 
four  rivet-holes  in  it  has  been  partially  closed  by  the  operation. 
Sir  William  Wilde  has  noticed  that  several  of  the  leaf-shaped 
swords  under  his  charge  had  been  broken  and  subsequently 
"  welded "  both  by  fusion  and  by  the  addition  of  a  collar  of  the 
metal  which  encircles  the  extremities  of  the  frt^^ents.  The  term 
"  welding  "  is,  however,  inappropriate  to  a  metal  of  the  character 
of  bronze. 

In  the  British  Museum  is  a  sword  of  this  type  with  nine  rivet-holea 
(25  i  inches),  found  near  Aghadoe,*  Co.  Kerry. 

In  the  small  Irish  blade  of  much  the  same  type  (Fig.  355)  there  are  only 
three  rivet-holes,  which  have  been  cast  in  the  blade,  a  fourth  having  from 
some  cause  been  filled  up  with  the  metal,  though  a  depression  on  each 
face  marks  the  spot  where  the  hole  was  intended  to  be. 

There  were  several  swords,  mostly  broken,  in  the  great  Dowris  hoard. 
Thej  had  a  rivet-hole  in  each  wing  and  two  or  three  in  the  hilt-plate. 

Some  of  the  bronze  swords  found  in  Ireland  attracted  the  attention  of 
antimiaries  upwards  of  a  century  ago.  Gbvemor  Pownall  described  two 
fomia  in  a  bog  at  Cullen,  Tipperary,  which  are  engraved  in  itieArehaoloffia.\ 
They  are  26^^  inches  and  27  inches  long,  and  one  of  them  is  of  the  same 
form  as  the  Scotch  sword,  Fig.  352.  Yallancey^  has  also  figured  one 
(22  inches)  with  eight  rivets. 

From  among  those  in  the  Museum  of  the  Eoyal  Irish  Academy  I  have 
selected  two  for  engraving.  The  first,  Fig.  356  (26^  inches),  has  had  its 
hilt  attached  by  a  number  of  very  small  pins  instead  of  rivets  of  the  usual 
size.  The  second,  Fig.  357,  is  a  short  blade  about  19^  inches  long,  with 
a  central  rib  extending  down  the  hilt-plate,  in  which  there  are  four  rivet- 
holes,  two  on  eacti  side. 

A  bronze  sword  from  Polimac,  Haute  Loire,  now  in  the  Museum  at 
Le  Puy,  Haute  Loire,  has  its  hilt-plate  like  that  of  Fig.  356,  but  has  only 
four  rivets.  Another  with  seven  rivets  was  foimd  in  a  dolmen  at  Miers,§ 
Lot.  Another  with  six  rivets  from  the  Department  of  Jura||  is  in  the 
museum  at  St.  Gbrnudn. 

Another  from  near  Besan9on,^  Doubs,  has  six  small  rivets.  One  found 
at  Alise  Ste.  Heine,**  Cote  d'Or,  has  four  rivets  only. 

The  type  also  occurred  at  Hallstatt,tt  and  in  Qermany.|{ 

At  least  two  swords  have  been  found  in  Ireland  still  retaining  the 
plates  of  bone  which  formed  their  hilts.  By  the  kindness  of  Mr. 
Robert  Day,  F.S.A.,  I  am  able  to  reproduce  full-sized  figures   of 

•  *«HarB  FeralaB,"  pi.  ix.  7,  p.  162.  t  Vol.  iii.  p.  366,  pi.  xix. 

iVol.  iy.  pi.  vii.  1,  p.  60. 
De  BoDstotten,  <*£8Bai  sur  les  Dolm./'  1866,  pi.  ii.  2;  Bev,  Areh,,  N.S.,  toI.  xiii. 
p.  188,  pL  T.  D. 

I  Cluuitre,  "  Alb.,"  pi.  rvi.  1.  ^  Diet.  Arch.  d€  la  OauU. 

♦•  Mtv.  Arch.,  N.S.,  vol.  iv.  pi.  xiii.  23.  ft  Von  Sacken,  Taf.  v.  2. 

:;  lindensohmit,  '<  A.  u.  h.  Y.,'*  toL  i.  Heft  iii.  Taf.  iii.  6. 


SM  LBAP-8HAFBD  BWORDS  [cHAF.  XII. 

both  sides  of  one  of  the  most  perfect  specimens,  as  F^  358  and 


Vig.  aJ8.— Miickno.       {  Fiy.  3R>.— Muckno.        { 

359,  which  have  already  appeared  in  the    Journal  of  the   Royal 


•WJTB   UILT9   OF    BONE,  -395 

Historical  avid  ArduEologiccU  Association  of  IrelaTid.*   The  sworti 


Fif.  an.— Huokuo. 


itself,  shown  on  a  small  scale  in  Fig.  360.  was  found  in  Lisletrim 
•  3rd  8.,  Tol.  i.  p.  23 ;  2ivl  S    vol.  vi.  p.  72 ;  ■'  Beliqiiuy,"  vol.  x.  p.  65 


S96  LBAF-8UAPED  SWOXDS.  [CHAF.  XII. 

Bog,  Mackso,  Co.  Mousghan.  It  is  24^  inches  long,  with  a  thick 
midrib  running  along  the  blade.  The  plates  of  bone  which  are 
Btill  attached  have  been  pronounced  by  Professor  Owen  to  be 
mammalian,  and  probably  cetacean.  It  will  be  observed  that  at 
the  wings  of  the  hilt-plate  the  bone  projects  somewhat  beyond  the 
metal.  The  same  pecuharity  may  be  observed  in  the  bone  hilt 
of  a  sword  found  at  Mtillylagan,*  Co.  Armagh,  which  has  som«- 
what  the  appearance  of  having  been  carved  at  the  end  next  the 
blade  into  a  pair  of  rude  volutes.  It  is  shown  full-size  in 
Fig.  361.  Ilie  sword  itself,  on  a  small  scale,  is  shown  in 
Fig.  362.  In  this  instance  the  bone  projects  beyond  the  sides 
of  the  hilt-plate.  I  have  not  seen  the  specimen,  which  ta  pie- 
served  in  the  collection  of  Mr.  A.  Knight  Young,  of  Monaghan.t 
A  bronze  sword  with  six  rivets,  found  near  Kallundborg,  Cenmark,* 
had  the  hilt  formed  of  wood. 

As  is  the  case  with  several  of  the  bronze  swords  discovered  in 
Scandinavia,    some  of  those  found  in   Ireland  seem 
£imB       to  have  been  decorated  with  gold  upon  their  hilts. 
KBH  On  one  of  the  rivets  of  a  sword  found  in  a  bog 

kEJH  near  CulleD,§  Tipperaiy,  was  a  thin  piece  of  gold 
e|,B^^  weighing  upwards  of  12  dwts.  Another  sword,  II 
K'^^H  found  near  the  same  place  in  1751,  had  a  plate  of 
K.^^M  goiij  on  one  side  which  covered  the  hilt ;  at  the  end 
'landT  was  a  small  object  like  a  pommel  of  a  sword,  with 
three  links  of  a  chain  hanging  from  it.  The  whole 
weighed  3  ozs.  3  dwts.  1 1  grs.  In  this  bog  about  twenty  bronze 
swords  were  found  at  intervals,  besides  about  forty  pieces  of  hilt- 
plates  in  which  the  rivets  stood.  In  one  swordU  there  was  a  recess 
near  the  blade,  i^x^x^^  inch,  in  which  was  "a  piece  of  pewter 
which  just  fitted  it,  with  four  channels  cut  in  it,  in  each  of  which 
was  laid  a  thin  bit  of  fine  copper,  so  that  they  resembled  four 
figures  of  1." 

A  fragment  of  a  blade  which  Wildo  "  considers  to  be  that  of  a 
sword,  is  decorated  with  raised  lines  and  circles  in  relief,  which 
were  cast  with  the  blade.  A  portion  of  it  ia  shown  in  Fig.  363. 
As  the  whole  fragment  is  only  4-i  inclies  long,  it  may  have  formed 
part  of  a  socketed  knife  or  some  other  instrument,  and   not  of  a 

"  /our.  Soyal  HM.  i  Arch.  Aunt,  of  Inland,  4th  S.,  vol.  u.  p.  267.      I  am  indebted 
to  the  Council  for  the  use  of  tha  cut«, 
+  Op.  fit;  4th  S.,  vol.  i.  p.  505.  I  "  AarboRer  tor  Nord.  Oldk.,"  1871,  p   15 

i  Arey,  vol.  iii.  p.  )fl3.  I  lb-.  P-  364.  n  Ih.,  p.  335. 

•  •  "CitaX.  Hui.  B.  I.  A.,"  p.  44fl,flg.  822,  hers  hy  penniMion  reproduced. 


CONTINENTAL  TYPES.  297 

Bword.  A  part  of  a  spear-head,  with  a  series  of  ring  ornaments 
engraved  on  the  blade,  was  in  the  hoard  found  at  Hajmes  Hill, 
Kent.* 

There  is  considerable  general  resemblance  between  the  bronze 
swords  found  in  the  British  Islands  and  those  of  the  continental 
countries  of  Europe.  The  similarities  with  those  from  France 
have  already  been  pointed  out.  Several  with  ornamented  hilts 
have  been  figured  by  Chantref  and  others.  One  has  a  hemi- 
spherical  pommel  and  a  varied  design  on  the  hilt 

The  bronze  swords  from  the  Swiss  Lake-dwellings  J  have  fre- 
quently bronze  hilts,  like  those  of  the  swords  from  the  South  of 
Franca  In  some  instances  the  hilt-plate  has  side  flanges,  with  a 
^central  slot  or  line  of  rivets,  and  rivets  in  the  wings.  In  others 
the  broad  tang  forming  the  hilt  has  two  or  three  rivet-holes.  In 
some  hilts  cast  in  bronze  there  is  a  recess  for  receiving  a  piece  of 
horn  or  wood.  The  blades  have  frequently  delicate  raised  ribs, 
sometimes  six  on  each  face,  rimning  along  them. 

The  bronze  swords  of  Italy§  present  several  varieties  not  found 
in  Britain.  The  sides  of  the  blades  are  more  nearly  parallel,  and 
many  have  a  slender  tang  at  the  hilt,  sometimes  with  two  rivet-holes 
forming  loops  at  the  side  of  the  tang,  sometimes  with  one  rivet- 
hole  in  its  centre.  In  some  the  blade  narrows  somewhat  for  the 
tang,  in  each  side  of  which  are  two  semicircular  notches  for  the 
rivets.  In  some  Italian  and  French  swords  the  blade  is  drawn  out 
to  a  long  tapering  point,  so  that  its  edges  present  a  somewhat 
ogival  curve. 

A  fragment  of  a  very  remarkable  Greek  sword  from  Thera  II  has 
a  series  of  small  broad-edged  axes  of  gold,  in  shape  like  conven- 
tional battle-axes,  inlaid  along  the  middle  of  the  blade  between 
two  slightly  projecting  ribs. 

The  double-edged  bronze  swords  found  by  Dr.  SchUemannf  at 
Mycenffi  are  tanged  and  often  provided  with  pommels  made  of 
alabaster.  The  hilts  and  scabbards  are  in  some  cases  decorated 
with  gold.  The  blades  are  usually  long  and  narrow,  though  some 
widen  considerably  at  the  hilt-end,  so  as  to  form  a  broad  shoulder 

*  Arek,  Joum,,  vol.  xxx.  p.  282. 

t  ^'Aj^duBr./'  1^  ptie.  p.  106  et  teq. ;  Alb., pi.  xv.  bit,  2;  De  Ferry,  **  Macon  preh.," 
pL  nxix. 

1  KeUer,  jNMfMN. 

I  See  Gaitaldi, "  loonografia,'*  1869,  Tav.  viii. ;  PeUegrixii,  <*  Sepolchreto  Preromano," 
1878,  TtLY.  m.,  It.    Qooadini,  '*  Mors  de  Cheval  et  r£p^  de  Rorzano,"  1876. 

I  •"  AarUg.  t  Kord.  Oldk.,"  1879,  pi.  i. 

n  ^^Hyernm  and  Tiryn^"  1878,  pp.  281,  303,  &c. 


298  LBAF-SHAPEO  SWORDS.  [CHAP.  XII. 

to  the  tang.     Swords  appear  to  have  been  much  rarer  on  the  pre- 
sumed site  of  Troy. 

There  appear  to  be  doubts  whether  the  beautiful  bronze  sword 
in  the  Berlin  Museum,*  reported  to  have  been  found  at  Fella^  in 
Macedonia,  does  not  belong  to  the  valley  of  the  Rhine. 

Bronze  swords  have  but  rarely  been  found  in  Egypt.    In  my  own 
collection,  however,  is  one  which  was  found  at  Great  Ejmtara  durii^ 
the  construction  of  the  Suez  Canal.     The  blade,  about   17  inches 
long,  is  leaf-shaped,  and  much  like  that  of  Fig.  360,  but  more 
uniform  in  width.     Instead  of  having  a  hilt-plate  it  is  drawn  down 
to  a  small  tang  about  ^h  ^^^^  square.    This  again  expands  into 
an  octagonal  bar,  about  4  ii^^^h  in  diameter,  which  has  been  drawn 
down  to  a  point,  and  then  turned  back  to  form  a  hook,  probably 
for  suspending  the  sword  at  the  belt.     At  the  base  of  the  blade 
are  two  rivet-holes.     The  hilt  must  have  been  formed  of  two 
pieces  which  clasped  the  tang.     The  total  length  of  the  sword 
from  the  point  to  the  top  of  the  hook  is  22|-  inches.     I  have 
never  seen  another  similar  example,  but  a  bronze  sword  blade, 
presumably  from  Lower  Egypt,  is  in  the  museum  at  Berlin.    It  has 
an  engraved  line  down  each  side  of  the  blade,  and  its  sides  are 
more    parallel  than  in  mine  from    Kantara,  already  mentioned. 
The  hilt  is  broken  oflf.     A  German  sword  from  the  Magdeburg 
district,  with  a  tang  and  two  rivet-holes  at  the  base  of  the  blade, 
closely  resembles  mine  from  Egypt,  except  that  it  has  no  hook  to 
the  tang. 

The  bronze  swords  found  in  Denmark  t  and  Northern  Germany  + 
have  often  side  flanges  to  the  hilt-plate,  like  Fig.  348,  occasion- 
ally plated  with  gold ;  but  the  blades  are  generally  more  uniform 
in  width,  and  have  the  edges  straighter  than  those  from  the  United 
Kingdom.  Some  blades  have  a  simple  tang.  On  a  very  large 
proportion  the  hilt  formed  of  bronze  (or  of  some  more  perishable 
material  alternating  with  bronze  plates)  has  been  preserved.  The 
pommels  are  usually  formed  of  oval  or  rhomboidal  plates  with  a 
central  boss,  and  are  generally  ornamented  below. 

Some  of  the  swords  found  in  Sweden  and  Denmark  have  been 
regarded  by  Dr.  Montelius§  and  Mr.  Worsaae  ||  as  of  foreign 
origin. 

*  Bastian  und  A.  Voss,  "  Die  Bronze  Schwcrter  dcs  K.  Mus.  zu  Berlin,"  1878,  p.  56. 
t  "Atlas  for  Nord.  Oldk.,"  pi.   B,  ii.,  iii.,  iv. ;    Woraaae,  "  Nord.  Olda.,"  figa.    114 


to  137 


X  Lisch,  "  Frf>der.  Franciso.,"  Tab.  xiv.,  xv. 

S  "Cong,  preh.,"  Stockholm  vol.  i.  p.  506.     ||  "  Cong,  preh.,"  Buda 


Peat  vol.,  p.  238. 


EARI.Y   IRON   SWORDS.  299 

A  bronze  sword  from  Finland  with  a  flanged  hilt-plate  and 
eight  rivet-holes  has  been  *  figured. 

In  Germany  t  the  bronze  swords  present  types  which  more 
nearly  resemble  those  of  France  and  Denmark  than  those  of  the 
British  Isles.  Those  with  a  flanged  hilt-plate  are  found,  however, 
both  in  Northern  and  Southern  Germany,  as  well  as  in  Italy,  Austria 
and  Hungary.  Others  have  long  and  narrow  tangs,  but  a  large 
proportion  are  provided  with  bronze  hilts,  usually  with  disc-like 
pommels.  These  hilts  conceal  the  form  of  the  tangs.  Some  few  have 
spirals  at  the  end  of  the  hilt,  as  already  mentioned,  and  one  from 
!l^randenburg,  in  the  Berlin  Museum,  has  a  spheroidal  pommel.  In 
some  of  the  bronze  hilts  there  are  recesses  for  the  reception  of 
pieces  of  horn  or  wood,  as  on  some  of  the  French  and  Swiss  swords. 

Iron  swords  of  the  same  general  character  as  those  of  bronze 
have  been  found  in  the  ancient  cemetery  at  Hallstatt  and  else- 
where. Those  from  Hallstatt  +  are  identical  in  character  with  the 
bronze  swords  from  the  same  locality.  In  one  instance  the  hilt 
and  pommel  of  an  iron  sword  are  in  bronze ;  in  another  the 
pommel  alone  ;  the  hilt-plate  of  iron  being  flat,  and  provided  with 
rivets  exactly  like  those  of  the  bronze  swords.  In  others  the 
pommel  is  wanting.  I  have  a  broken  iron  sword  from  this 
cemetery,  with  the  hilt-plate  perfect,  and  having  three  bronze  rivels 
still  in  it,  and  the  holes  for  two  others  at  the  pommel  end.  The 
blade  has  a  central  rounded  rib  along  it  like  Fig.  345,  but  with  a 
small  bead  on  either  side.  I  have  a  beautiful  bronze  sword  from  the 
same  locality,  on  the  blade  of  which  are  two  small  raised  beads  on 
either  side  of  the  central  rib,  and  in  the  spaces  between  them  a 
threefold  wavy  line  punched  in  or  engraved.  In  this  instance  a 
tang  has  passed  through  the  hilt,  that  was  formed  of  alternate 
blocks  of  bronze  and  of  some  substance  that  h&s  now  perished, 
possibly  ivory.  A  magnificent  iron  sword  from  Hallstatt,  now  in 
the  Vienna  Museum,  has  the  hilt  and  pommel  formed  of  ivory 
inlaid  with  amber. 

The  late  Celtic  iron  swords  found  in  Britain  have  been  described 

by  Mr.   A.   W.   Franks,   F.R.S.,  in    an  exhaustive   paper  in  the 

ArchcBologia,i  in  which  also  the  reader  will  find  many  interesting 

particulars  of  analogous  swords  found  in  continental  countries. 

Several  iron  swords  have  been  found  in  France  with  flat  hilt- 

•  xCong.  ^ir€h.,*'  Copenhagen  vol.,  p.  449. 

t  See  Bashan  nnd  A.  Yoss,  *'  Die  Bronze  Schwerter  dea  K.  Mua.  zu  Berlin,*'  1878. 
J  Von  Sacken,  "Grabf.  v.  Hallat.,"  Taf.  v.;  Lindenachmit,  "Alt.  u.  h.   Vorz.," 
Tol.  ii  Heft  L  Tal.  V.  4  Vol.  xlv.  p.  251. 


800  LXAF-8HAPXD  SWORDS.  [CHAP.  XIL 

plates  and  rivets  exactly  of  the  same  character  aa  those  of  the 
bronze  swords.     Nine  have  been  discovered  in  tumuli  at  Cosne, 
Magny  Lambert,  and  elsewhere  in  the  department  of  Cdte  d'Or. 
Others  have  been  found  at  Cormoz,  Ain;    and  at  G^dinne,  ia 
Belgium.  There  can  be  but  little  doubt  that  M.  Alexandre  Bertrand* 
is  right  in  assigning  the  French  examples  to  the  fourth  or  fifth 
century  B.C.,  and  in  regarding  them  as  direct  descendants  from 
the  bronze  swords  of  ordinary  type.  He  adduces,  also,  the  remark- 
able fragment  of  an  iron  sword  with  a  bronze  hilt  found  m  the 
Lac  de  Bienne,  which  is  in  exact  imitation  of  a  bronze  sword  with 
ribs  on  the  blade,  as  an  additional  proof  that  these  early  iion 
swords  are  the  reproductions,  pure  and  simple,  of  those  in  bronze, 
and  fabricated  from  the  metal  then  recently  introduced  into  the 
West     How  far  back  in  time  the  use  of  bronze  swords  in  Qaul 
may  have  extended  it  is  difficult  to  say,  but  the  varieties  in  their 
types  testify  to  a  lengthened  use  before  they  began  to  be  super- 
seded by  those  of  iron. 

I  must,  however,  now  describe  the  sheaths  by  which  these 
blades  were  protected. 

*  Biv.  Arch,f  N.S.,  vol.  zxvi.  p.  321. 


CHAPTER  XIII. 

SCABBARDS   AND   CHAPES. 

Although  the  sheaths  which  protected  the  daggers  and  swords 
described  in  the  preceding  chapters  consisted  probably  for  the 
most  part  of  wood  or  leather,  yet  in  many  instances  some  portion 
of  the  scabbard  and  its  fittings  was  made  of  bronze ;  and  to  the 
description  of  these  objects  it  seems  desirable  to  devote  a  separate 
chapter.  It  is  rarely  that  the  metallic  portions  of  the  sheaths 
have  been  found  in  company  with  the  blades  ;  but  in  one  instance 
at  least  a  portion  of  a  sword  blade  has  been  discovered  within  a 
surrounding  sheath  of  bronze ;  which,  however,  does  not  extend 
the  full  length  of  the  blade,  the  upper  part  of  the  scabbard  having 
probably  been  formed  of  wood.  This  discovery  proves  that  the 
short  bronze  sheaths,  which  are  usually  from  8  to  1 2  inches  long, 
belonged  to  swords,  and  not,  as  at  first  sight  might  be  inferred 
from  their  size,  to  daggers. 

In  France  some  much  longer  bronze  sheaths  have  been  found 
with  the  swords  still  in  them.  The  most  noteworthy  is  that  from 
the  neighbourhood  of  Uz&,*  Gard,  now  in  the  Mus^e  d'Artillerie, 
at  Paris,  which  is  decorated  with  transverse  beaded  lines  alter- 
nating with  ornaments  of  concentric  rings.  This  scabbard  is  longer 
bv  some  inches  than  the  blade  it  contains.  In  fact,  in  no  instance 
does  the  point  of  the  sword  appear  to  have  reached  so  far  as  the 
end  of  the  sheath.  Another  sheath  found  at  Cormoz  (Ain)  t  is  in 
the  museum  at  Lyons. 

In  a  few  instances  the  wooden  sheaths  of  bronze  swords  have 
been  found  entire.  The  finest  is  that  from  the  Kongshoi,+  Vam- 
dnip,  Ribe,  Denmark.     It  was  found  with  a  body  in  a  tree-coffin 

*  *'HonB  Fenles,"  pi.  Tiii.  7;  Chantre,  *' Age  du  Br.,*'  Ibre  ptie.,  p.  108;  Linden- 
■chmit,  «  A.  n.  h.  V.,"  vol.  ii.  Heft  i.  Taf.  3. 

t  Chantre,  op,  eit.,  p.  136. 

t  Madien,  "  Afb.,"  vol.  ii.  pi.  rii. ;  Lindenschmit,  **  Alt.  u.  h.  Vorz.,*'  toI.  ii.  Heft  i. 
Tmf.  ill.  1. 


SCABBARDS   AKI)   CHAPBt.  [CHAF.  Xin. 

Tbie  sheath  is  about  a  fifth  longer  thtiD  the  blade  of  tin 
Bword,  and  is  carved  on  both  foces,  though  more  hi^; 
decorated  on  what  must  have  been  the  outer  &ce,  thin 
on  the  inner.  There  is  no  metal  mounting  at  either 
end.  Another  scabbard  found  in  the  Treenhoi*  \i 
likewise  of  wood.  Its  chape  also  is  formed  of  some 
hard  wood.  It  has  been  lined  with  skin,  the  hair  to- 
wards the  blade  of  the  sword.  This  sheath  is  about 
an  eighth  longer  than  the  blade  of  the  sword. 

No  doubt  many  of  the  British  sheaths  were  made 
of  wood  alone.  Others,  though  partly  made  of  that 
material,  were  tipped  with  bronze,  the  metal  beii:^ 
secured  to  the  wood,  or  the  leather,  if  that  material 
was  used,  by  a  small  rivet  which  passed  diagonally 
through  the  metal.  As  Mr  Franks  t  has  pointed  out, 
the  presence  of  this  rivet-hole  would  have  been  suffi- 
cient to  show  that  these  objects  are  not  dagger  sheaths, 
as  some  have  thought,  for  the  rivet  leaves  too  small  a 
part  of  the  bronze  receptacle  available  for  a  blade  even 
as  long  as  that  of  an  ordinary  digger.  The  discovery 
already  mentioned  places  this  question  beyond  doubt. 
The  bronze  sheaths  of  the  iron  swords  and  da^er^ 
of  the  Ijate  Celtic  Period  are  of  a  different  character 
from  those  I  am  about  to  describe,  and  are  made  of 
sheet  bronze,  and  not  cast  in  a  single  pieca 

In  Fig.  364  ie  ehnwn  a  portion  of  a  sword  blade,  with 
tlio  scabbard  end  still  in  position,  which  was  found  in  the 
Thames  near  Isleworth,  and  is  in  the  collection  of  Mr. 
T.  Layton.  F.S.A.J  This  scabbai-d  end  has  a  central  rib 
and  two  other  alight  ribs  along  each  margin  in  order  to  give 
it  strength,  and,  as  wiD  he  seen  from  the  figure,  probably 
extends  at  least  6  inches  be3-ond  the  end  of  the  sword,  thus 
giving  an  opportunity  of  securing  tlie  metal  end  to  the 
wooden  or  leather  scabbard  at  a  place  where  the  blade  would 
not  interfere  with  the  paasago  of  a  pin  or  rivet. 

A  scabbard  end   of  much   the  same  form  (ISi  inches) 

is  shown  in  Fig.  365,    It  was  found  with  fifteen  others,  eome 

broken,  near  Guilsfield,§  Montgomery-shire,  together  with 

looped  palstaves,  spear-heads,  &c.     It  has  a  small  rivet-hole 

UcwoTtii.  )      about  half-way  along  it.     Another,  {|  somewhat  straighter 

•  SladBen,  op.  til.,  pi.  v. 

t  "Hone  Feralea,"  p.  1S9.    See  tUm  Areh.  Journ.,  vol.  xtxiv.  p.  301,  fig,  S. 
J  Prac.  Soc.  A»l.,  2nd  8.,  vol.  v.  p.  i04. 

}  Prai.  Sof.  Am.,  2nd  S.,  rol.   li.  p.  Ml  ;    Arrh.    Cami.,    3rd    S„  rol.  X.   p.    214  , 
"  Montgom,  Coll.."  vol.  iii.  p.  43". 

f,  Areh.  jBun.,  vol.  x.  p.  2S9,  wheoca  this  cut  ii  taken,  bv  pvnnuaion  of  Ur.  Fraoln. 


ESnS   OF   SWORD-SHEATHS.  303 

(12^  inches),  found  with  a  bronze  buckler  in  tbe  River  laie  near  Dor- 
oheater,  Ozon,*  is  shown  in  Fi^.  366.  It  is  now  in  the  British  Museum. 
There  ia  a  small  riTet-hole  passing  transversely  through  it.  Several  f 
other  sheath  ends  of  the  same  kind  are  preserved  in  the  same  collection. 
One,  imperfect,  from  the  Thames  at  Tedduigton  (10  inches],  with  ribs  along 
Uie  middle  and  edges,  has  a  hole  for  a  diagonal  rivet,  and  retains  a  frag- 
ment of  wood  inside,  as  does  also  another  from  the  Thames  at  Loudon, 
whioh  has  a  very  slightl;  projecting  midrib.     A  third,   of  the  same 


Fig.  8M.-Oallrfleia.    I  Fig.  39a,-Hi™  I«ii>,  Kg.  3OT.-Ireliuid.    i 

character  (lOJ  inches],  from  the  Thames  at  Chelsea,  has  a  small  end  plate 
seoored  by  a  central  rivet.  This  has  traces  of  either  leather  or  wood 
inside.J  In  another,  also  from  the  Thames  (7 j  iuches),  the  end  plat«  has 
been  cast  with  the  sheath,  and  there  is  a  wooden  mting  secured  by  a 
diagonal  rivet.    The  opening  is  nearly  flat. 

Si  some  there  is  no  rib  down  the  middle,  but  merely  a  projecting  ridge, 
and  in  others  no  rivet-holes  are  visible. 

This  straight  form  of  scabbard  end  has  been  very  rarely  found  in 
Ireland.  The  only  specimen  mentdonod  by  Wilde  is  by  permission  here 
reprodaced  as  Fig.  367.  Another  (5^  inches)  was  in  the  collection  of 
Mr.  Wakeman,  of  Ennisldllen. 

•  Proe.  8oc.  AhI.,  iii.  p.  118 ;  Areh.,  vol,  iivii.  p.  298. 

t  AreA.  Jeitm.,  vol.  ni.  p.  201.  Sea  "  Horn  Fer&lea,"  pi.  ix.  Ho.  10  to  14,  and  C. 
H.  Smith,  "  Coll.  Ant.,"  vol.  iii.  p.  72. 

;  Aw.  See.  Ant.,  voL  iiL  p.  118. 


304  SCABBARDS   AND   CHAPES.  [cHAP.  Xnt 

A  ecabbard  end  of  mucli  the  Bame   general  charaoter  ob  that  fnoi 
Ouilsfield,  but  ohorter  and  brooder,  is  shovn  in  Fig.  36B.     It  waa  fonod 
at  Wick  Park,  Stogurae^,  Somerset,*  with  palataves,  socketed  oelta,  gougOi 
epear-heads,  and  migments  of  swords,  together  with  jets  fnnn  codingt     i 
and  rough  metal. 

Scabbard  ends  occur  also  in  Scotland,  for  one  nearly  irim'lw  to  these  la^ 
(5}  inches)  was  found  with  four  leaf-shaped  swords  and  a  large  "pea^ 
head,  all  of  bronze,  at  Cauldhame,  near  Brechin,  Forfarshire,  f  Tb-SJ 
are  now  in  the  Antiquarian  Museum  at  Edinburgh.  The  soabbaid  is  ^ 
permisBion  of  the  Sooiety  of  Antiquaries  of  Scotland  here  shown  as  Fie. 
369.  Another  scabbard  tip  in  the  same  museum  is  rather  shorter.  It 
was  found  at  Qogar  Burn,  near  Edinburgh,  together  with  a  sword  and  > 


Fig.  368.— SWguiwr,  Somernt.  I      Fig.  SOT.— Brechi 


penonnular  brooch  of  bronre  and  a  small  penannulor  ornament  of  gold. 
A  Sootcli  specimen  from  the  farm  of  Ythsie,  Tarves,  Aberdeenshire,  is 
in  the  British  Museum.  It  is  like  tliat  from  Brechin,  and  is  S^  inches 
loiig. 

The  straight  form  of  scabbard  end  has  been  discovered,  though  rarely,  in 
Northern  IVauce.  One  from  Caix,  Somme,  is  engraved  in  the  Dictionnairo 
Arch6ologique  de  la  Gaule.  A  fragment  of  another,  more  like  Fig.  365, 
has  been  found  near  Compiegne  (Oiae). 

A  still  shorter  form  is  shown  in  Fig.  370,  the  oripnal  of  which  was 
found  at  Pant-y-maen,  near  Qlancych,  Cardiganshire,  J  together  with 
broken  swords,  apear-heads,  and  ferrules,  as  well  as  some  small  rings. 

■  Prof.  Sos.  AnI.,  2nd  S..  vol,  v.  p.  427. 

t  Froc  Sou.  AnI.  SnI.,  vol.  i.  p.  181 :  Arch.  J->«rn.,  vol.  liii.  p.  203 ;  '•  Catal.  Mm. 
Arch.  Iwt.  Ed.."  p.  24. 

;  Arfk.  Comh.,  3rd  S,,  vol.  x.  p.  221,  whencp  the  figure  i«  copied. 


CHAPES    FROM    ENOl.AXD   AND   tRELANQ. 


305 


A  still  more  simple  form,  and  one  more  nearly  approaching  the  modem 
chape,  haa  occasioTiallj  been  found.  That  shown  as  Fii>.  371  formed  part 
of  the  hoard  found  in  Beach  Fen,  Cambridgeshire,  which  comprised  also 
some  fragments  of  swords.  It  is  of  especial  interest,  as  the  sniall  bronze 
nail  which  served  to  fasten  it  to  the  wooden  scabbard  was  found  with  it. 
This  nail  is  shown  above  the  chape  in  the  figure. 


ig.ari.— BdubFen.       t 


Another  chape  of  the  same  kind,  but  more  like  Fig.  372  in  form,  was 
found  at  Haines  Hill,  near  Hythe,  Kent,*  with  a  perforated  disc  of  bronze, 
like  Fig.  503,  and  some  other  objects. 

Fig.  372,  kindly  lent  by  the  Eoyal  Irish  Academy,  shows  a  chape  found 
at  Cloonmore,  near  Tomplemore,  Co.  Tipperary.f  This  form  seems  to  be 
of  very  rare  occurrence  in  Ireland. 

It  has,  however,  been  found  in  Savoy,  J  and  in  the  Swiss  Lake -dwellings. 


<^ 


t 

An  Fpgliih  form,  which  is,  I  believe,  as  yet  unique,  is  shown  in  Fig- 
373.  It  was  found,  with  several  broken  swords  and  apear-heads,  at 
Stoke  Ferry,  Norfolk-  It  is  ornamented  with  a  neat  fluting,  produced 
apparently  by  means  of  punches.  The  rivot-holea  are  at  the  aides,  instead 
of  t>eing,  as  usual,  on  the  face. 

•  Mii.  Jeum.,  vol.  ux.  p.  280.       t  Wilde,  "  Catal.  Mm.  B.  I.  A.,"  p.  461,  fig,  336. 
t  ■*  Eip.  Arch,  de  U  Sb».,"  1878,  pi.  xii.  354,  356. 


306  SCABBARDS   AKD   CHAPK9.  [CHAP.  XUI. 

A  curious  Boeteted  object  in  bronze,  found  near  Piltown,*  in  the 
barony  of  Irerk,  Co.  Kiltenny,  has  been  regarded  as  the  Iiaft  of  a 
dagger.  It  is  rectangular  in  section  and  expanding  at  the  baee  which 
is  dosod.  But  from  its  analogy  with  some  of  the  scabbard  ends  lately 
desmbed  it  aeema  possible  tbat  it  formed  part  of  a .  sheath.  The 
objection  to  this  view  is  that  the  breadth  of  the  socket  is  much  greater 
than  usual  with  these  chapes.  The  zig-zag  and  other  ornamentation  upon 
it  is  described  as  having  been  engraved  with  a  fine  point  after  the  object 
was  cast.     The  lower  face  is  not  ornamented. 

The  form  is  not  unlike  that  of  the  end  of  the  scabbard  of  some  modem 
African  leaf-shaped  swords  of  iron,  as  to  which  Mr.  Syer  Cumingf  has 
remarked,  that  while  the  point  of  the  blade  is  as  sharp  as  a  needle,  the 
base  of  its  receptade  measures  nearly  3  inches  across.     It  is  possible  that 


Fig.  ST4.— Ktclogna  Font.  Ireluid. 


Fif.  3TK.— UildsnIiaU. 


the  object  engraved  as  Fig.  286  may  be  intended  for  the  end  of  a  scabbard, 
and  not  for  that  of  a  hilt,  but  this  can  only  be  determined  by  future  dis- 
coveries. 

Another  Irish  form  is  shown  in  Fig.  374,  the  original  of  which  was 
fqund  at  Keelogue  Ford,  in  the  Shannon,  and  is  in  the  Eoyal  Irish 
Academy.  In  this  instance  the  chape  has  assumed  a  kind  of  boat -like 
form  with  pointed  ends.  As  Sir  W.  WildeJ  has  observed,  the  indenta- 
tions at  the  top  mark  the  overlapping  of  the  wooden  portion  of  the 
scabbard,  which  was  fastened  to  the  bronze  by  two  slender  rivets,  so  that 
the  ends  projected  about  au  inch  on  each  side. 

Fi^,  375  shows  an  English  scabbard  tip  of  the  same  class,  though 
differing  in  details,  which  was  found  in  the  neighbourhood  of  Mildenh^, 
Suffolk,  and  is  in  the  collection  of  Mr.  Simeon  Fenton,  of  that  town,  to 
whom  I  am  indebted  for  permission  to  engrave  it.  The  surface  of  tiiis 
chape  is  beautifully  finished,  and  the  raised  rib  round  the  semi-circular 
notch  is  dehcately  engrailpd  or  "milled."  Tliere  is  a  single  minxite 
hole  for  a  pin  or  rivet  on  one  face  only.  As  will  be  seen,  this  English 
example    closely  resembles  that  from   Ireland  shown   iu   the  previous 

Such   projections  as  those  on   the  chapes  of  this  form  would 
appear  to  be  inconvenient ;  but  in  another  variety  the  projectin" 
vol.  i 


SPIKED   CHA1>E8. 


ends  shoot  out  into  regular  spikes,  the  ends  of  which  are  tipped 
by  a  small  button.  In  some  cases  the  length  from  point  to  point 
is  not  less  than  8  inches.  There  are  several  in  the  museum  of 
the  Royal  Irish  Academy.  Sir  W.  Wilde  considered  that  the 
bronze  sword  was  suspended  high  up  on  the  thigh  and  not  allowed 
to  trwl  on  the  ground,  so  that  these  projections  would  be  less  in 
the  way  of  the  wearer  than  might  at  first  sight  appear.  The 
lengthening  of  these  points  may  have  been  the  result  of  a  kind 
of  prehistoric  dandyism,  analogous  to  that  which  led  to  the 
lengthening  of  the  points  of  boots  and  shoes  in  England  at  the 
beginning  of  the  fifteenth  century.*  Specimens  of  these  still  exist  in 
which  the  points  extend  6  inches  beyond  the  foot,  and  it  has  been 


asserted  that  they  had  to  bo  chained  to  the  knees  of  the  wearers 
to  give  them  a  chance  of  walking  with  freedom. 

Though  chieflj  funnd  in  Ireland,  this  elongated  fona  of  Rcabbard  ban 
oooasionallf  been  discovered  in  England.  Fig.  376  repreeents  a  specimen 
bom  the  TbameB,  now  preserved  in  the  Britiiih  Museum. 

Another  example,  but  slightly  more  cmred,  was  found  with  a  bronze 
ewoid  at  Ebberston,  Yorkshire,  and  is  in  the  Bateman  Collection.!  It  has 
been  figured.  The  rivets  for  attaching  it  to  the  wooden  scabbard  are  still 
in  pontion. 

Tbla  type  of  scabbard  end  has  also  been  found  in  France.  In  the 
Unsenm  m  Bourges  is  an  example  about  6^  inches  long,  much  like  Fig. 
376,  but  rather  more  Y-shaped.  Another,  more  like  the  figure,  was  found 
with  a  bronze  sword,  near  Marsannet  (Drome),  and  a  third  in  the  tumulun 
of  Bar6aia  §  (Jura).  Another  was  found  at  the  end  of  an  iron  sword 
in  a  tumulus  at  Uons  ||  (Auvergne). 


*  iUrholt'l  "  Cortimie  in  England,"  p.  382. 

t  ^rei.  Anoe.  Jtum.,  vol.  xiii.  p.  321,  pi.  30,  fig.  2. 

■  Chantre,  "  Age  dn  Br„"  lire  ptie.  p.  138.     Xer.  Arch.,V.% 


1  \jiMiarB,  -  Age  an  Dr., 

f  Diet.  Ank.  d»  U  Oimlt. 

I  "HbUiuiix,"  vol.  ziii.  p.  64. 

8oe.  Ant.  de  Fruce,  1B7S,  p.  M. 


See  nlso  &  paper  b;  U.  Alex.  Bertrand, 
"Mater.,"  toL  it.  p.  162. 

X  S 


,  p.  306. 

a  th«  Bull. 


308  SCABBARDS  AND  CHAPES.  [CHAF.  XLU. 

It  is  to  be  observed  that  the  ends  of  some  of  the  knife  sheaths  of  the 
Early  Iron  Period  *  expand  in  somewhat  the  same  manner,  so  as  to 
assume  an  anchor-like  appearance. 

A  bronze  bouterolle  or  scabbard  tip  of  a  very  peculiar  type,  the  sides 
being  elongated  and  flattened  out  so  as  to  form  two  sickle-shaped  wings 
curving  upwards,  was  exhibited  to  the  Society  of  Antiquaries  in  18671  as 
having  been  found  in  Britain.  A  fig^e  of  it  was  to  have  appeared  in 
the  Archaoloaia,  but  has  not  yet  been  published.  Perhaps  there  was 
room  to  douot  its  English  origin.  Certainly  the  description,  with  the 
exception  of  the  sickle-shaped  wings  curving  upwards,  agrees  with  a  form 
of  wiiich  several  examples  have  been  found  in  Germany  and  in  France.| 
6ome  of  these  are  sharp  at  the  end  like  a  socketed  celt,  with  two  ex- 
panding sickle-like  win^,  but  their  purpose  as  chapes  has  not  always 
been  recognised.  One  &om  Hallstatt  is  described  by  Von  Sacken  §  as  a- 
cutting  tool  to  be  attached  to  a  thin  shaft.  There  clre  two  in  the  MuseuuS' 
at  Prague,  found  at  Komo  and  Brasy. 

One    from    Oberwald-behrungen  is  in  the  Museum  at  Wiirzburg.^ 
Another  is  at  Hanover. 

The  fact  that  traces  of  wooden  sheaths  to  daggers  have  been  found 
the  Wiltshire  and  other  barrows  has  already  been  mentioned,  but 


Fig.  877.— lale  of  Harty.       { 

bronze  fittings  have  been  found  with  them.  There  are,  however,  some 
objects  which  may  have  served  either  as  the  mouth-pieces  of  sheaths  for 
daggers  or  small  knives,  or  as  ferrules  for  their  hilts. 

One  of  these  from  the  Harty  hoard  is  shown  fuU  size  in  Fig.  377. 

Another  of  identically  the  same  character,  but  rather  shorter,  was 
found,  with  a  bronze  knife  or  dagger  and  nimierous  other  articles,  at 
Marden,  ||  Kent.  It  was  regarded  by  Mr.  Beale  Poste  as  the  mounting 
of  the  top  of  a  dagger  sheam  formed  of  leather. 

Another  was  found  with  various  other  relics  near  Abergele,^  Denbigh- 
shire. 

Some  elongated  loops  formed  of  let  are  of  a  shape  that  would  have 
served  for  the  mouth-pieces  of  sword  scabbards,  but  whether  so  fragile  a 
substance  was  used  for  such  a  purpose  may  well  be  questioned.  They 
may  have  been  merely  ornamental.  One  about  3  inches  long,  found  in 
Scotland,**  has  been  regarded  as  a  clasp  for  a  belt.  Possibly  these  objects 
in  bronze  may,  after  all,  be  of  the  nature  of  slides  or  clasps. 

Another  loop,  more  rounded  at  the  ends,  found  in  the  peat  at  Newbury,  ff 

♦  De  Bonstetton,  "Rec.  d'Ant.  Siiisses,'*  Supp.,  pi.  xxi.  1 ;  Von  Sacken,  "Grabf.  v. 
Hallstatt,"  Taf.  \'i.  11. 

t  Proe.  Soe.  Ant.y  2nd  S.,  vol.  iii.  p.  618.  J  Rev.  Arch,^  N.S.,  vol.  zxxix.  p.  305. 

{  **  Das  Grabfcld  von  Hallstatt,"  p.  155,  pi.  xix.  fig;.  10. 

II  Arch.  Assoc.  Joum.,  vol.  xiv.  p.  267,  pi.  xiii.  6 ;  Wilson,  **  Preh.  Ann.,"  vol.  i.  p.  441, 
fig.  82. 

U  Arch.  Scot.y  vol.  i.  p.  393.       ^  *♦  Arch.^  vol.  xliii.  p.  656,  pi.  xxxvii.  3. 

ft  Arch.  Anoc.  /oMrw.,  vol.  xvi.  p.  323,  pi.  xxvi.  6 ;  Proc.  Soe.  Ant.y  2nd  S.,  vol.  iv. 
p.  521. 


FERRULES  ON   SWORD-UILTS.  309 

Berks,  has  been  described  as  a  slider  for  securing  some  portion  of  the 
dress,  or  for  passing  over  a  belt.  Not  improbably  this  is  their  true  inter- 
pret€ition.     Some  omer  slides  are  described  at  p.  404. 

Some  bronze  objects  of  nearly  similar  form,  but  about  3  inches  in 
length,  found  with  late  Celtic  remains,  have  been  regarded  as  the  cross- 
guards*  of  dageers  or  knives. 

In  my  own  collection  is  a  fine  bronze  sword  from  Denmark  with  broad 
side  flanees  to  the  hilt  plate,  on  the  blade  of  which  is  a  bronze  loop  about 
i  inch  wide,  rebated  for  the  reception  of  wood,  but  without  any  rivet- 
holes.     Each  face  presents  four  parallel  headings.     For  some  time,  in 
common  with  some  Danish  antiquaries,  I  regarded  this  loop  as  the  mouth- 
piece of  a  scabbard,  for  which  it  appears  well  adapted ;  but  I  now  find  that 
such  a  view  is  erroneous,  and  that  this  loop  is  the  ferrule  for  receiving 
'the  ends  of  the  plates  of  wood  or  horn  which  formed  the  hilt.     For  in 
the  barrow  of  Lydsh6i,f  near  Blidstrup,  Frederiksborg,  was  a  bronze 
sword  with  a  similar  ferrule  upon  it,  and  the  remains  of  the  plates  of 
liom  beneath  it  still  in  position.    One  of  these  Danish  ferrules  is  of  gold.^ 
A  sheath  §  from  a  barrow  at  Hvidegaard,  made  of  birch  wood  with  an  outer 
and  inner  casing  of  leather,  has  a  leather  band  for  the  mouthpiece,  and 
a  leather  eve  for  receiving  the  belt.  Some  small  sheaths  for  bronze  knives 
and  for  a  flint  dagger  f oimd  at  the  same  time  are  simply  of  leather. 

•  Arch.  Inst.,  Tork  vol.  p.  33 ;  Arch,y  vol.  ziv.  pL  xx.  6. 

t  "•  Atlas  for  Nord.  Oldk,"  pi  B  ii.  2 ;  Worsaae,  **  Nord.  Olds.,"  fig.  116  ;  Madson, 
**Afbild.,"  vol.  ii.  pi.  xi.  1. 

iBoye,  **  Oplvi.  FortegnelBe  over  det  K.  M.,"  p.  31. 
^'Azmalen  for  Oldk.,"   1848,  p.   336;  "Atlas  for  Nord.   Oldk.,"  pi.   B.    ii.  7; 
Wonaae,  <'Nord.  Olds.,"  fig.  119 ;  Madsen,  **  AfbUd.,"  vol.  ii.  p.  9.  pi.  iv.  8. 


CHAPTER  XIV. 

Spear-heads,  Lance-heads,  etc. 

There  can  be  but  little  doubt  that  one  of  the  weapons  of  offence 
in  earliest  use  among  mankind  must  have  been  of  the  nature  of  a 
spear — a  straight  stick  or  staff,  probably  pointed  and  to  a  certain 
extent  hardened  in  the  fire.  The  idea  of  giving  to  such  a  staff  a 
still  harder  and  sharper  point  by  attaching  to  it  a  head  of  bone  or 
of  stone,  such  as  is  still  commonly  in  use  among  many  savage 
tribes,  would  come  next.  And,  lastly,  these  heads  or  points 
would  be  formed  of  metal,  when  its  use  for  cutting  tools  and 
weapons  had  become  general,  and  means  had  been  discovered  for 
rendering  it  available  for  this  particular  purpose.  In  the  earlier 
part  of  the  Bronze  Age,  when  bronze  was  already  in  use  for 
knife-daggers  and  even  for  daggers,  it  Avould  appear  that  the  spears 
and  darts,  if  any  such  Avere  in  use,  were  in  this  country  still  tipped 
with  flint.  How  long  this  practice  continued  it  is  impossible  to 
say,  and  it  is  even  doubtful  whether  any  bronze  spear-heads  were 
in  use  before  the  time  when  the  founders  had  discovered  the  art 
of  making  sockets  by  means  of  cores  placed  within  the  moulds. 
It  is,  however,  not  impossible  that  some  of  the  blades  found  in  the 
Wiltshire  barrows,  and  the  tanged  weapons  which  have  already 
been  described  in  Chapter  XL,  may  have  been  the  heads  of  spears 
rather  than  the  blades  of  daggers ;  but  even  at  the  period  to 
which  they  belong  the  art  of  making  cores  must  have  been  known, 
as  the  ferrule  found  at  Arreton  Down,  and  shown  in  Fig.  324,  will 
testify,  as  well  as  the  hollow  socket  of  Fig.  328. 

In  the  South-east  of  Europe  and  in  Western  Asia,  as  in  Cyprus 
and  at  Hissarlik,  tanged  and  not  socketed  spear-heads  have  been  found 
in  considerable  numbers ;  but  such  a  form  is  of  very  rare  occur- 
rence in  Europe,  and  is  unknown  in  Britain,  unless  possibly  some 
of  the  blades  already  described  as  knives  or  daggers,  such  as 
Fig.  277,  were  attached  to  long  rather  than  short  handles,  and 


DIFFERENT   TYPES  OF  SPEAR-HEADS.  311 

iliould,  therefore,  have  been  treated  of  in  this  chapter  rather  than 
n  that  in  which  I  have  placed  them.  If  spears  were  deposited  in 
the  graves  with  the  dead,  the  shafts  must  in  all  probability  have  been 
broken,  for  as  a  rule  the  graves  for  bodies  buried  in  the  contracted 
position  are  not  long  enough  to  receive  a  spear  of  ordinary  length. 

In  the  case  of  some  few  ancient  socketed  tools  of  bronze,  the 
socket  has  not  been  formed  by  casting  over  a  core,  but  a  wide 
plate  of  metal  has  been  hammered  over  a  conical  mandril  so  as  to 
form  a  socket  like  that  of  many  chisels  of  the  present  day,  and  of 
the  iron  spear-heads  of  earlier  times.  I  am  not  aware  of  any 
bronze  instruments  with  the  sockets  formed  in  this  manner  ever 
having  been  found  in  this  country.  In  all  cases  the  sockets  have 
been  produced  by  cores  in  the  casting,  and  in  many  spear-heads 
the  adjustment  of  the  core  has  been  effected  with  such  nicety  that 
a  conical  hollow  extends  almost  to  the  tip,  with  the  metal  around 
it  of  uniform  substance,  and  often  very  thin  in  proportion  to  the 
size  of  the  weapon. 

The  heads  of  arrows,  bolts,  darts,  javelins,  lances,  and  spears  so 
nearly  resemble  one  another  in  character,  that  it  is  impossible 
to  draw  any  absolute  line  of  distinction  between  them.  The 
larger  varieties  must,  however,  have  served  for  weapons  retained 
in  the  hand  as  spears,  while  those  of  small  and  moderate  size  may 
have  been  for  weapons  thrown  as  lances,  or  possibly  discharged  as 
bolts  or  arrows.  In  length  these  instruments  vary  from  about 
2  inches  to  as  much  as  36  inches. 

Sir  W.  Wilde*  has  divided  the  Irish  spear-heads  into  four 
varieties,  as  follows : — 

1.  The  simple  leaf-shaped,  either  long  and  narrow,  or  broad, 
with  holes  in  the  socket  through  which  to  pass  the  rivets  to  fix 
them  to  the  shaft. 

2.  The  looped,  with  eyes  on  each  side  of  the  socket  below  and 
on  the  same  plane  with  the  blade.  These  are  generally  of  the 
long,  narrow,  straight-edged  kind. 

3.  Those  with  loops  in  the  angles  between  the  edge  of  the 
blade  and  the  socket. 

4.  Those  with  side  apertures  and  perforations  through  the  blade. 
To  these  four  classes  may  be  added — 

5.  Those  in  which  the  base  of  each  side  of  the  blade  projects  at 
right  angles  to  the  socket,  or  is  prolonged  downwards  so  as  to 
form  barbs. 

•  «  Catal.  Mu8.  R.  I.  A.,"  p.  496. 


312  SPEAK-U£ADS,    LAMCB-HEADa,    BTC.  [cHAP.  ZIT. 

A  remarkably  fine  specimen  of  a  broad  leaf-shaped  spear-head  of 
the  first  class  is  shown  in  Fi^.  378.     The  original  was  found  in  tin 


Fig.  378.— Tluun™,  LonJf 


Fig.38[.— H«Uiei7B< 


Thames  at  Tjondon,  and  still  contains  a  portion  of  tlie  wooden  shaft 
Bmoothly   and   carefully  pointed.      The  wood   is,    I    think,    ash ; 


LEAF-SHAPED  SPEAH-HEADS.  313 

Mid  my  opinion  is  supported  by  that  of  Mr.  Thiselton  Dyer,  F.R.S., 
who  has  kindly  examined  the  shaft  for  me.  There  are  no  traces 
of  the  pin  or  rivet,  which  in  the  spear-heads  of  this  character 
appears  to  have  been  formed  of  wood,  horn,  or  bone,  rather  than 
of  metal,  probably  with  the  view  of  the  head  being  more  readily 
detached  from  the  shaft,  in  case  the  latter  was  broken.  I  have, 
however,  a  leaf-shaped  bronze  spear-head  of  this  class,  found  in 
the  Seine  at  Paris,  in  which  a  metallic  rivet  is  still  present  It  is 
formed  of  a  square  rod  of  bronze,  which  at  each  end  has  been 
hammered  into  a  spheroidal  button,  of  at  least  twice  the  diameter 
of  the  hole  through  which  the  rivet  passes.  Portions  of  the 
wooden  shaft  are  still  adhering  to  the  rivet.  The  wood  in  this 
instance  also  appears  to  be  ash. 

I  have  a  rather  narrower  spear-head  of  the  same  type  as  Fig.  378  (lOJ 
inches),  found  with  a  bronze  sword  near  Weymouth ;  and  another  identical 
in  type  with  that  from  the  Thames,  but  only  9  inches  long,  found  in  the 
county  of  Dublin. 

Others  of  nearly  the  same  form  (12f  inches  and  S}  inches)  were  found 
with  a  bronze  sword  in  an  ancient  entrenchment  at  Worth,*  in  the  parish 
of  Waahfield,  Devon. 

Another  spear-head  of  this  type  from  the  Thames  f  (13^^  inches)  is  in 
the  British  Museum,  as  are  others  (13  inches  and  10  incnes  long). 

A  remarkably  fine  bronze  spear-nead,  found  in  Lou^h  Gur,  Co.  Lime- 
rick, with  the  lower  part  of  the  socket  ornamented  wim  gold,  is  of  much 
the  same  form  as  Fig.  378,  and  is  shown  on  the  scale  of  one-fourth  in 
Fig.  379.  The  ornamented  part  is  shown  on  the  scale  of  one-half  in 
Fig.  380.  It  is  in  the  collection  of  General  A.  Pitt  Eivers,  F.R.S.,  who 
has  thus  described  the  socket.^  Around  it,  **  at  top  and  bottom,  are  two 
ferrules  of  very  thin  gold,  each  f  inch  in  width.  Each  ferrule  is  ornamented 
with  three  bands  scored  with  from  four  to  seven  transverse  lines,  and 
separated  from  each  other  by  two  bands  scored  with  incised  longitudinal 
lines.  The  two  ferrules  are  separated  by  a  band  about  -A*  iuch  m  width, 
in  which  longitudinal  lines  of  gold  have  been  let  into  grooves  in  the  bronze, 
leaving  an  intervening  line  between  each  of  the  gold  lines."  Most  of 
these  gold  strips  have,  however,  now  disappeared.  The  shaft  of  this  spear 
is  of  boff  oak  4  feet  8^  inches  long,  but  though  its  authenticity  has  been 
aeoepted  by  many  good  judges,  1  must  confess  that  I  do  not  regard  it 
as  me  original.  Some  other  spear-heads  ornamented  with  engraved  lines, 
but  not  with  inlaid  gold,  will  oe  mentioned  further  on.  I  may  incidentally 
recall  the  fact  that  the  gold  ring  or  ferrule  aroimd  the  spear-head  of 
Hector  is  more  than  once  mentioned  by  Homer.  § 

vdpoi,0€  Sc  Xa/Aircro  Sovpos 

Another  fine  specimen  of  a  spear-head  with  a  long  oval  leaf-shaped 
blade  in  Canon  GreenweU's  Collection  is  shown  in  Fig.  381.     It  was 

•  Areh.  Jowm.y  vol.  xxiv.  p.  120.  t  "Homb  Fer.,"  pi.  vi.  29. 

X  Joum.  BthnoL  Soc.,  1868,  N.S.,  vol.  i.  p.  36.      i  Iliad,  vi.  v.  319 ;  viii.  v.  494. 


314 


BFBAB-HBAD3,    LANCE>HEAM,   BTa 


[CUAF.  XIV. 


found  with  several  others  varying  in  length  from  6|uidhe6to  11}  inclies, 
and  numerous  other  articles  of  bronze  and  bone,  in  the  Heatheiy  Bum 
Cave,*  Durham.  As  ^ill  be  seen,  the  blade  is  continued  as  a  alight 
narrow  projection  along  the  socket  as  far  as  the  rivet-hole.  The  edges 
are  somewhat  fluted. 

A  spear-head  of  nearly  the  same  form  (10^  indiw) 
wae  found  in  a  peat  moes  near  the  Camp  OraveSit 
Bon-castle,  Cumberland.  Another  was  found  in  ft 
hoard  at  Bilton,  Yorkshire.} 

A  very  fine  example  (about  15  inches),  aa  well  u 
a  smaller  one  of  the  same  type  (about  8  inches),  and 
one  with  lunate  openings  in  the  blade  (Fig.  418), 
were  found  with  two  swords  (see  Fig.  351)  neai 
"niiittingliamig  Northumberland. 

I  have  others  (9  inches  to  11  Inches)  found  with 
broken  swords  at  Stoke  Ferry,  Norfolk,  and  from 
the  Boach  Fen  hoard.  The  same  form  occurs  in  Ire- 
land. I  have  a  fine  specimen  (8^  inches)  from 
Athlone.  Another  (13^  inches)  is  engraved  by  Wilde 
as  hisFig.  362.  A  very  narrow  spear-head,  14}- inches 
long,  and  only  If  inch  wide,  said  to  have  been  found 
in  a  barrow  near  Headford,  Co.  Oalway,  is  in  the 
British  Museum. 

A  spear-head  of  this  character  from  the  Thames 
(16^  inches),  not  fluted  at  the  edges  and  quite  plain, 
is  in  the  British  Museum.  The  blade  is  only  2^ 
inches  wide. 

One  from  Stanwick,  Yorkshire  (8  inches),  is  in  the 
British  Museum,  as  is  one  ( 1 1  inches)  from  Bannock- 
burn.  Scotland.  An  Irish  specimen  (10  inches)  is 
devoid  of  rivet-holes. 

Another  sj)ear-head  of  nearly  the  same  type,  but  of 
smaller  dimensions,  is  given  in  Fig.  382.  It  was 
found,  with  some  other  spear-heads  ( Fig.  410), 
socketed  celts  (Figs.  155  and  157),  palstaves  (Fig  83), 
and  a  ferrule,  to  be  subsequently  mentioned,  at  Net- 
tleham,||  near  Lincoln,  in  1860.  They  are  now  in  the 
British  Museum. 

Others  of    the    same    type    have  been   found   at 

"Winmarleigh^  and  Cuerdale,**  Lancashire,  at  Ward- 

low,+t  Derbyshire,   Little    Wenlock.JJ    Staffordshire 

r  Windsor  §§  (7  inches),  at  Bottisham,|||j  Cambridge,  and 


Mettlehun.    i 


(8  inches),  n 

in  Herts-HK 

*  Dawkina, 


Cave 


r.:,  vol.  I 
+  A,c/i.  Aaoe.  Joiirn.,  vol.  v.  p.  349. 
\  Proc.  Soc.  AiU.,  2nd  S.,  vol.  v.  p.  423,  pi.  iv. 

II  Aiek.  JaurH.,  vol.  xviJL  p.  169.    I  sm  indebted  to  Mr.  Franbs  for  the  v 
blc«k. 

H  Jreh.  Aisoe.  Johth.,  vol,  iv.  p.  235,  pi.  xxiv.  3. 

[.  p.  332.  t+  Op.  c 


\X  HartBhomo'8  "  Salop.  Ant.," 

III!  Afch.  Attof.  Joum.,  vol.  liv.  p.  3B1. 

If  Skelton'a  "  Meyriek's  Anc.  Ann,,"  pi. 


ii  Stukeloy'a  ■■  It.  Cur.,"  pi.  91 


WITH    A   FILLET   ALONQ  THE   MIDBIB. 


315 


I  have  one  from  the  Biyer  Lea*  at  St.  Uorgaret'e,  Herts,  and  others 
from  Reach  Fen,  Oambridfiie. 

Others  were  in  the  GiuTsfield  hoard,')'  and  in  that  of  Paiit-y-maen,J  or 
the  Olaucych  hoard.  One  from  the  latter  hoard  is  about  11  inches  long. 
Another,  more  like  Fig.  386,  about  4  inches.  With  them  were  found 
fragments  of  swords,  a  scabbard  tip,  some  rings  and  ferrulBS.  Others 
(9  mches  and  5  inches)  were  found,  with  a  socketed 
celt  and  knife,  a  tanged  chisel,  and  other  objects,  at 
ly  MawT,§  on  Holyhead  Mountain. 

Five  were  found  in  the  hoard  near  Stanhope,  ||  Durham, 
with  socketed  colts,  a  gouge,  &c. 

Of  Scottish  specimens  the  following  may  be  noticed : 
one  from  Lanark^  (6f  inches),  which  has  been  figured ; 
two  (7f  inches)  rather  long  in  the  socket,  found  with 
a  bronze  sword  and  a  long  pin  on  the  Point  of  Sleat,** 
Isle  of  Skye ;  one  {6  inches)  from  Balmaelellan.tt  New 
Qalloway.  One  (5^  inches)  from  Duddingaton  Loch, 
Edinbuivh,  is  in  the  British  Uuseum. 

Leaf-Biiaped  spear-heads  auch  as  Fig.  382  are  of 
frequent  occurrence  in  various  Mrts  of  France.  A 
number  were  found  at  Alise  Ste,  BeineJJ  (Cote  d'Or), 
several  of  them  ornamented  with  rings  round  the 
sockets. 

Ther  also  are  found  in  the  Lake-dwellings  of  Switzer- 
land G§  and  Sayoy.  Uany  of  them  have  parallel  rings 
rouna  the  mouth  of  the  socket  by  way  of  ornament. 
They  also  occur  in  G«rmany  ||||  and  Denmark, ^^  One 
from  Northern  Germany,  still  containing  a  part  of  its 
wooden  shaft,  has  been  engraved  by  Von  Eatorff.*** 

Those  from  Italy  and  Greece  have  very  fre- 
quently facets  running  along  the  midrib  which 
contains  the  socket 

In  Fig.  383  is  shown  a  variety  (Hi  inches)  with  a 
projecting  fillet  running  down  to  the  rivet-holes  as  in 
Fig.  381,  which,  however,  in  this  case  forms  the  texmi-  aS^^.    ( 

nation  of  small  beads  runnine  along  the  sides  of  the 
central  rib.     There  is  also  a  beading  running  along  the  midrib.     The 
original  was  found, 'with  another  spear-head,  plain,  a  socketed  celt,  some 
bronze  rings,  and  fragments  of  tin,  at  Achtortyre,ttt  Morayshire.   Mr.  R, 
Day,  F.B.A.,  has  a  nearly  similar  spear-head  (5  inches),  found  in  Dublin. 

•  J-rne.  See.  Ant.,  vol.  iv.  p.  279. 

t  Proe.  See.  Ant.,  ind  S.,  vol,  ii.  p.  251 ;  "Montgom.  CoU.,"  vol.  iii.  p.  437. 

JJ.reA.  Ctimt.,  Srd  S.,  vol.  x.  p.  221.  i  Areli.  Journ.,  vol.  xxiv.  p.  2(4. 

Areh.  .Xliana,  vol.  i.  p.  13,  pL  i.  H  Anh.  Anoc.  Journ.,  voL  ivii.  p.  110. 

••  JVoc.  Sot.  Ant.  Seol.,  voL  iu.  p.  102.        ft  Proc.  Sac.  Ant.  Son.,  voL  iv,  p.  4 17. 

II  Sev.  Arc*.,  N.S.,vol.  iv.  pi.  uii.  2— H. 
f  f  Keller,  pauiM. 

II  Ton  Braunmiihl,   "  Alt  Deutschen  Orabmiiler;"  Schreiber, '■  Die   diern.   Streit- 
kBile,"Taf,  ii,  19;  Liich,  "Fred.  FranciM.,"  Taf.  viii. 
11  Wonaae,  "Hord.  Olda.,"  flg.  190.        •"  "Heidniwh.  AlUrth.,"  Taf.  viii.  fig.  1. 
ttt  P.  8.  A.  S.,  vol.  ii.  p.  436.    The  out  has  been  Idndlj-  lent  by  the  Society. 


BPEAR'IIEAUS,   I.ANCE-HZAIX!,   STC.  [CHAP.  SIT. 

A  more  elongated  form,  with  the  projecting  part 
of  the  Bocket  considerably  shorter,  is  shown  in 
Fig.  364,  from  a  Bpecimen.  found  in  the  North  of 
Ireland.  A  spear-head  (20  inches)  of  the  Bame 
form  of  outline,  but  with  a  slight  ridge  running 
the  whole  length  of  the  eocket  from  its  moutlk  to 
the  point,  was  found  at  Dltton,*  Surrey.  It  is  now 
in  the  British  Museum,  having  been  presentod  by 
the  Earl  of  Lovelace. 

Another  ( 14  j  inches)  in  the  same  collection,  found 
in  the  Hiver  Thames,^  near  the  mouth  of  the 
Wandle,  retains  a  portion  of  the  original  wood  in 
its  socket.  It  was  found  in  company  with  a  bronze 
sword,  a  palstave,  and  a  long  pin  (Fig.  454). 

One  of  much  the  same  form  as  the  figure  ( 1 1  inches) 
was  found  at  Teigngrace,  %  Devon.  It  has  a  delicate 
bead  running  down  each  side  of  the  midrib,  and 
continued  as  a  square  projection  below  the  blade. 

Canon  Greenwell  has  a  long  epeor-head  (14^ 
inches)  from  Quy  Fen,  with  grooves  running  up  the 
blade  at  the  side  of  the  socket.  The  ends  of  the 
blade  are  truncated  so  as  to  leave  projeotiona  on 
the  sides  of  the  socket  above  the  rivet-hole.  These 
are  slightly  ornamented. 

I  have  seen  another  spear-head  (11^  inches)  with 
the  base  of  the  blade  abghtly  truncated  in  a  aimilar 
manner.     It  was  found  near  Eastbourne. 

This  elongated  form  is  of  common  occurrence  in 
Denmark  and  Korthem  Germany,  §  the  necks  being 
usuoUv  ornamented  by  dolieate  punch-marking  or 
possibly  engraving. 

A  broader  variety,  with  the  socket  considerably 
enlarged  in  the  piirt  extending  below  the  blade, 
is  shown  in  Fig.  385.  The  original  was  found  in 
company  with  other  spear-heads  like  Fig.  382  from 
5|  inches  to  lOg  inches  long,  two  socketed  celts  with 
three  vertical  fines  on  the  face  like  Fig.  125,  and 
two  somewhat  conical  plates  with  central  holes,  near 
Newark,  and  is  in  the  collection  of  Canon  Oreen- 
well,  F.E.8. 

A  spear-head  (6}  inches)  not  quite  so  broad  in  its 
proportions,  said  to  have  been  found  in  a  tumulus, 
iioar  Lewes, 11  Sussex,  is  in  the  British  Museum,  as 
is  another  (6^  inches)  found  near  Bakowell,  Derby- 

•  Areh.  Joum,,  vol.  x 
f  A.J.,volix.  p.  8. 
26  inthuB  long. 

I  Ti-an:  Brron.  Askc,  vol.  vii.  p.  199  ;  Proc.  Soe.  Aitt.,  2nd 
S.,  vol.  i-ii.  p.  40. 

j  Worsaae.  "  Nord.  OlJs.,"  egs.  185, 186 ;  "  AUau  for  Xoni. 
Oldk.,"  pi.  B  1,  16. 

II  •■  Ho™  For.,"  yl.  vi,  28. 


VAR1XTIB8   OF  T.EAF-SHAFED   8PEAK-HEAD8. 


317 


A  spear-head  of  tlie  Bamo  ^neral  outline  as  Tig.  SB5,  but  with  the  sides 
of  the  socket  etraighter,  was  fotmd  with  others,  as  well  as  with  1 6  socketed 
celts,  a  knife,  fragments  of  swords  and  of  a  quadrangular  tube  (qy.  a 
scabbard  ?)  and  a  long  ferrule,  near  Nottingham.* 

It  is  often  the  case  that  the  sides  of  the  upper  part  of  the  blade  are 
nearly  straight,  and  the  socket  itself  appears  large  in  proportion  to  the 
width  of  the  blade.  Such  a  spear-  or  lance-head  from  the  Beach  Fen 
hoard  is  shown  in  Fig.  386.  I  have  several  others  from  the  Fen  districts, 
as  w^  as  one  of  a  shorter  and  broader  form  (5  inches)  with  a  large 


Fig.  aSG.— Beuh  Fn.  i    Fig.  38>.— Irduid.  i 


socket  extending  only  an  inch  below  the  blade,  found  at  Walthamstow, 
Essex. 

A  spear-head  from  Unter-Uhldingenf  exhibits  the  same  narrowness  of 
blade  in  proportion  to  the  size  of  the  socket. 

In  some  cases  the  blade  and  socket  are  of  nearly  equal  length. 

Fig.  387  is  here  by  permission  reproduced  from  Wilde's  Catalogue,  Fig. 
367.  It  is  only  3i  inches  long,  and  may  have  been  the  head  of  a  dart  or 
javelin  rather  than  of  a  spear.  I  have  an  oiample  of  nearly  the  same 
form  and  size  from  Co.  Dublin.  One  in  the  Bntish  Museum  is  only 
2  inches  long,  though  the  mouth  of  the  socket  is  |  inch  in  diameter. 


•  Aw.  See.  Ant.,  Znd  S.,  vol.  i.  p.  332. 


t  KeUer,  eter  Bericht,  Ts(.  i 


318  SPEAR-HEADS,   LANCE-HEADS,   ETC.,  [CHAP.  XIV. 

Some  of  these  very  small  weapons  may  possibly  have  served  to  point 
arrows.  In  the  Norwich  Museum  is  a  head  like  Fig.  387,  but  with  the 
blade  shorter  in  proportion  and  narrower,  the  total  length  of  which  is 
only  HI  inch.  The  blade  is  ^  inch  wide,  and  the  socket  is  only  f  inch 
in  external  diameter.  A  bronze  arrow-head  is  said  to  have  been  found  in 
the  Isle  of  Portland,*  but  particulars  are  not  given.  Another  small  point, 
in  form  rather  like  Fig.  386,  and  only  3^  inches  long,  was  found  at  Llan- 
y-mynech  Hill,t  Montgomeryshire.  Another,  3^^  inches,  was  found  near 
-Pyecombo,J  Sussex. 

One  4  inches  long  is  said  to  have  been  found  in  Yorkshire.  § 
Some  double-pointed  arrow-heads  of  bronze  are  mentioned  as  having 
been  found  in  Ireland, ||  but  in  point  of  fact  these  were  "razors"  like 
Fig.  274. 

In  this  country,1f  however,  and  not  improbably  in  others,  during 
the  period  when  bronze  was  in  use  for  cutting  tools  and  the  larger 
weapons,  flint  still  served  as  the  material  from  which  arrow-heads 
were  usually  made.  Such  a  method  of  taking  the  census  as  tliat 
devised  by  the  Scythian  king  Ariantas  would  in  Britain  have 
produced  but  small  results  ;  at  all  events,  but  few  of  the  inhabit- 
ants Avould  have  been  able  each  to  contribute  his  bronze  arrow- 
head. Many  of  the  bronze  arrow-heads  found  on  the  Continent 
appear  to  belong  to  the  Early  Iron  Age,  but  it  is  mainly  in 
southern  countries  that  they  have  been  found. 

In  Egypt**  and  Arabia  they  have  occurred  of  the  leaf-shaped  as 
well  as  of  the  three-edged  form,  which  latter  is  common  in 
Greece. 

Some  spear-heads  appear  to  have  had  the  form  of  their  point  somewhat 
modified  by  grinding,  as  if  from  time  to  time  they  became  blunted  by  use 
and  required  to  be  re-sharpened.  A  kind  of  ogival  outline  such  as  is 
shown  in  Fig.  388  appears,  however,  to  have  been  intentional.  The 
oi  ig:inal  was  found  in  the  North  of  Ireland. 

This  ogival  outline  is  of  frequent  occurrence  among  the  bronze  spear- 
heads from  Himgary. 

The  lance-head  shown  in  Fig.  389,  also  from  Wilde  (Fig.  368),  has  the 
blade  of  a  trapezoid  rather  than  of  a  leaf-shaped  form,  and  in  general 
character  more  nearly  approaches  the  looped  variety,  Fig.  397,  than  those 
now  \inder  consideration.  The  socket  also  appears  to  be  qiiadrangidar 
rather  than  round. 

It  will  now  be  well  to  speak  of  some  of  the  spear-heads  of  this 

*  Arch.  Journ.y  vol.  xxi.  p.  90. 

t  "  Montgom.  Coll.,"  vol.  iii.  p.  433;  vol.  xi.  p.  205. 

+  Sms.  Arch.  Coll.,  vol.  viii.  p.  269. 

§  Arch.  A,t.toc.  Joitrn.,  vol.  xx.  p.  107. 

II  Arch.  Jouni.,  vol.  iii.  p.  47.  lliero  is  an  article  by  Mr.  Du  Xoyer  on  the  classifica- 
tion of  bronze  arrow-heads  in  vol.  vii.  p.  281. 

H  See  •' Anc.  Stone  Imp.,"  p.  328. 

•*  Arch.  Jouni.,  vol.  xiii.  pp.  20,  27;  vol.  xxii.  p.  68;  Froc.  Soc.  Ant.  Scot.,  vol.  v. 
p.  187 ;  Froc.  Soc.  Ant.,  2nd  S.,  vol.  i.  p.  222. 


ORNAMEKTBD    ON   1 


class  which  have  either  their  sockets  or  their  hlades  ornamented 
by  engraving  or  punching. 

In  Fig.  390  is  shown  a  spear-head  from  the  Beadk  Fen  hoard,  the 
nature  <rf  the  ornamentation  on  which  will  be  seen  from  the  cut. 
The  five  bands,  each  of  four  parallel  Unes  around  the  socket,  have 
the  appearance  of  being  engraved ;  but  I  think  that  this  is  not  actually 
the  case,  but  that  the  li^es  nave  been  punched  in  with  a  chisel-hke  punch. 


Ncrthoflnlud.    i  Inland,    i 


Fen.    }  TbDTDdon.    i 


The  short  transverse  dotted  Unes  have  probably  been  made  with  a  serrated 
punch. 

Another  spear-head,  with  ornamentation  of  a  nearly  similar  character,  is 
shown  in  Fig.  391.  This  example  was  found  at  Thomdon,  SuffoH,*  in 
company  with  a  hammer  (Fig.  210).  a  knife  (Fig.  240),  a  gouge  (Fig. 
204),  and  an  awl  (Fig.  224),  the  whole  of  which  are  now  in  the  British 
Museum.  Another  in  the  same  collection  from  Thames  Ditton  {6\  inches) 
has  three  sets  of  three  rings  each,  with  short  vertical  lines  above  the 
upper  ring. 

A  small  lance-head  of  this  tj-pe  (4^  inches),  found  at  Ingham,  Norfolk, 
with  socketed  celts,  has  one  band  of  four  parallel  lines  round  the  socket. 
It  is  now  in  the  Mayer  Collection  at  Liverpool.  Another  from  the  Broad- 
ward  hoard  (Shrop8hire)t  has  two  bands  of  four,  and  one  of  two  rings, 
lor.  Fer.,"  pi.  vi.  27. 


320  B7EAR-HEADS,    LA.NCX-HEAD9,   ETC.,  [CHAP.  XIT. 

the  latter  cloHe  to  the  mouth  of  the  socket.  A  eecond  in  the  same  faoud 
Hbowe  eight  ritiga  near  the  mouth  of  the  socket,  and  a  line  running  dowa 
each  Bide  of  the  midrib  prolonged  bulow  the  blade  aa  f ar  as  Hie  rivet-bole 
which  it  endosee.  A  spear-head  from  the  hoard  found  at  Beddingtoo, 
near  Croydon,'*  is  ornamented  in  nearly  the  same  manner.  It  was  found 
with  a  gouge,  socketed  celts,  a  portion  of  celt  mould,  &a.  That  fnn 
Culham,  near  Abingdon,  shown  in  Fig.  392,  has  three  sets  of  fourrin^ 
and  one  of  two,  as  well  as  some  Terti<»l  dotted  lines  above  the  upper  ring. 
In  this  case  the  bands  seem  to  have  been  punched  in  with  a  semlel 
punch  which  produced  four  short  hnes  at  each  stroke,  and  by  skilful 
manipulation  these  short  lines  were  made  to  join  so  as  to  form  a  oontinumu 

I  have  a  spear-head  from  Ijakenheath,  Suffolk  (5J  inches),  with  » 

small  raised  band  cast  on  the  socket  just  below  the  riret-hole. 

A  epear-hoad  (6^  inches)  in  the  Antiquarian  Museum  at  Edinburgh. 

found  near  Forfar,    is  ornamented  with 

two  bands  of  three  parallel  lines  round 

the  socket. 

The  sockets  of  some  Irish  spear-heads 
are  highly  decorated.  That  of  a  long  leaf- 
shaped  specimen  from  Athenry,  Co.  Gal- 
way,  IS  shown  in  Fig.  393,  kindly  lent  me 
by  the  Boyal  Irish  Academy.  It  is  Fig. 
362  in  Wilde's  Catalogue,  in  which  also 
some  other  examples  are  engraved.  The 
chevron  ornament  and  the  alternate  direc- 
tion of  the  hatching  are  highly  charac- 
tenstic  of  the  style  of  the  Bronze  Period. 

A  similar  decoration  is  found  on  English 
speoimena.  One  found  at  Bilton,  York- 
sh]re,t  with  other  apcar-hoads,  fragments 
of  swords,  and  socketed  celte,  has  round 
the  socket  three  bands  of  triangles  alternately  hatehed  and  plain,  and 
the  blade  is  ornamented  with  a  single  row  of  the  same  kind  on  each 
side  of  the  central  rib.  One  from  Edington  Hurtle,  Somerset  (-ij  inches), 
in  the  Taunton  Museum,  has  a  band  of  hatched  triangles  above  three 
bands  of  jiurallel  lines  with  transverse  lines  between. 

A  broken  spear-head  from  the  Broadward  J  find  has  the  blade  orna- 
mented in  the  same  way.  A  row  of  plain  triangles  is  left  on  each  side 
of  the  midrib,  while  the  rest  of  the  blade  is  hatched,  the  set  of  parallel 
lines  in  each  point  between  the  plain  triangles  being  alternately  to  tlie 
right  and  te  tlio  left. 

A  frajjment  of  a  blade  from  the  Ilaynes  Hill  hoard, §  Kent,  has  ring 
ornaments  engraved  along  each  side  of  the  midrib. 

As  has  already  been  observed,  the  edges  of  tliis  class  of  spear-heads 
are  not  unfrtHjiii>ntly  fluted,  but  it  mvasionaUy  happens  that  the  whole 
blade  is  omanieiitcd  by  minute  ribs  and  flutingp.s.  The  spear-head 
(lOJ  inches)  found  with  two  swords  and  two  ferrules  at  FiJbourn,  Cam- 
bridge,||  affords  an  example  of  this  kind.     On  each  side  of  the  central  rib 


CiShiun.    \ 


•  Aniltraon'B  "  Trovdon  Prch.  and  Roi 
t  Arfh.  ^»w«.  Jauni..  vol.  v.  p.  3*9. 
i  Arch.  JoHi-n.,  vol.  m.  p.  282. 


-p.  11,  pi.  i 


VcA.  Cfl«A.,  4th  S.,  vol.  i 


WITH   L00P8  AT  THB  SIDES.  321 

containing'  the  socket  are  two  sharp  ridges  one  below  the  other,  next 
comee  a  hollow  fluting,  then  a  ridge,  and  then  the  fluting  wliicb  forms 
the  edge.  To  judge  from  the  engraviag,  another  found  at  Gringley, 
Nottinghamshire,*  must  also  have  been  fluted  in  a  somewhat  similar 
manaer. 

The  discovery  of  other  leaf-shaped  spear-heads  witb  rivet-holee  through 
the  sockets  is  recorded  to  hare  been  made  at  the  following  places,  and 
many  others  might  no  doubt  be  added  to  the  list ;  the  Thames,  near 
Batt«rseaf  (16}  inches);  near  Wallingford ]:  (7^  inches);  and  KingRton  § 
(8J  and  7-fy  inches) ;  two  (7J  inches  and  6  Inches)  were  found  near  Tod- 
dington,  Beds ;  {]  at  Beacon  Hill,  Chamwood  Forest,  Leicestershire,^  two 
(7^  inches  and  6(  inches)  were  found  with  a  socketed  celt  and  gouge. 
Others  were  discovered  near  Tarlet,  Stafford- 
shiro;**  near  Alnwick  Castle  ft  (sixteen  with 
celta  and  swords) ;  Tronhoulog,  Merioneth- 
shire ;  XX  ^'^^  Loug7  Common,  Aldemey  §§  (one 
with  blade  ornamented). 

The  spear-heads  of  the  second  of  tlie 
classes  into  which  they  are  here  divided 
are  those  with  loops  at  the  side  of  the 
projecting  socket.  These  loops  are  usually 
more  elongated  than  those  on  socketed 
celts  and  palstaves,  though  they  probably 
served  a  similar  purpose,  that  of  securing 
the  metallic  head  to  the  wooden  handle. 
The  metal  of  which  the  loops  are  formed 
has  frequently  been  flattened  by  hammer- 
ing, so  as  to  reduce  the  projection  of  the 
loops  beyond  the  socket ;  the  flattened 
part  is  often  wrought  into  a  lozenge  form. 

The  strings  which  passed  through  these 
loops  were  probably  secured  to  some  stop  ^  -Theiford    i 

or  collar  on  the  shaft,  and  may  have  been 

amu^^  in  some  chevron-like  pattern  with  which  these  lozenges 
coincided.  There  are  usually  no  rivet-holes  in  the  spear-heads  of 
this  class. 

A  specimen  exhibiting  these  lozenges,  and  with  the  blade  of  nearly 
the  same  form  as  those  of  the  spear-heads  of  the  first  class,  is  shown  in 
Fig.  394.  The  upper  part  of  ^e  midrib  containing  the  socket  is  riilge<l, 
so  that  the  section  near  thepoint  is  almost  square.  The  socket  is  sliglitl; 
fluted  round  the  mouth.     The  original  was  found  at  Thetford,  Suflolk. 

A  spear-head  of  the  same  typo,  but  with  only  a  single  large  loop,  found 

•  Artk.,  vol.  «vi.  p.  361,  pi.  Uiv.  1.  t  r>or.  Soe.  Ant.,  toL  iv.  p.  214, 

t  F.  a.  A.,  2nd  8.,  vol.  iv.  p.  280.  k  P-  S.  A.,  2nd  8.,  vol.  i.  p.  83. 

1  Arei^  vol.  xxvii.  p.  IDS.  1  P.  S.  A.,  vol.  iv.  p.  323. 

•■  Plot's  "  StafFord.,"  p,  404,pl.  xxxiii.  8.  t+  Areh.,  voi.  v.  p.  113. 

U  Arei.  Garni.,  4tti  S,,  voL  viii.  p.  210.  H  ''"'A'  -^-ot-  Jvirn.,  vol.  iii.  p.  n. 


323  SPEAR-HEADS,   LAKCB-HEADS,   ETC.  [cHAP.  XIV. 

in  Glen  Kenns,  Ghdloway,  is  engraved  in  the  Archaoloffia,*  but  it  Beems 
probable  that  the  figure  is  somewhat  inaccurate. 

Another  ^5^  inches)  with  two  loops  was  found  at  Han^eton  Down, 
8uffolk.f  Another  (5^  inches),  rather  more  elongated  than  Fig.  394,  was 
foimd  at  Trefeglwys,  Montgomeryshire.^  Another  from  Sbirewood 
Forest  is  engraved  in  ilie  Arehaologia,^  It  has  a  slightly  ogival  outline 
on  each  side,  a  peculiarity  I  have  noticed  in  other  specimens.  An  example 
given  in  the  same  plate  seems  to  have  lost  the  flat  part  of  the  blade. 

I  have  one  (6^  inches)  from  Fyfield,  near  Abingdon. 

Mr.  M.  Fisher  has  a  specimen  from  the  Fens  at  Ely  (5f  inches),  with 
the  midrib  ridged  like  Fig.  396. 

One  from  Hagboum  HUl,  near  Chiltem,  Berks,  ||  is  reported  to  have 
been  found  with  a  socketed  celt,  a  pin  like  Fig.  458,  and  another  like 
Fig.  453,  together  with  a  bronze  bri(Ue-bit,  and  some  portions  of  buckles 
like  those  of  the  late  Celtic  Period.  These  are  now  in  tne  British  Museum. 
A  few  coins  of  gold  and  silver  are  said  to  have  been  found  at  the  same 
time. 

One  (6  inches)  wfiw  found  at  Chartham,  near  Canterbury.^ 

One,  5  inches  long,  from  the  Thames,  is  in  the  British  Museimi.  It  has 
a  small  ridge  or  bead  along  the  mid-feather.  The  loops  have  a  diamond 
engraved  or  punched  upon  them. 

In  one  from  Beckhampton,  Wilts  **  (4f  inches),  the  side  loops  do  not 
appear  to  be  flattened. 

The  form  is  of  not  unfrequent  occurrence  in  Ireland,  though  perhaps 
that  with  the  raised  ribs  on  the  blade,  like  Fig.  397,  is  more  common. 

In  one  instance  (13^  inches)  f  f  the  loops  upon  the  socket  are  not  opposite 
each  other,  though,  as  usual,  in  the  same  plane  as  the  blade. 

A  small  specimen  (5j^  inches)  from  Fairholme,  Lockerbie,  Dumfries- 
shire, is  in  the  British  Museum. 

A  small  example  of  this  type  (about  3^  inches)  is  in  the  collection 
formed  by  Sir  R.  Colt  Hoare  at  Stourhead,  and  now  at  Devizes,  and  in  the 
same  case  with  the  dagger  blades.  It  has  been  figured  by  the  late  Dr. 
Thumam  tJ  in  his  valuable  memoir  in  the  ArchcBologia,  and  is  thoueht  by 
hiTn  to  have  been  found  in  a  grave  with  burnt  bones  in  one  of  the  Wilsf ord 
barrows  near  Stonehenge. 

There  is  a  diminutive  variety  of  this  class  of  weapon  with  two  loops,  in 
which  the  blade  is  extremely  narrow,  like  that  from  Lakenheath  snown 
in  Fig.  395.  I  have  another,  4f  inches,  with  even  a  smaller  and  shorter 
blade,  from  Cumberland. 

Canon  Greenwell  has  one  only  3  inches  long,  f  oimd  near  Nottingham. 
It  has  three  parallel  grooves  round  the  socket  mouth.  One,  4  J  inches,  from 
Ashdown,  Berks,  is  in  the  British  Museum. 

A  fragment  of  another  of  very  small  dimensions  was  found  at  Farley 
Heath,  Surrey,  and  is  now  in  the  British  Museum. 

A  lance-head  with  a  more  leaf -shaped  blade  (6  J  inches)  is  said  to  have 
been  foimd  in  a  tumulus  at  Craigton,  near  Kinross.  §§ 

*  Vol.  X.  p.  480,  pi.  xl.  5.  t  Sussex  Arch.  Coll,,  vol.  \\\\.  p.  269. 

1  *'  Montgom.  Coll.,"  vol.  iii.  p.  432,  and  vol.  xii.  p.  25. 

\  Vol.  ix.  p.  94,  pi.  iii.  ||  Arch.y  vol.  xW.  p.  348,  pi.  1. 

%  Arch.  Assoc.  Journ.y  vol.  xvii.  p.  334.        *♦  Arch.  Inst.,  Salisb.  vol.,  p.  110. 

ft  Wilde,  "Catal.  R.  I.  A.,"  p.  496,  fig.  363;  "Hor.  Fer.,"  pi.  vi.  15. 

n  Arch.,  vol.  xHii.  p.  447 :  "  Anc.  Wilts,"  vol.  i.  p.  208. 

§§  Proe.  Soc.  Ant.  Scot.,  vol.  xi.  p.  168. 


WITH    LOOPS,    FROM    IRELAND, 


323 


An  Irifth  example,  2|  inclieH  long,  and  comparatively  broad  in  propor- 
tioD  to  its  len^h,  has  been  regarded  as  an  arrow-head.  It  was  found  at 
Olonmel,  Co.  Kpperary.*  It  has  probahly  been  broken  and  repoint*d. 
An  esample  much  like  Fig.  395  is  engraved  by  Wilde  as  his  Fig.  379. 

In  some  cases  there  is  a  ridge  TunuiQg  along  the  whole  or  a  great  part 
of  the  midrib  on  the  blade  so  ax  to  make  the  section  near  the  poiat  almost 
cruciform.  An  example  of  this  kind  from  the  neighbourhood  of  Cam- 
bridge is  ehown  in  Fig.  396.     In  this  case  the  side  loops  are  unusually 


North  oflnluid.   i 


near  the  mouth  of  the  socket,  the  cavity  of  which  extends  about  half-way 
along  the  blade.  Canon  Greenwell  has  an  example  of  this  type  (6i  inches), 
from  Langton,  Lincolnshire,  with  a  longer  socket,  and  the  loops  about 
half-way  along  it. 

This  ribbing  along  the  midrib  is  of  frequent  occurrence  on  Irish  spear- 
heads, and  was  probably  intended  to  strengthen  as  well  as  to  decorate 
the  blade.  The  projecting  ribs  on  the  flat  part  of  the  blade  were  also 
probably  added  for  the  same  purpose.  Fig,  397  shows  a  spear-head  with 
"lorth  of  Ireland.    The  blade  is  carried  down 


these  ridges,  found  in  the  North  o 


rui.  p.  187. 


SPEAR-HEADS,   LANCE-HEADS,   ETC. 


[chap.  XIV. 

BB  B  slight  projeolion 
along  the  socket  until  it 
nieot«  the  side  loops,  tbe 
outer  faces  oi  whidi  an 
expanded  into  losengei. 
I  have  a  shorter  ex- 
ample (5^  inches)  fraia 
Old  Kilpatrick,  Dum- 
bartonshire,  Scotland; 
one  from  Termon,  Co- 
TjTone,  is  engraved  in 
the  Arehteoloffieal  Jour- 

In  some  the  blade  ii 
proportioiially  wider  and 
eihorter.  I  have  one 
from  near  EnniekiUeii 
(7i  inches),  in  which  the 
blade  between  the  socket 
and  the  ribs  is  so  thin 
that  two  long  holes  have 
been  eaten  or  worn 
through  it,  giving  it  the 
appearance  of  belonging 
to  the  perforated  dasa 
to  bo  subsequently  de- 
scribed. 

An  Irish  specimen 
much  like  Fig.  397  is 
engraved  in  "  Hotte 
Ferales."  f 

A  small  broad-bladed 
form  is  of  very  common 
occurrence  in  Ireland. 
An  example  is  given  in 
Fig.  398.  Another  Is 
engraved  by  Wilde  ( Fig. 
369).  Some  have  two 
diagonal  ribs  on  each 
mde  of  the  blade  instead 
of  only  one.  A  rather 
more  pointed  form  is 
given  by  Vallancey.J: 
There  are  others  figured 
in  the  "  IIoho  Fe- 
rales." § 

This  tj-po  is  of  rare 


FiS,  SD9.— Tlmr 


DECOHATED   ON   THE    BLADE. 


325 


occurrence  ia  England,  but  ono  (4i  inchefl  ?)  much  like  Fig.  398  was 

plouB^hed  up  at  Heage,*  in  the   parish  of  Duffield,   Derbyshire,   and 

another  (4^  inches)  waa  found  near  Lincoln,  f 

A  gracefully  shaped  spear-liead,  with  parallel  beadiugs  upon  thebhide, 

and  having  veiy  flat  loops  with  pointed  oval  faces  on  the  socket,  was  found 

in  the  Thanies,  and  formed  part  of  the  Koach  Smith  CoUection,  now  in  the 

British  Museum.     It  is  shown  in  Fig.  399,  and  appears  to  be  unique  of 

ita  kind.     A  plain  spear-head  (7  inches)  of  much  the  same  form,  and 

another  of  the  same  length,  but  wider  and  flatter,  were  found  at  Edington 

Iturtle,    Somerset,    and    are    now    in    the 

Museum  at  Taunton. 
A  very  remarkable  specimen  in  the  Boyal 

Irish  Academy  is  engraved  as  Fig.  400. 

It  has  already  been  figured  on  a  small  scale 

by  Wilde,  who  thus  describeB  it :  J    "A  long 

narrow  spear   with   concave   or  recurved 

Hides,    and  long    lozenge-shaped  loops    on 

each  side  of  the  socket,  where  the  circular 

form  of  that  portion  of  the  weapon  becomes 

angular.      Narrow    lateral  ridges  connect 

these  loops  with  the  base  of  the  blade, 

which  has  hollow  bevelled  edges,  and  is  as 

sharp  as  the  day  it  came  from  the  mould. 

The  socket  margin  is  decorated  with  a  fillet 

of  five  elevations,  and  a  double  linear  en- 
graved  or  punched   ornament    forming    a 

triangular  pattern  like  that  seen  in  some 

antique  gold  ornaments.  A  sharp  ridge 
extends  along  the  middle  of  the  socket  fr<nn 
the  loops  to  tne  point,  on  each  side  of  which, 
aa  well  as  in  the  angles  between  the  blade 
and  the  socket,  there  are  lines  of  small  oval 
punched  indentations  apparently  eifocted  by 
the  hand." 

In  one  of  the  looped  forms  both  the 
blade  and  the  socket  are  often  higlily  orna- 
mented. The  socket  port  is  made  to  appear 
somewhat  like  a  haft  to  the  blade,  as  in 
the  Arretcm  Down  specimen  (Fig.  328),  and 
the  blade  itself  has  ridges  running  nearly 
parallel  to  the  edges,  the  midrib  being 
almost  square  in  section.  An  example  of  this  kind  from  Ballymena 
is,  by  the  kindness  of  Mr.  H.  Day,  F.S.A.,  shown  in  Fig.  401.  As  will 
be  seen,  the  socket,  blade,  and  exti^nial  faces  of  the  loops  are  all  orna- 
mented with  engraved  and  punctured  lines.  A  beautiful  example  from 
Ireland  (6J  inches),  the  socket  engraved  irith  a  double  ring  of  chevrons 
near  the  middle,  and  a  single  ring  near  the  base,  and  also  ornamented 
with  dotted  circles  and  lines  extending  down  the  blndo,  is  in  the 
Britash  Muaenm.  It  has  two  knobs  on  each  side  of  the  socket  simulating 
rivets. 

.  p.  280 ;  '■  VtBt.  Ant.  Derb.,"  p.  9. 

V.  p.  285.  t  "  Catal.  Mus.  H.  I.  A,,"  p.  *9(i. 


836  SPEAR-HBADB,    LANOE-HEADS,    BTC.  [cHAP.  XIV. 

Other  TorietieB  vitli  the  midrib  more  rounded  are  ^vea  by  Wilde,* 
and  two  of  his  figures  are,  by  the  kindness  of  the  Coimcil  of  the  Boysl 
Irish  Academy,  here  reproduced  aa  Figs.  402  and  403.f  The  original  of 
Fig.  402  is  5  inches  long.  It  has  "  a  central  circular  Btnd  opposite  ths 
base  of  the  blade,  beneath  which  there  are  a  series  of  minute  continnoiu 
lines  margined  on  both  sides  by  a  row  of  elevated  dota."  The  socket  ami 
the  outer  surface  of  the  loops  are  also  highly  decorated. 

Fig.  403  is  7^  inches  long,  and  is  also  artistically  ornamented. 


rig.  lOE.— Inland.    ] 


Fig.  tun.— LcUnd.    ( 


An  example  of  this  kind  is  given  in  "  Hortc  Ferales."  J 

Oiiu  (5i  inches)  from  the  Dean  Water,  Forfarshire,  is  in  the  Antiquarian 
Museum  at  Edinburgh.  The  blade  is  uniamented  by  incised  lines  and 
punctiilations. 

Fig.  404,  also  kindly  lent  by  the  Royal  Irish  Aeademy  (Wilde,  Fig.  378). 
shows  a  smaller  and  a  plainer  type. 

An  unomaniented  lance-head  of  this  type  (5  iuches)  was  found  at  Peel,|| 
in  the  Isle  of  Man.  Another,  5|  Indies,  with  three  bands  of  parallel 
lines  round  the  soc'ket,  was  obtained  at  Douglas,  Lanarkshire.§ 


'  n.  vi.  II.. 

J  Areli.  A,ac.  Jom- 


WITH   LOOPS    AT   THE   BASE   OF   THE    BLADE. 


327 


The  Bpear-heada  of  this  claes  vith  loops  at  the  side  of  the  sockets  are 
almost  unknown  out  of  the  British  IsUaos.  In  my  own  oolleotion,  how- 
ever, is  one  from  the  Seine  at  Paris  (6^  inchee),  almoat  identical  in 
form  with  Fi^.  394,  but  with  the  lozenge-shaped  plates  forming  the 
loops  somewhat  wider. 

A  highly  omam.ented  Bpeax-head  from  Hungary,*  preeerved  in  the 
Uuseum  at  Buda-Fest,  has  small  semicircular  loops 
at  the  sides  of  the  socket. 

The  third  class  of  spear-heads  consists  of 
those  with  loops  at  the  base  of  the  blade  con- 
aectiDg  it  with  the  socket.  There  are  many 
varieties  of  this  clasx,  which  includes  some 
of  the  most  elegant  forms  of  these  ancient 
weapons.  The  reason  for  adopting  this  par- 
ticular kind  of  loop  appears  to  be  that  ihey 
were,  when  thus  attached  to  the  blade,  less 
liable  to  be  broken  oS*  or  damaged  than  when 
they  formed  isolated  projections  from  the 
socket  The  spear-heads  were  also  more  readily 
polished  and  furbished  when  the  socket  was 
left  as  a  plain  tube. 

The  loops  are  very  frequently  formed  by  the 
continuation  of  two  ribs  aloDg  the  margin  of 
the  blade,  which  are  curved  inwards  from  the 
base  of  the  blade  until  they  join  the  socket. 

A  good  example  of  this  formation  of  the  loop  is 
shown  in  Fig.  405.  The  original  was  found  at 
Elford,  Northumberland,  and  is  in  the  collectioii 
of  Caaon  Greenwell,  F.B.S. 

Another  of  nearly  the  same  form,  but  without 
the  ribs  on  the  blade,  was  found  near  Lowthorpe, 
Yorkshire,  £.B.,  and  is  in  the  posaeesion  of  Mr. 
T.  Boynton,  of  Ulrome  Orange. 

The  very  graceful  apear-head  shown  in  Fig.  406 
was  found  at  Isleham  Fen,  Cambridge,  in  1863, 
and  is  a  remarkably  fine  caatiug,  the  cavity  for  the 
reception  of  the  shaft  being  no  less  than  12^  inches  ^-  W.-EUnd.  i 

in  length,  and  perfectly  central  in  the  blade. 

I  have  another  spear-head  of  the  some  type  (IB  inches),  probably  from 
the  Thames,  almoat  aa  well  cast,  but  rather  heavier  in  proportion  to  its  size. 
There  are  traces  of  wood  in  the  socket,  as  is  also  the  case  in  another  of  the 
■ame  form(Hi  inches)  dredged  from  the  Thames  atBattersea,f  and  now 
in  the  Bateman  Collection.  The  wood  has  been  thought  to  be  ash. 
Another  similar,  but  originally  about  20  inches  long,  was  found  in  the 


SPEAR-HEADS,    LANCE-HEADS,   ETC  [CHAP.  XIT. 

TliameB  near  Itunnymode;  *  and  another  in  ttie  col- 
lection of  Qenerol  A.  Pitt  Rivets,  F.B..8.,  17  inchea 
long,  was  found  at  Hampton  Court. 

Another  (13J  inchea)  from  the  Thamee  at  Thames 
Dittou  is  in  the  British  Museum. 

One  (15^  iaches)  from  Bottiaham  Lode,  Cam- 
brid^,  is  in  the  Britifih  MuBeum;  as  is  another  (14^ 
inches)  from  the  New  Itiver  Works,  Pentonrille. 
1  have  seen  othora  from  Covene^  Fen  (16J  inches, 
&[r.  Fishtir),  and  from  Woolpit,  near  Bury  St. 
Edmunds  (B  J  inches).  The  blade  of  one  (llg  inches] 
without  the  socket  was  found  at  Stanwick,  York- 
shire, and  ia  now  in  the  British  Museum. 

One  (13J  inches)  was  found  with  three  rapier- 
sliaped  blades  near  Uaentwrog,  Merionethshire,  and 
is  in  the  same  colleutton.t 

Anutlier,  broken,  in  tlie  Museum  at  Taunton,  is 
said  to  have  been  found  in  the  Roman  viUa  at 
Wadsford,  Combe  St.  Nicholas,  near  Chard.  Its 
original  length  must  have  been  about  18  inches. 

In  the  Bpocimen  from  Stibbard,  Norfolk,  [  ahovn 
m  Fig.  407,  the  ribs  upon  the  blade  are  less  distinct, 
und  the  loops  are  widened  out  so  as  to  show  a 
lozenge  form  when  the  edge  of  the  blade  is  seen. 
This  spear-head  was  found  with  nine  others  and 
about  seventy  palstaves  about  ItiOG,  and  ia  in  the 
stattt  in  whiuh  it  left  the  mould,  having  never  been 
tiuished  by  hammering  and  grinding,  though  the 
I  oro  has  been  extracted.  I  have  seen  a  specimen  iu 
the  coUuctiou  of  Mr.  J.  Holmes,  found  at  Morley, 
ntar  Leeds,  in  which  the  hammering  process  had 
been  applied  to  a  part  only  of  thu  blade,  which 
had  ovideutly  broken  in  the  operation.  The  partly 
tiuisbed  base  and  the  imtmished  jKiint  were  found 
together. 

An  Irish  example  of  this  form  has  been  engraved 
by  Vallancey.§ 

This  tyjie  is  rare  in  France,  but  a  specimen  is  in 
the  Museum  at  CarcasHoime  (Aude),  and  another  in 
that  at  St.  Germain. 

In  some  spcar-heads  of  nearly  tho  same  form 
there  is  a  raised  bead  ruuning  down  the  midrib  as  in 
Fig.  408.  This  beautifully  finished  weapon  was 
bought  in  Dublin,  but  I  cannot  say  iu  what  part  of 
Ireland  it  was  found. 

A  smaller  and  broader  apecijuL'U  (7  inches)  iu  013- 
C'ollectiiin  was  found  at  Clough,  near  Antrim. 

•  Arrl..  Auttc.  Jour.,  viA.  xvi.  p.  322. 

t  Arch.,  vol.  ivi.  p.  SUu,  pi.  lax.  3. 

;  Arch,  lost,,  Kurwich  vol.,  p.  xxvi.  AnothEr  fruiii 
this  huanl  is  in  the  Brit.  Mub.,  •'  Mor.  J-'er.,"  pi.  vi.  22.  Sir. 
KrnakB  thinks  that  the  mould  was  in  four  pieces  hesideB  llw 
core,  but  on  this  point  I  nin  rather  douWful. 


rig.  *».— Ji/fft.iEi  Ten. 


OF   CBOCIFOKH    SECTION    NEAR  THE    POINT.  Oiv 

have  another  (lOJ  inches)  from  the  nortli  of  Ireland  in  which  the 
rib  half-way  (uong  the  blade  expands  to  form  an  edge  almost  as  sharp 
hat  at  tlie  sides.      Near  the  point  the  Hoction   ie  cruciform,  as  in 


Flg.*W.-I.ikMili«th. 


spfar-head  found  near  Hay,  on  the  river  Vt'ye,  and  now  in  the  Museum 
B  Society  of  Antiqiiarios  of  London,  pn-^cnte  the  Bam«  peculiarity  as 


'   ancient   bronze  spcur-heude  from  Oliina*  i 
*  Arrh.  Jaurn.,  vol,  xi.  p.  415. 


330 


8FBAR-HEADS,    LANCE-HRADS,   ETC 


[chap.  XIT. 


central  ridgea  of  the  same  kind  on  the  blades.  Th^  have  bnt  one  loop, 
and  that  ia  on  the  face,  and  there  ia  a  deep  notch  at  the  mouth  of  toe 
docket. 

The  long  bladcH  are  often  more  leaf-ehaped  and  leaa  truncated  at  the 
base  than  that  shown  in  Fig.  406.  A  very  lara^  specimen  of  this  kind 
from  Lakonheath  Fen  is  shown  an  the  aaile  of  ^  inch  in  Fig.  409.  The 
point  is  unfortunately  lost,  tnit  is  restored  in  the  engraving.  The  midiib 
containing  the  socket  is  ridged,  and  the  outer  faces  of  the  loops  expand 
into  the  diamond  form. 

One  of  nearly  the  same  character  (22^  inches),  found 
in  the  Thames  at  Datchet,  forma  part  of  the  Boach  Smitli 
Collection,*  now  in  the  British  Museum.  Another  (lU 
inches)  was  found  with  palstaves  at  Sberfordit  neu 
Taunton. 

A  specimen  in  the  British  Museum  (15j  inches)  has 
an  ornament  of  hatched  chevrons  round  the  base  of  1^ 
socket,  and  the  lozenge-shaped  flanges  are  also  orna- 
mented with  hatched  open  maacles. 

A  apear-head  of  the  same  form  (IS^  inches)  boa 
Ireland  I  has  the  ridge  decoral«d  with  lines  of  dots,  and 
the  socket  with  hands  and  a  chevron  pattern.  A 
plain  specimen,  no  less  than  26{  inches  long,  found  at 
Maghera,     Co.     Londonderry,§     has    been    figured    by 

wade. 

In  others  tlie  midrib  ia  conical,  and  the  blade  nearly 
flat,  or  with  only  a  shallow  channel  along  the  sides  of 
the  midrib.  One  such  from  the  find  at  Nettleham,  Lin- 
colnsliire,  II  now  in  the  British  Museum,  is,  by  the  kind- 
nesa  of  Mr.  Franks,  shown  in  Fig.  410.  I  have  one 
nearly  aiuiilar  (9i  inches)  from  Edmonton  Marsh.  One 
(7^  inches)  from  the  Thames  at  Lambeth  is  in  the 
British  Museum,  as  are  others  from  the  same  river 
varying  in  length  from  9  to  15J  inches. 

One  from  Speen,  BerksH  (7  inches),  is  of  the  same 
character,  as  is  one  (SJ  inches)  from  Crawford,  Lanark- 
shire.** Another  (9  inches)  from  Horsey,  near  Peter- 
borough, Hunts,  has  been  engraved  by  Artis-ff 
Another  (IC^  inches)  from  the  Severn  at  Kempaey, 
Worcestershire,  II  appears  to  have  been  of  tliis  type. 
I  have  seen  others  Irom  the  Cambridge  Fens.  One  (5^ 
inches)  from  Edington  Burtle,  Somerset,  is  in  the  Taun- 
ton Museum. 
A  spear-head  of  this  character  (lOJ  inches),  with  the  farces  of  the  loops 
lozenge- shiiped,    was  found   witli   two  looped    palstaves   and    a   chisel 


NetUebu 


-  ■■  CaU!.  Mu8,  I*nd.  Ant.,"  p.  83.  X...  3:( 

t  I'ring,  '■  Brit,  and  Roiii.  Tannton,"  pi.  jii. 

:  ■■  Uoite  Fer.,"  pi.  vi.  iO, 

J  "  Catal.  Mua.  R.  I.  A.."  fig.  366,  p.  4M6  ; 

il  Anl,.  Jouni.,  vol.  iriii.  p-  160. 

%  Afth.  Jitoe.  Jmrix.,  vol.  ivi.  p.  322,  pi.  > 

•■  Op-  cit.,  vol.  ivii.  p.  110,  pi.  xi.  3. 

tt  "'  Durobrivic,"  p.  Ivi.  4. 

j;  Ai-ck.  Joiii-u.,  vqI.  iii.  331 ;  Allies,  "  Woi 


Wmi   0FENIK03    IX    THE    BT.AD?:. 


{Tig.  197)  at  Broxton,  about 
twelve  mileB  south  of  Cheater. 
It  19  now  in  the  collection  of  Sir 
P.  de  if.  G.  Egerton,  Bart.,  who 
haa  kindly  shown  it  to  me. 

Spear-heads  of  this  character 
are  occasionaUj  found  in  Scot- 
land. Two  from  Wigtonahire  * 
have  been  figured. 

The  form  is  common  in  Ireland. 
I  have  one  12  inches  long  from 
one  of  the  northern  counties. 

A  apear-head  (6J  inches)  with 
smaU  projecting  loops  at  each 
side  of  the  blade  was  found  near 
Hawick,  Boxburghahire.t 

In  Fig.  411  is  shown  a  remark- 
ably fine  spear-head  in  the  collec- 
tion of  Canon  Qreenwell,  F.R.S., 
which  exhibits  the  peculiarity  of 
having  the  loops  formed  by  the 
pndongation  of  small  ribs  on  each 
ride  of  the  midrib,  and  of  having, 
in  addition,  a  rivet-hole  through 
the  socket.  It  was  found  at 
Knockans,  Co.  Antrim. 

An  Irish  Bp6ar-head(  1 4}  inches) 
with  loops  at  the  lover  end  of 
the  blade,  and  the  socket  pierced 
for  a  rivet,  was  exhibited  to  the 
Ardueological  Institute  in  1656.^ 

The  fourth  class  of  spear- 
heads, those  with  openings  in 
the  hlade,  may  ^ain  be  sub- 
divided into  those  in  which 
the  openings  appear  to  have 
served  as  loops  for  attaching 
the  blade  to  the  shaft,  and 
those  in  which  these  apertures 
seem  to  have  been  mainly 
intended  for  ornament,  or  pos- 
sibly for  diminishing  weight. 

Of  the  former  kind  appear 
to  be  those  which  have  merely 
two  small  slits   in    the    lower 


•  Ayr  Mid  Wi|!ton  Coll.,  vol.  ii. 
t  Prae.  Soc.  AM.  Scot.,  vol.  v.  p 
;  Arth.  Jtam.,  vol.  x<ii.  p.  366. 


p.  13. 


l*i|[.«ll,— Knoekaiu.    i 


832  APEAR'HEADS,    LANCB-HBADS,    ETC  [cHAP.  XIT 

part  of  the  LWe,  such  as  would  soem  &daj>tcd  for  the  iDsertioD 
of  a  cord,  lliuse  holes  ore  usually  protected  b; 
jirojections  rising  from  the  blade  on  the  outer  side 
of  the  holes. 

A  fine  HjKiar-Iicad  in  my  own  collection  thus  per- 
forated, found  noar  Lurgan,  Co.  Armagh,*  is  shown  in 
Fig.  412.  It  is  2-1  inches  iu  length,  and  3}  inchttsia 
extreme  breadth. 

The  opeuingB  are  about  17  inches  from  the  point. 
An  Irish  friend  has  suggested  that  they  were  for  th« 
reception  of  poison,  but  after  the  blade  had  penetrated 
neventeen  inches  into  thu  human  body  such  an  use  of 
poison  would  proliably  be  supi-rHuous. 

A  xpcar-head  of  the  same  fonn  (1!)|  inches)  was 
fiiiind  cm  the  hill  of  Rosele,  DulFue,  Morayshire, f  and. 


WITH    FLANUKft   AT   THE   SIDE   OF   THE    OPEMNCS. 


333 


■w  in  tho  Elgiii  Museum.    Anotlier,  broken,  but  still  lOg  inuliee  long, 
found  with  a  rapier-shaped  blade  at  Corbridge,  Northumberland.* 
-oken  specimen  was  found  in  the  Isle  of  Portland,  j- 
siiear-head  (10  inches)  with  small  openings  in  the  blade  was  found, 

paletaveB,    socketed    celts,   rapiers,    bracelets,    and    a   ferrule,    at 
lington,  Northumber- 
,  and   ia  in  tho  ])ob- 
on     of     Sir     Charloa 
■elj-ui. 

a  "oyod"  speur-hcad 
nches  long  was  found 
the  Thanies  near 
:hot,J  but  wliotlior  it 
of  this  or  some  other 

I  cannot  say.  On" 
K-hes)  witli  two  holes 
ho  base  uf  tho  leaf 
■e  the  ferrule  was 
d  near  Speen,  JJerks.§ 

broader  form  (13  J 
es)  from  Ireland  is 
■aved  by  WUdo  (Fig. 
,  and  another  broader 
is  shown  in  my  Fig. 

This  has  a  rivet-hole 
he  front  of  the  socket, 
ell  as  the  holes  in  the 
e.  This  is  abo  in  the 
lin  Museum. 
1  some  instances  the 
e  is  very  mui'h  shorter 

Eroportion  to  the 
of  the  socket,  as 
be  seen  in  Fig.  414, 
>riginal  of  which  was 
d    in    tliP    county    of 

in  Green  well's  coDec- 

remarkably  fine  Eng- 
examplo  of  the  same 
.  is  shown  in  Fig.  415. 
specimen  was  found 
e  Thames,  and  is  now 
le  British  Museum.     The  small  projecting  flanges  at  the  side  of  the 
i  in  the  blade  are  very  strongly  marked,  and  form  circular  discs 
1  seen  with  the  edge  of  tho  spear-head  towards  the  spectator, 
le  simplest  of  tlio  forms,  in  which  the  holes  in  the  blade  appear  to  be 

•  .Irfh.  Jouru.,  vol.  xix.  p.  3G.1. 
t  Ibid.,  vol.  XXV.  ji.  i9. 
i  Arek.  Auw.  Ja«m,,  vol.  v.  p.  81). 
}  Ibid.,  vol.  ivi.  p.  250. 


Fig.  ilS.— Xnirorih  CuUa. 


334 


SPEAK-HEADS,    LAKCE-HRADS,    ETC. 


[chap.  : 


for  ornament  rather  than  use,  ii  that  in  -which  there  are  two  drculir  or 
oval  holes  through  the  blade,  one  on  either  aide  of  the  midrib  oontaimw 
the  eocket.  The  spear-head  shown  in  Fie;.  416  was  found  near  Navmoi 
Castle,  Cumberland,  in  1S70,  and  is  in  me  collection  of  Canon  Orsen- 


Fig.  118.— Whittinghiun.    ) 


irell.  In  general  form  it  resembles  tlie  type,  Fig.  381.  It  is  provided 
with  ft  rivet-hole  throiiph  the  socket. 

Some  Italian  spear-heads  have  two  circular  holes  in  the  blade,  bwt 
nearer  the  base. 

In  the  epear-head  shown  in  Fig,  417  there  is  no  trace  of  a  rivet-hole 
in  the  socket,  the  end  of  which,  however,  is  broken,  and  the  two  oval 
orifices  in  the  blade  are  placed  one  somewhat  below  the  other.     This 


WITH    LUNATE  OPEKING3  IK    THE    BLADE. 


s  found  at  Blakehope, 


The  more  truly  characteristic  spear-heads  of  this  class  have  two 
crescent-shaped  or  lunate  openings,  one  on  each  side  of  the  mid- 
rib containing  the  socket,  which  thus  is 
made,  as  it  were,  to  reappear  in  the 
middle  of  the  blade.  There  is  usually 
a  riTet-bole  in  the  projecting  part  of  the 
socket  below  the  blade,  so  that  these 
openings  must  be  regarded  as  ornamental, 
or  else  as  intended  to  diminish  the  weight 
of  the  weapon. 

The  original  of  Fig.  418  was  found  about 
1847,  near  Whittingham,  Northumberland,* 
in  company  with  Bome  other  spear-heads  and 
two  swordfl,  and  is  now  in  the  poBsesaion  of 
Lord  Ravensworth.  The  surface  of  the  blade 
ia  ontameated  by  being  worked  into  steps  or 
terraces,  and  the  socket  by  bands  of  parallel 

A  rather  longer  specimen  was  found,  to- 
gether with  a  plain  leaf-shaped  spear-head 
and  five  socketed  celts,  at  Winmarleigh,  near 
Garstang,  Lancashire.!  ^7  ^^  kindness  of 
the  curators  of  the  Warrington  Museum  I  am 
enabled  to  give  it  as  IHg.  419.  It  is  19J 
inches  long.  There  are  small  ridgea  by  the 
side  of  the  midrib  and  round  the  margin  of 
the  openings. 

Another  like  it,  but  only  15|  inches  long. 
.  was  found  with  a  socketed  celt  near  Middle- 
ham,  Yorkshire. 

Some  fragments  of  spear-heads  of  this  cha- 
racter were  found  with  other  bronze  anti- 
quities in  Duddingston  Loch,  Edinburgh.  J 

The  same  form  has  occurred  in  L'eland.g 
A  fine  example  (14  inches)  from  a  hoard  at 
Downs,  King's  County,||  is  in  the  British 
Museum. 

A  spear-head  of  this  ^pe,  about  3  inches 
long,  is  in  the  Boucher  de  Perthes  Collection  Fig. «[».— wmmuieigb.  i 

at  Abbeville. 

A  spear-head  smaller  than  Fig.  419,  but  of  the  same  general  character,  is 


"  Pne.  Soe.  Anl.,  2nd  S.,  vol.  v.  p.  429. 

t  Arek.  Attot.  Joam.,  vol.  iv.  p.  234;  Arch.  JourH., 

t  Qrote'»  "  Treut.  on  Anc.  Armour,"  1786,  pi.  lii.  6. 

{  VJUncey,  "CoU.  Hib.."  vol.  iv.  pi.  li.  7. 

II  "  Hm»  F«r.,"  pL  vi.  16. 


SPEAH-MEADS,    LAKCE-HEADS,    ETC. 


[chap.  : 


shown  in  Fig.  420.  It  was  found  in! 
yfvU  Koii,OtLinbridge,  about  1869. 
is  a  double  bead  uong  each  side  of  < 
midrib,  and  the  blade  is  in  two  b 
or  torracps.  Around  the  crer" 
itliaped  opening'  Uie  beading  is  gr. 
or  milleci  transversely.  A  proje 
is  carripd  down  along  the  socket 
the  blade,  bo  as  to  allow  the  rivet-I 
to  be  inado  in  it.  The  socket  extendi] 
to  within  1^  inches  of  the  point. 

A  spear-head  of  nearly  the  seuw 
size,  with  the  openings  soniewlat 
smaller,  but  ornamented  in  a  aimiliil 
manner,  was  found  with  celts,  pal- 
staves, gouges,  swords,  scabbards,  St., 
at  Quilsfield,  Montgomeryshire  ,•  i' 
1862.  Another,  broken,  was  foundi 
the  same  time.  Another  was 
hoard  at  Little  Wonlock,  Staffoid- 
ahjrc,t  but  does  not  appear  to  hare 
been  oninmented.  There  was  a  frae- 
ment  of  another,  plain,  in  tho  Brotw- 
ward  J  find. 

In  the  Antiquarian  Muaeiun  at  Edin- 
burgh ore  some  spear-heads  of  tbii 
charatter,  with  the  openings  on  the 
blade  rather  longer  in  proportion- 
One  was  found  in  the  bottom  of 
a  cairn  at  Highfield,  Urray,  ixar 
Dingwiill,  EoBa-8liire.§  Othors  were 
foimd  in  Roxburghshire  and  Stirling- 
Some  of  the  spoar-heads  of  tliis  ty]W 
which  have  been  found  in  Ireland  an" 
liighly  omanionted.  A  very  fine  s]M*ci- 
men  given  by  Wilde  (Fig.  374)  has 
several  mouldings  with  a  kind  of  cable 
pattern  u|Kin  them.  Otlu!!*  have  t'ir- 
cidar  perforations  in  addition  to  the 
lunate  o)>eiiings;  and  in  one  instum^)' 
the  socket  is  decorated  with  bands  and 
vertical  lines  (Wilde,  Fig.  372). 

A  .iinall  lance-head  from  Jelabupy. 
ItusHia,  II  with  <«mparatively  larfif 
crescent -shaped  openmgs  tn  the  bliidc, 
lias  boon  figured  by  Worsaao. 

Tim  cut  for  Fig.  421  la  kindly  Irnt 
mo  by  tlie  Society  of  Antiquaries  of 


.,  2nd  S. 


vol.  i 


p.yn 


BARBED    AT  1 


The  original,  19  inches  lon^,  waa  found  with  a  bronze  eword 
i,  Cnpar-AnguB,  Forfarahire,*  and  haa  unfortunately  been 
iroken.  As 


tlie  Severn, 

i.  p.   391  ;  "HortB  Fer.,"  pi.  vi.  23;  "C«W.  Mua. 

.  p.  <04,  pi.   iii.    11;    Arch.  Attof.   Jaum,,  toI.   Xti. 

.,■•  pi.  vi.  26;   Allies, 


"  Arch,  last.,"  York  vnl.,  pi.  i 


338  SPEAR-HEADSy   LANCE-HEADB,   ETC.  [CHAP.  XIT. 

Another  (10}  inches),  found  in  the  Plaistow  Marshes,  Essex,  andnov 
in  the  British  Museum,  has  a  rivet  of  bronze  2}  inches  in  leng^  BtQl  ib 
the  rivet-hole.  Curiously  enough  this  long  rivet  appears  to  be  a  specialiky 
of  this  class  of  weapons.  Some  of  this  type,  together  with  some  fragmflnti 
twisted  and  adhering  together  as  if  partially  molten,  were  found  in  the 
Thames  at  Kingston,*  and  in  one  of  them  was  the  bronze  rivet.  These 
are  now  in  the  British  Museum.  Some  broken  barbed  spear-heads  of 
larger  size  (about  14  inches),  also  with  the  rivets  still  in  position,  were 
found  with  bronze  ferrules  at  a  spot  called  '*  Bloody  Pool,"  South  Brent, 
Devon,  t 

Another  (7  inches),  found  at  Pendoylan,  near  Cardiff,  Olamorganshire,^ 
has  an  oval  socket  pierced  on  one  side  for  a  rivet,  which,  however,  is 
wanting. 

Canon  Greenwell,  F.B.S.,  possesses  an  example  much  like  that  from 
Speen  (lOJ  inches)  found  in  Yorkshire,  near  the  river  Humber. 

In  the  Broadward  find  §  (Shropshire)  were  several  spear-heads  of  this 
type,  mostly  retaining  their  bronze  rivets.  One  of  them,  about  6  inches 
long  and  3  inches  broad,  has  the  base  of  the  blade  at  right  angles  to  the 
socket,  and  not  sloping  downwards.  Several  bronze  ferrules  were  included 
in  the  hoard.  What  appears  to  have  been  a  discovery  of  netirly  the  same 
character  took  place  in  a  bog  on  a  farm  called  the  Wrekin  Tenement,! 
also  in  Shropshire,  where  a  celt,  a  small  number  of  swords,  and  about 
one  hundred  and  fifty  fragments  of  spear-heads  were  foimd.  They  are 
described  as  beinff  for  the  most  part  about  8  inches  in  length,  and  having 
rivets  of  bronze  through  the  sockets.  I  have  not  met  with  the  type  in 
Scotland  or  Ireland. 

It  has  been  suggested  that  these  weapons  were  fishing  spears,  and 
certainly   their  barbed  form,  so  distinct  from  that  of  the  more 
common  spear-heads,  raises  a  presumption  that  they  were  intended 
for  some  special  purpose.    It  appears  to  me,  however,  as  it  already 
has  done  to  others,  that  such  weapons  are  too  clumsy  to  have  been 
used  for  the  capture  of  fish  of  any  ordinary  size,  and  would  have 
made  sad  havoc  even  of  a  forty-pound  salmon.     If  they  were  used 
for  the  chase  at  all,  it  is  more  probable  that  they  were  intended  for 
attacking  large  four-footed  game,  such  as  wild  oxen,   either  by 
thrusting  or  darting,  and  that  the  weapons  were  left  in  the  wound, 
the   shafts   encumbering  the  animal  in   its   flight.      If,  as   would 
probably  be  the  case,  these  got  broken  by  the  animal,  the  long 
rivets  were  well  adapted  for  being  removed  so  as  to  allow  of  the 
broken  shaft  being  taken  out,  and  would  again  serve  to  retain  a 
new  one. 

Mention  has  already  been  made  of  ferrules  having  been  frequently 

*  rror.  iSnc.  Ant.,  2nd  S.,  vol.  i.  p.  125. 

t  Arch.  Jouru.^  vol.  xii.  p.  84  ;  vol.  xviii.  p.  160. 

1  Ibid.,  vol.  xiv.  p.  357;  vol.  xviii.  p.  161. 

I  Arch.  Camh.,  4th  S.,  vol.  iii.  pp.  339,  347. 

II  Arcfi.y  vol.  xxvi.  p.  464. 


FERRULES   FOR  SPEAR-SHAFTS. 


339 


rered  in  company  with  ordinary  spear-heads  ;  and  from  this 
and  the  size  and  character  of  the  ferrules,  the  inference  has, 
much  probability,  been  drawn  that  they  served  to  tip  the  lower 
of  the  shafts  of  spears  and  lances. 

le  illustrations  given  in  Figs.  423  and  424  will  serve  to  show 
sual  character  of  these  objects.  They  vary  in  length  from 
t  16  inches  down  to  8  inches,  and  are 
b  f  inch  or  less  in  diameter.  They  are 
Qade  from  a  flat  piece  of  metal  turned 

but  are  cast  in  one  piece,  having  been 

carefully  "cored."  The  metal,  espe- 
'  near  the  mouth,  is  very  thin,  and  there 
ually  a  small  hole  nearer  this  end  than 
►ther  to  allow  of  a  pin  or  rivet  being 
ted  to  keep  the  ferrule  on  the  shaft. 

9    original   of   Fiff.   423   (8^   inches^  was 
[  with   spear-heads   and  other  articles  at 
Bham,   near  Lincoln,   and  is  now   in  the 
»h  Museum.* 
e  14   inches  long,  bluntly  pointed  at  the 

was  foimd  in  the  Thames,  near  London, 
is  now  in  the  British  Museiun.  It  has  a 
m  of  the  wooden  shaft  inside,  which  ap- 

to  be  of  beech.  The  hole  for  the  pin  is 
visible  in  the  wood,  but  the  pin  has 
led.  It  may  have  been  made  of  horn. 
;.  424  is  on  the  scale  of  one-fourth,  the 
lal  being  14  inches  long.  It  was  found 
eleven  others,  varying  in  length  from  10 

inches,  and  with  spear-heads  and  other 
es,  at  Guilsfield,  Montgomeryshire. f 
other  ferrule  (9^  inches)  was  found,  with 
-heads,  socketed  celts,  &c.,  near  Notting- 

t 

iir  such  (about  7  inches)  were  found,  with 
•heads,  &c.,  at  Bloody  Pool,  South  3rent, 

ion  Greenwell  has  a  specimen  from  Antrim 

ches),  the  end  of  which  is  worn  obUquely,  as  if  by  trailing  on  the 

id.     It  has  a  single  rivet-hole. 

'ery  long  ferride  of  this  kind  (14^  inches),  but  with  a  small  disc  at 

Me,  is  in  the  Museun^  at  Nantes.     It  was  found  in  the  bed  of  the 


ii 


Fiff. 
!fettl( 


423. 


Nettleh&m.    \ 


Fiff.4M 
OuUflfi 


eld.    I 


rch.  Joum,f  vol.  zviii.  p.  160.    I  am  indebted  to  Mr.  Franks  for  the  nae  of  this 

•or.  Soc.  Ant.f  2nd  S.,  vol.  ii.  p.  250;  vol.  v.  p.  422 ;  Areh.  Camb.,  3rd  S.,  vol.  x. 

;  "  Montgom.  Coll.,"  vol.  iii.  p.  437. 

oc.  Soe,  Ant.,  2nd  S.,  voL  i.  p.  332.  {  Areh.  Joum.,  vol.  xii.  p.  84. 

z  2 


340  SPEAR-HEADS,   LANCE-HEADS,   ETC.  [CHAP.  XIT. 

A  shorter  form,  somewhat  expanding  towards  the  base,  is  shown  in 
Fig.  425.  This,  together  with  three  others,  none  more  than  4^  inches 
long,  was  found,  with  spear-heads,  &c.,  at  Pant-y-maen,  near  GlancjcL* 

In  the  Broad  ward  find  f  were  six  tubes,  varying  in  length  from  6  to 
2  inches,  of  which  one  only  was  of  this  type.  Some  were  bo  small  that 
the  diameter  did  not  exceed  J  inch. 

A  small  ferrule  of  this  kind  was  in  the  hoard  found  at  Bedding^n, 
near  Croydon,  |  and  part  of  one  in  that  of  Wickham  Park.  The  latter  is 
now  in  the  British  Museum. 

What  appears  to  bo  a  ferrule  of  this  kind,  but  more  widely  expazided 
at  the  end,  like  Fig.  425,  is  described  in  Gordon's  *'Itineranum  Septen- 
trionale  "  §  as  **  a  Koman  tuba,  or  trumpet." 

Another  of  these  expanded  ferrules  is  in  the  Museum  of  the  Cambridge 
Antiquarian  Society.  || 

In  the  Fulboum  find  ^  there  were  two  ferrules  expanding  at  the  base 
to  about  2  inches  in  diameter,  which  were  regarded  by  Dr.  Clarke  as 
having  been  the  feet  of  two  spears.  He  points  out  that  similar  feet  for 
spears  may  be  seen  represented  on  Greek  vases.**  The  ovpia)^  or 
a-avpomip  of  Homer  ff  appears  to  have  been  more  susceptible  of  oeing 
driven  into  the  ground.  This  point  at  the  base  was  sometimes  used  for 
fighting  when  the  spear-head  proper  was  broken. 

Among  the  African  tribes  on  the  shores  of  the  Gambia,  the  spears,  as 
Mr.  Syer  Cuming  JJ  has  pointed  out,  have  a  chisel-  or  celt-like  ferrule  at 
the  base  of  their  shafts ;  and  this  fashion  extends  all  across  Africa  to 
Madagascar,  §§  and  recurs  in  Borneo. 

Some  Danish  ferrules  ||||  present  the  same  peculiarity  of  being  chisel- 
like at  the  base. 

Another  form,  more  spherical  at  the  base,  is  shown  in  Fig.  427,  copied 
from  the  Archmohgical  Journal.^^  The  original,  with  several  others,  was 
found  at  St.  Margaret's  Park,  Hereford.  The  socket  tapers  to  a  point 
1^  inches  from  the  extremity. 

A  nearly  similar  ferrule,  but  with  a  slight  cylindrical  projection  beyond  the 
spherical  part,  was  found  with  other  bronze  objects  at  Lanant,  Cornwall.*** 
A  kind  of  pointed  ferrule  of  a  nearly  square  section,  with  the  faces 
hollowed,  wliich  was  found  near  Windsor,  ftt  and  is  now  in  the  British 
Museum,  not  improbably  belongs  to  a  later  date  than  the  Bronze  Period. 

In  the  Museimi  of  the  Royal  Irish  Academy  are  several  ferrules, 
apparently  for  the  end  of  spear  shafts,  some  of  which  are  said  to  have  been 
found  with  spear-heads.  Many  of  these  have  ornaments  of  a  late  Celtic  JJ J 
character  upon  them.  Others  §§§  appear  to  have  been  made  from  plates 
turned  over  and  soldered,  and  not  to  nave  been  cast  hollow.  Both  of  these 
kinds  are  of  more  recent  date  than  the  Bronze  Age. 

*  Arch.  Camb.,  3rd  S.,  vol.  x.  p.  221.  f  Tbid.,  4th  S.,  vol.  iii.  p.  353. 

I  Anderson's  *'  Croydon  rrch.  and  Itom.,"  p.  11,  pi.  iii.  6. 

^  P.  116,  pi.  1.  7.  II    Arc/i.  Journ.^  vol.  xii.  p.  96. 

H  Arch.^  vol.  xix.  p.  66,  pi.  iv.  10.  11 ;  Skolton's  **  Meyrick's  Anc.  Arni.,"  pi.  xlvii.  12. 

*♦  Arch,  ubi  sup.,  *'  Millin,  Peinturcs  de  Vases,"  tome  ii.  p.  25. 

ft  *'  Iliad./'  lib.  x.  153  ;  lib.  xiii.  443.  Jcc. 

XX  Arch.  Aitsoc.  Jonrn.y  vol.  xv.  p.  235.         §}  "  Preh.  Cong.,"  Norwich  vol.,  p.  77. 

nil  Worsaao,  "Nord.  Olds.,"  fig.  191 ;  "Atlas  for  Nord.  Old.,"  pi.  B  1,  22,  23. 

11^  Vol.  xi.  p.  55.  *♦•  Arch.f  vol.  xv.  p.  118. 

ttt  Arch.,  vol.  V.  pi.  viii.  16. 

XXX  Wilde,  "  Catal.  Mus.  R.  J.  A.,"  figs.  390,  391.  ^  Op.  cit.,  p.  517. 


CONTINENTAL    TYPES. 


341 


Taperinff  f errulee  of  bronze  occur  in  Itftly,  and  a  pointed  iron  ferrule, 
probably  belonging  to  a  barbed  jarelin  of  Boman  age,  was  found  in 
the  river  Witham,  near  Lincoln.* 

A  ferrule,  about  3  inches  long,  with  parallel  lines  engraved  round  it,  ia 
in  the  Museum  at  Clermont  Ferrand.  Another,  more  conical,  is  in  that 
of  Narbonne.f  Some  with  expanded  button-like  ends  have  been  found 
in  the  Lake-dwellings  of  Savoy.  Several  ferrules,  some  of  them  very 
short,  were  found  with  bronze  spoar-heade  at  Alise  Ste.  Beine  (Cute  d'Or).} 


Fig.  US.— Oluercta.    i         Fig.  4sg.— Fulbonm.    )  Fig.  437.—lientoii.    { 


Others,  some  of  them  ornamented,  formed  part  of  the  great  Bologna 
hoard. 

A  ferrule  was  found  with  a  bronze  spear-head,  between  23  and  24 
inches  long,  in  the  Alban  Necropolis,  and  is  figured  in  the  Archaoloffia.^ 
Padre  Oarrucci  regards  this  spear  as  neither  Greek,  nor  Etruscan,  nor 
Latin,  but  Celtic. 

Although  the  simple  leaf-shaped  spear-headufrom  the  British  Isles 
present  close  analogies  with  those  from  the  other  parts  of  Europe, 
yet  for  the  most  part  those  of  the  other  types,  with  loops  to  the 
sockets,  with  openings  in  the  blade,  or  of  the  barbed  class  last 
described,  present  peculiarities  of  their  own.  Several  of  thesu 
types  appear,  indeed,  to  have  been  evolved  in  Britain  or  in 
Ireland,  and  the  differences  they  exhibit  from  the  ordinary  conti- 
nental types  are  more  marked  than  in  any  other  class  of  bronze 
+  "  Matiriaux,"  vol.  v.  pi.  ii.  26. 


342  8PEAR-HSADS,   LANCE-HEADS,   ETC  [CHAP.  XIT 

weapons.  Though  loops  are  such  a  common  adjunct  to  the  socketed 
celts  of  other  countries,  yet  looped  palstaves  are  comparativdy 
rare  abroad.  At  the  same  time,  as  will  have  been  seen,  hardly  any 
examples  of  looped  spear-heads  from  foreign  countries  can  be  cited, 
while  in  Britain,  and  more  especially  in  Ireland,  they  are  yerr 
abundant.  This  fact,  in  whatever  way  it  is  to  be  accounted  for, 
affords  a  most  conclusive  argument  against  assigning  a  Roman 
origin  for  our  bronze  weapons ;  a  looped  spear-head,  so  far  as  1 
am  aware,  never  having  been  discovered  in  Italy,  and  but  very 
rarely  even  in  GauL  '  The  spear-heads  with  the  smaU  apertures 
in  the  blade  appear  also  to  be  of  an  indigenous  tjrpe. 

Some  of  the  iron  spear-heads  from  Hallstatt  and  elsewhere  baye 
been  made  in  imitation  of  those  in  bronze,  and  have  been  welded 
along  the  whole  length  of  their  sockets  in  a  manner  which  dis- 
plays the  highest  skill  in  the  smiths.  But,  unlike  the  iron 
palstaves  and  socketed  celts,  none  of  the  spear-heads  are  provided 
with  a  loop.  In  later  times  the  sockets  of  the  iron  spear-heads 
were  left  with  an  open  slit  along  them,  a  method  of  manu&cture 
which  produced  an  equally  serviceable  weapon,  and  involved  &r 
less  troubla 

As  to  the  position  in  time  which  spear-heads  occupy  in  the 
Bronze  Age,  it  is  probable  that  it  is  towards  the  close  rather  than 
the  beginning  of  that  period.  Not  only  are  spear-heads  almost,  if 
not  quite,  absent  from  our  barrows,  but  the  skill  involved  in 
producing  implements  so  thin  and  so  truly  cored  could  only  have 
been  acquired  after  long  practice  in  casting.  The  objects  to  be 
considered  in  the  next  chapter  are  also  of  comparatively  late 
date. 


CHAPTER  XV. 

SHIELDS,    BUCKLERS,    AND   HELMETS. 

Having  now  described  the  various  weapons  of  offence  of  which 
in  early  times  bronze  formed  the  material,  it  will  be  well  to 
examine  the  arms  of  defence  fabricated  from  the  same  metal,  and 
presumably  of  the  same  or  nearly  the  same  age. 

The  shields  first  in  use  in   Britain  were  probably  formed  of 

perishable  materials,  such  as  wicker-work,  wood,  or  hide,  like  those 

of  many  savage  tribes  of  the  present  day  ;  and  it  can  only  have 

been  after  a  long  acquaintance  with  the  use  of  bronze  that  plates 

could  have  been  produced  of  such  size  as  those  with  which  some 

of  the  ancient  shields  and  bucklers  found  in  this  country  were 

covered.     They  would  appear,  therefore,  to  belong  to  quite  the 

close  of  the  Bronze  Age,  if  not  to  the  transitional  period  when  iron 

was  coming  into  use.     There  are,  indeed,  several  bronze  coverings 

of  shields  of  elongated  form,  such  as  those  from  the  river  Witham* 

and  from  the  Thames,!  with  decorations  upon  them,  in  which  red 

enamel  plays  a  part,  that  have  been  found  associated  with  the 

iron  swords  of  what  Mr.  Franks  has  termed  the  Late  Celtic  Period. 

Those,  however,  which  appear  to  have  a  better  claim  to  a  place  in 

these  pages  are  of  a  circular  form. 

That  which  I  have  shown  in  Fig.  428  is  now  in  the  British 
Museum,  and  has  already  been  figured  in  the  Archceologia^t  and 
described  by  Mr.  Gage.  It  was  dredged  up  from  what  appears  to 
kave  been  the  ancient  bed  of  the  river  Isis,  near  Little  Witten- 
kam,  Berks,  not  far  from  the  Dyke  Hills,  near  Dorchester,  Oxon. 
It  is  about  13i  inches  diameter,  not  quite  circular  in  form,  though 

•  "HoraB  Fer.,"  pi.  xiv. ;  Arch.,  voL  xxiii.  p.  97;  Proe.  Soc.  Ant.,  voL  iv.  p.  144; 
Skelton'B  **  Meyrick's  Anc.  Ann.,"  pi.  xlvii.  7. 

t  "  HorsB  Fer.,"  pi.  xv. ;  Arch.  Amoc.  Journ.^  vol.  xiv.  p.  330. 

1  Vol.  xxvii.  pi.  xxii.  p.  298;  "The  Barrow  Diggers,'*  pi.  ii.  1,  p.  73;  Worsaae, 
**  rrim.  Ant.  of  Denm./'  £ng.  ed.,  p.  32.  I  am  indebted  to  Messrs.  James  Parker  &  Ck). 
for  the  use  of  this  block. 


344 


!JIIIEI.I)S,    mCKLEKS,   AKl)   HBLUBTS. 


[chap.  I 


probably  intended  so  to  be.  The  nused  bosses  hare  all  beeo 
wrought  in  the  metal  with  the  exception  of  four,  two  of  vhicb 
form  the  rivets  for  the  handle  across  the  umbo,  and  two  othen 
serve  fts  the  rivets  or  pivots  for  two  small  strajjs  or  buttons  rf 
bronze  on  the  inner  side  of  the  buckler.  Such  buttons  occur  on 
several  other  examples,  but  it  is  ditHcult  to  determine  the  exact 
pnr])osc  which  they  served.  Front  the  jiaius  btkeii  in  this  instance 
to  eoncenl  tlie  heads  of  these  pivots  on  the  outside,  by  makiDg 
them  take  the  form  and  plaec  of  bosses,  it  would  appear  that  they 
were  necessary  adjuncts  of  the  shield,  and  ^tossibly  in  some  way 
connected  with  a  lining  for  it.     Such  a  lining  can  hardly  have 


Ftg.iiS.- 


been  of  wood,  or  many  rivet  or  pin  holes  would  have  been  neccssnry 
fur  sccunug  the  metal  to  it.  It  may  be  that  a  lining  of  hide  was 
moulded  while  wet  to  the  form  of  the  shiekl,  and  that  these 
buttons  served  to  keep  it  in  place  when  dry.  In  one  case  "  it  is 
said  that  some  tilirous  particles  resembling  leather  stiU  remain 
attached  to  the  inside  of  tlic  shield.  In  general  the  metal  is  so 
thin  tliat  without  some  lining  these  bncklers  would  Iiavc  afiorded 
but  a  poor  defence  against  the  stroke  of  a  sword,  spc-ar,  or  arrow. 
In  tlii.s  Little  Wittenham  example,  and  possibly  in  some  others,  it 
is  probable  that  the  shield  itself  was  larger  than  the  bronze  plate. 
Anntlier  view  is  that  these  buttons  fjistened  a  strap  for  carrying 
the  shii'kl  when  either  in  or  out  of  use. 


I.  li.  U.  and  A.  Ainoc.  of  Ireland,  1th  S.,  V. 


■.  ]'.  188. 


SHIELDS   WITH    CONCENTKIC    I 


340 


Anotlier  buckler,  in  Lord  Londosborough'a  eoUection,  14  indies  in 
diameter,  witli  two  ciruIeB  of  siuall  bosses  divided  by  a  raised  band. 
is  stated  to  have  been  found  with  a  large  bronze  speor-head  at  Athenry,* 
Co.  Galway.  Two  of  the  bosses  of  ths  inner  circle  are  the  heads  of 
riveta  for  securing  the  handle.  A  much  smaller  buckler,  or  centre  of 
a  buckler,  only  9J  inches  Jn  diameter  (also  with  two  rings  of  boaaes), 
presumably  found  in  the  Iais,f  near  Eynsham  Bridge,  is  in  the  Museum 
of  the  Sociely  of  Antiquarios,  It  has  a  slightly  conical  boss,  surrounded 
by  a  circle  of  smaller  bosses  between  two  raised  ribs.  There  is  ako  a 
raised  rib  round  the  margin  formed  by  turning  over  the  metal  towards 
the  outer  face.  In  the  outer  ring  of  bosses  two  are  missing  at  the  places 
where,  no  doubt,  were  formerly  the  rivets  of  the  buttons  or  loops. 

A  shield  in  the  British  Museum  (21  inches),  found  in  the  Thames,  has 
four  rows  of  bosses,  about  an  inch  in  diameter,  and  the  same  number  of 


Fig.  4S».— B«il«ch. 

raised  rings.  The  inner  set  of  bosses  abuts  on  the  umbo.  There  is  a 
mai^nal  rim  about  an  inch  beyond  the  outer  ring.  This  shield  a)>pearB 
to  have  had  two  buttons,  which  as  usual  are  nearly  in  a  line  with  one 
of  the  rirets  which  fasten  the  handle.  One  of  these  loops  remains  secured 
by  a  large-headed  rivet  matching  the  bosses.  There  is  at  least  one  hole 
through  the  shield  which  may  have  resulted  from  a  spear  thrust. 

The  rivets  which  secure  the  handle  have  heads  made  in  imitation  of 

la  some  the  decoration  consists  of  a  series  of  concentric  ribs  or  beads, 
as  in  that  found  in  a  peat  moss  near  Ilarlech,^  which  is  shown  in  Fig. 
439.      Its  diameter  is  22  inches.      The  heads  of  the  four  rivets  for 

•  "Horn  Fct.,"  p.  167,  pi.  xi.  1 ;  Arch.  Journ.,  vol.  liii.  p.  187. 

t  Op.  eit.,  p.  167.  pi.  li.  3 ;  "  Catal.  of  AnU.,  &c.,  of  the  boc.  Ant.,"  p.  17. 

XAn/t-Jaurn.,  ti^  viLp.  77,  whence  the  cut  u  copied ;  "Hor.  Far.,"  p.  167,  pi-  xi.  f. 


346 


SHIELDS,    BUCKLERS,    AND   HELMUTS. 


[chap.  XV. 


holdins  the  handle  and  the  two  buttons  are  in  this  esse  visible  in  tha 

spaces  Detivc*  II  the  ribs. 

Another  of  the  »ame  pattern  was  discovered  in  eompasy  irith  tiist 

shown  in  Fig.  430,  iu  Coveney  Fen,*  near  Ely,  and  is  now  in  the  Huseun 

of  the  Cambridge  Antiquarian  Society.     The  metal  of  which  it  is  fbimed 

has  been  found  on  analj-His  to  contain — 

Copper 87-55 

Tin 11-72 

Nickel 0-40 

99-67 
The  prcsenco  of  the  nickel  is  probably  duo  to  impurities  in  the  ore  from 
whicn  tlio  copper  was  extractinl. 


The  second  Coveney  shield  is  shown  in  Fig.  430. |  The  ornament  in 
this  instance  is  of  a  very  peculiar  eliaraeter,  and  appears  to  represent 
two  snakes,  one  long  and  the  other  short,  twisted  about  into  a  sj'mmetrical 
pattern.  They  are  of  the  ampAub^naWnd,  with  a  head  at  each  end.  Tlie 
two  outermost  ribs,  one  of  thorn  at  the  margin,  are  continuous.  Tlie 
rivets  for  holding  tho  handle  are  visible,  as  are  also  tliree  on  either  side 
cunniicted  with  the  inner  buttons,  that  in  this  case  have  been  regarded  as 


t  Coijii'U  from  Pail.  Cami.  Aiit 


i.  Mi» 


SHIELDS    WITH   CONCEHTBIC    RINGS  OF    1 


347 


loopa  by  which  the  ahield  was  euapended.  The  buttons  have  a  small 
hole  through  them,  as  will  be  seen  by  Fig. 
431.  la  front  of  each  ia  a  pair  of  Bmall  coni- 
cal studs,  oF  which  the  purpose  can  now 
hardly  be  determined.  Mi.  Qoodwin  thought 
that  they  might  be  intended  to  prevent  a 
thon^  which  passed  beneath  the  buttons  from 
slippmg  away  from  them. 

The  type  of  shield,  of  which  the  largest  ^'  "'-c™-»^    t 

Ditmtier  Iios  been  foimd   in   the  British   Isles,   is  that  having 


348  EIIIEUIS,    ItUCKLERS,    AND    UELUKTS.  [cBAP.  XT. 

series  of  conceDtric  riDgs,  from  about  twelve  to  thirty  in  numbtf, 
and  between  them  circles  of  small  stuilf. 


A  very  fine  example  of  this  kind  uf  ehjeld  is  preserved  ia  the] 
of  the  Society  uf  AntiquarioH  of  London.*  and  is  shown  on  the  Kileitf 
one-aixtli,  togt'ther  witii  some  of  its  details  on  a,  larger  scale,  in  Figs.  4Si, 


FlE-U^k-Bcitli.       I 


43.1,  and  431,  for  the  use  of  which  I  am  indi-hted  to  the  Council  of  thcAjT- 
ahirt'  and  AVigtonsliiro  Arthteologic-al  Aesoi'iatiou-t 

A  figure  of  the  sliifld  has  been  ^ven  by  Profossor  Danit-l  Wilson. + 
but  the  illustratiiius  hero  given  will  convey  a  niutli  more  accurate 
imnreMsion  of  its  diiiracter  and  details. 

Though  there  is  bdiiik  diwrcpancy  as  to  incnsurement,  there  is  little 
doubt  that  this  ia  the  sliield  found  about  tlu'  yfur  1 780  in  a  pi*t  moss  on 
II  farm  called  Lujjgtonrigge.  in  the  )Miri!*li  of  lietth,  Ayrshire,  and  pre- 
sented to  the  Soiiiiy  of  Antiquaries  by  I'r,  IVrris.g  who  was  informed 


'  vol.  i.  II.  fiO.  * 


i!  (IcaLTiUid  thii  bMl-IiI. 


I  ••  Uinutu  Ituok  i>f  tjuc  Aut.," 


SHIELDS    FOUND    IN    SCOTLAND.  349 

that  four  or  five  others  of  the  same  kind  w^re  diecorered  at  the  eame 
time.  A  portion  of  the  jnargiu  of  the  shield  is  shown  of  the  full  size  in 
Fig.  433,  and  the  handle  across  the  inner  side  of  the  boss  on  the  scale  of 
one-half  in  Fig.  434.  These  figures  give  so  complete  an  idea  of  the 
original  that  it  seems  needless  to  enter  into  further  details.  It  is,  how- 
ever, well  to  call  attention  to  the  fact  that  the  handle  of  the  buckler, 
which  ia  made  from  a  fiat  piece  of  bronze,  is  rendered  more  convenient  to 
grasp,  and  at  the  same  time  strengthened,  b;  its  sides  being  doubled 
over,  and  thus  made  to  present  a  rounded  edge.  It  is  secured  to  the 
shield  by  a  rivet  at  each  end.  About  midwa;  between  the  edge  of  the 
umbo  and  that  of  the  shield,  but  placed  so  that  one  of  the  rivets  of  the 
handle  is  in  the  same  line  and  midway  between  them,  have  been  two 
rivets,  each  fastening  a  short  button  like  those  on  the  Coveney  Feu  shield, 
of  which  at  present  only  one  remains.  The  rivot-hole  for  the  other  has 
been  dosed  by  a  short  rivet. 


Fig.  IM,— Beith. 


Other  shields,  almost  identical  in  character,  have  likewise  been  found 
in  Scotland,  one  of  which,  by  the  kindness  of  the  Council  of  the  Society 
of  Antiquaries  of  Scotland,  is  shown  in  Fig.  435,  on  the  scale  of  one-sixth. 
A  portion  of  the  margin  is  shown  full  size  in  Fig.  436,  and  the  interior 
of  the  umbo  in  Fig.  437,  on  the  scale  of  one-fourth.  Itwas found  in  1837, 
together  with  another,  in  a  marshy  field  near  Yetholm,  Boxburghshire. 
These  shields  have  been  described  in  a  paper  by  the  late  Mr.  W.  T. 
MOulloch,*  of  some  of  whose  references  I  have  here  made  use. 

One  of  these  Tethohn  shields  is  23^  inches  in  diameter,  and  has  thirty 
concentric  rings  of  convex  knobs  alternating  with  projecting  circular 
ribs  or  beads  ;  the  other  measures  24  inches  across,  and  has  twenty-four 
rings  of  both  knobs  and  ribs.  In  the  centre  of  each  ia  a  hollow  circular 
umoo  4  inches  in  diameter,  with  a  handle  riveted  across  it. 

Another  shield  of  the  same  character  was  found  at  Yetholm  f  in  1870, 
near  the  place  where  the  two  others  were  discovered.     It  is  22J  inches  in 

•  Proc.  Sac.  Ant.  Srvl.,  vol.  v,   p.   165.     Sco  also  Tr.   R.   Uiit.   omf  Arch.   Ante,  of 
Ireland,  <th  8.,  vol,  iv.  p.  487. 
t  /Vue.  See.  Ant.  Scot.,  vol.  riii.  p.  3S3. 


SHIELDS,    BUCKLERS,    AND    HBI.METB.  [cBAF.  IV. 


diameter,  with  twenty-nine  concentric  nngs  alternating  with  tlie  oiul 
Btnall  knobs.     The  hoaa  in  S^  inches  in  diameter 


SHIELDS  FOUND   IN   ENGLAND   AND   WALES.  351 

At  the  bcLck  of  each  of  these  shields,  about  midway  between  the  centre 
and  the  rim,  are  the  usual  small  movable  tongues  of  bronze,  which  have 
been  supposed  to  serve  for  the  attachment  of  a  leather  strap  by  which  the 
shield  might  be  slung  round  the  body.  Mr.  Jeffrey,  F.S.A.  Scotland,  of 
Jedburgh,  who  described  this  third  shield,  has  pointed  out  that  there  is 
too  little  room  beneath  the  tongues  for  a  strap  of  any  kind. 

So  far  as  at  present  known  these  are  the  only  instances  of  bucklers 
of  this  kind  having  been  discovered  in  Scotland. 

In  England  and  Wales  several  such  have  been  found.  One  was  in  the 
Meyriok  Collection*  at  Goodrich  Court,  and  is  now  in  the  British 
Museum.  It  is  about  26^  inches  in  diameter,  with  twenty  concentric 
circles  of  knobs  and  ribs  between,  and  is  in  all  respects  like  those  just 
deeoribed.  It  was  found  about  1804  in  a  turbary  near  Aberystwith, 
Cardiganahire.     It  has  had  the  usual  buttons,  one  of  which  remains. 

Another  example  f  of  the  kind  (25^  inches),  with  twenty-seven  con- 
centric ring^,  was  also  in  the  Meyrick  Collection,  and  is  now  in  the 
Britiah  Museimi.  It  was  found  in  a  peat  moss  at  Moel  Sinbod,  near 
Capel  Curig,  Carnarvonshire.  It  has  one  of  the  usual  loops  and  the 
riyet  of  the  other.  Sir  Samuel  Meyrick  had  heard  of  another  shield, 
duff  up  near  Newcastle-on-Tyne,  which  the  owner,  wishing  to  gratify 
all  nifl  friends,  cut  up  like  a  cake,  and  sent  to  each  a  slice.  This  may  be 
the  shield  found  at  Broomyholmo,  Chester-le-Street,  Durham,  of  which 
a  fragment  is  in  the  Museum  of  the  Society  of  Antiquaries  of  Newcastle- 
on-Tyne. 

Another  now  in  the  possession  of  Sir  Edward  Blackett,  Bart.,  was 
foimd  near  Corbridge,  Northumberland. 

Fragments  t  of  two  other  shields  of  the  same  character  were  also 
found  m  Northumberland,  at  Ingoe,  in  the  parish  of  Stamfordham,  about 
two  miles  north  of  the  Eoman  w^.  They  were  originally  about  20  inches 
in  diameter,  and  like  so  many  others  were  discovered  during  draining 
operations. 

Another  buckler  of  the  same  character  was  found  in  the  Thames  §  at 
London,  and  passed  into  the  British  Museum  with  the  Hoach  Smith 
Collection.  This  specimen  is  21 J  inches  in  diameter,  and  has  eleven  rings 
of  the  small  bosses  upon  it  separated  by  concentric  ribs.  A  curious 
feature  in  this  shield  is  that  the  places  to  which  the  usual  little  buttons 
were  attached  have  been  neatly  cut  out,  leaving  triangular  holes.  There 
is  also  a  third  hole  of  the  same  kind.  In  one  place  also  there  is  a  hole 
through  the  shield,  such  as  might  have  been  produced  by  the  thrust  of 
a  bronze  spear.  Close  by  this  hole  is  a  clean  cut,  such  as  might  have 
been  made  by  a  sword.  The  plate  of  bronze  has  been  turned  over  on  to 
the  iaeef  so  as  to  form  the  outer  rim. 

A  cinmlar  shield,  ||  with  twenty-six  concentric  rings  of  studs,  was  dredged 

3f  together  with  a  leaf -shaped  bronze  sword,  from  the  bed  of  the  Thames 
Woolwich  in  1830. 

A  thin  bronze  plate  from  the  Thames,  1 9  inches  in  diameter,  convex, 
and  with  small  knobs  round  the  margin,  is  in  the  Mayer  Collection  at 
lirerpool.     It  has  been  marked  with  the  hammer,  possibly  in  imitation 

*  Areh.y  voL  xziii.  p.  92;  "  Anc.  Arm.,"  by  Skelton,  vol.  i.  pi.  xlvii.  4. 
t  Areh,f  vol.  zxiii.  p.  95.  X  Arch.  Jwrn,,  vol.  x\'iii.  p.  167. 

§  "Hop.  Fer.,"  pi.  ix.  168 ;  C.  Roach  Smith,  "Catul.  of  Lond.  Ant.,"  p.  80, 
I  C.  Boach  Smith,  ubi  tup. 


352  SHIELDS,    BUCKLERS,    AND   HELMETS.  [cHAP.  XV. 

of  basket-work,  and  has  been  mended  in  one  place  in  ancient  times.    It 
may  be  the  bottom  of  a  caldron,  and  not  a  shield. 

Another  buckler,  26  inches  in  diameter,  having  twelve  concentric  raised 
rings  with  the  usual  knobs  between  them,  is  also  said  to  have  been  found 
in  the  Thames*  between  Hampton  and  Walton,  in  September,  1864. 

In  draining  a  meadow  at  Baglcy,t  about  five  miles  from  Ellesmere,  in 
Shropshire,  another  of  these  circular  bucklers  was  found.  This  is  23 
inclies  in  diameter,  with  an  imibo  of  4  inches,  €ind  has  twenty-six  con- 
centric circles,  with  the  same  rings  of  knobs  between  them  as  on  the 
other  examples.  It  has  tlio  iisual  holes  for  the  rivets  of  the  small  buttons. 

Another,  found  on  Burringham  Common,  J  Lincolnshire,  in  1843,  is 
26  inches  in  diameter,  with  an  umbo  of  4|  inches,  and  only  nineteoi 
concentric  circles  with  intermediate  rings  of  knobs.  The  boss  of  this 
shield  is  conical  rather  than  hemispherical.  It  is  now  in  the  Museum  of 
the  Koyal  Irish  Academy.  A  shield  of  this  kind  20^  inches  in  diameter, 
having  thirteen  concentric  circles  of  small  bosses  and  raised  rings  be- 
tween, was  found  at  Sutton  St.  MichaeFs,  Norfolk. § 

In  the  collection  of  Canon  Greenwell  is  the  bronze  boss  of  a  shield 
nearly  5  inches  in  diameter,  probably  intended  for  the  centre  of  a  wooden 
buckler.  It  has  three  small  holes  for  nails  or  rivets  in  the  rim.  In  one 
place  there  is  a  square  hole,  apparently  made  by  a  thrust  from  a  spear. 
This  boss  was  found  at  ITarwood,  Northumberland. 

Shields  like  Fig.  435,  with  several  concentric  rings  alternating  with 
small  knobs,  are  rare,  but  by  no  means  imknown  in  Ireland.  One  (27i 
inches  in  diameter)  was  found  in  a  bog  near  Ballynamona,||  Co.  Limerick, 
and  has  been  figured.  As  usual,  it  has  the  two  movable  loops  or  buttons 
at  the  back.  There  is  a  little  patch  of  bronze  over  a  small  irregular 
hole  in  the  shield,  such  as  an  arrow  or  a  javelin  would  make.  It  is 
soldered  on  with  a  metal  which  is  stated  to  be  bronze,  but  which  I 
imagine  must  be  some  more  fusible  alloy  of  copper.  This  shield  is  now 
in  the  Museum  of  the  Eoyal  Irish  Academy,  and  in  their  Proceedings  ^  is 
stated  to  have  been  found  in  Lough  Gur,  Co.  Limerick,  but  this  must 
be  an  error. 

The  central  portion  of  a  bronze  shield,  including  the  umbo,  was  found 
at  Toome  Bar,  Lough  Neagh,  and  is  now  in  the  collection  of  Mr. 
William  Gray,  of  Belfast. 

A  somewhat  doubtful  instance  has  been  recorded  of  the  remains  of  a 
bronze  shield  having  been  found  with  an  interment  in  a  barrow.  Sir  E. 
Colt  Hoare,  in  his  examination  of  the  Bush  Barrow,  Norman  ton,**  found 
a  skeleton  lying  from  S.  to  N.,  and  about  eighteen  inches  S.  of  the 
head  "  several  brass  rivets  intermixed  with  wood,  and  some  thin  bits  of 
brass  nearly  decomposed.  Those  articles  covered  a  space  of  twelve  inches 
or  more ;  it  is  probable,  therefore,  that  they  are  the  mouldered  remains 
of  a  shield.'*  Near  the  slioulders  lay  a  flanged  bronze  celt  like  Fig.  9. 
A  large  dagger  of  bronze,  and  what  Sir  Eichard  calls  a  spear-head  of  the 
same  metal,  but  which  was  probably  a  dagger,  the  inlaid  hilt  (Fig.  289}. 

•  Pror.  Soc.  Attt.y  2iid  S.,  vol.  iii.  p.  518;  v.  p.  363  ;  Gent.  Mag.,  Doc,  1866,  p.  771. 

t  Prnc.  Soc.  Ant.,  2iid  8.,  vol.  iii.  p.  200. 

X  Arch.  Assoc.  ,7ouru.,  vol.  iv.  p.  395;  Froc.  Soc.  Ant..  2nd  S.,  vol.  iii.  p.  200;  Proc. 
Rot/.  Irixh  Acad.,  1874,  p.  277.  §  Arch.  Assoc.  Jnur.,  vol.  xxx\-i.  p.  165. 

IJ  Journ.  Royal  Hist,  and  Arch.  Assoc,  of  Ireland,  4th  S.,  vol.  ii.  p.  118,  and  vol.  iv. 
p.  487.     ^QQArch.,  vol.  xliii.  p.  480. 

f  Vol.  X.  p.  155.  ♦*  "  Anc.  Wilts,"  vol.  i.  p.  203. 


THE  DATE  OF  CIKCULAR  BUCKLERS.  353 

a  stone  hammer,  and  some  plates  of  gold  aooompanied  this  interment. 
It  ;s  much  to  be  regretted  that  more  is  not  known  of  the  real  character  of 
the  object  with  the  rivets,  but  their  presence  shows  that  it  could  not  have 
been  a  shield  such  as  those  here  described,  in  which  the  only  rivets  are 
those  securing  the  handle  and  the  movable  buttons. 

The  umbo  of  a  Late-Celtic  shield  was  among  the  objects  found  at  Polden 
Sill,*  Somersetshire. 

Some  wooden  bucklers  have  been  found  both  in  Scotland  f  and  Ireland, 
)at  it  is  hard  to  determine  their  a^. 

Mr.  Franks  X  has  already  remanced  that  bronze  shields  are  of  far  less 
ommon  occurrence  on  the  Continent  than  in  the  British  Isles.  He  dtes 
hree  from  the  Copenhagen  Museimi,§  one  of  which,  about  27  inches  in 
liameter,  has  five  concentric  ribs  round  the  boss  and  ten  sets  of  knobs ; 
hese,  however,  are  arrans^d  in  such  a  manner  as  to  leave  a  star  of  eight 
ays  of  smooth  metal  radiating  from  the  boss.  The  other  two  are  less 
ike  the  British  in  character.  A  fine  shield  in  the  Stockholm  Museum, 
dth  swan-like  figures  upon  it,  has  been  thought  to  have  been  imported 
rom  Italy.  II 

One  found  near  Bingen,  on  the  Khine,1I  about  15}  inches  in  diameter, 
las  merely  four  raised  concentric  ribs.  There  are  two  small  bowed 
landles  secured  with  two  rivets,  each  in  about  the  same  position  as  the 
usual  button.  They  seem  certainly  intended  for  a  strap  to  pass  through 
hem.  There  are,  however,  two  other  rivets  in  the  shield  to  which 
aovable  buttons  may  possibly  have  been  attached. 

The  Italian  shields  mentioned  by  Mr.  Franks  are  of  a  different  type. 
)ne  in  the  British  Museimi  (34  inches  in  diameter)  has  a  very  slight 
>o68,  and  is  ornamented  with  concentric  bands  of  sphinxes  and  omer 
iesigns. 

As  has  already  been  observed,  it  is  somewhat  hard  to  judge  of 
he  date  of  these  bucklers.  I  am  not  aware  of  any  portions  of 
hem  having  been  found  in  the  hoards  of  metal  in  which  fragments 
>f  swords  frequently  occur.  Still  in  the  case  of  the  shield  dredged 
ip  off  Woolwich  the  sword  which  accompanied  it  was  of  bronze, 
hough  of  course  there  is  no  evidence  of  the  two  having  been  lost 
>r  deposited  together.  The  whole  character,  however,  of  the 
ornamentation  and  workmanship  is,  I  think,  more  in  accordance 
nth  the  Bronze  Age  than  with  the  Late  Celtic  or  Early  Iron 
Period,  though  the  shields  probably  belong  to  the  close  of  the 
Bronze  Period. 

Circular  bucklers,  or  targets,  no  doubt  remained  in  use  until  a 
considerably  later  date,  but  it  seems  probable  that  some  other 
naterial  than  a  thin  plate  of  bronze  was  used  for  their  manufac- 


♦  Areh,j  vol.  xiv.  p.  90.  pL  xviii.  f  See  Areh,  Seat,,  vol.  v.  p.  217. 

t  u  Hor.  Fer.  '*  d.  166. 

j  Madaen,  " Aflnld.,"  voL  ii.  pi.  xvii. ;  "Atlas for  Nord.  Oldk.,"  pi.  B,  v.  ;  Worsaae 
"  Prim.  Ant.  of  Den.,"  Thorns'  ^ag.  ed.,  p.  31. 

Ckmg.  pr6h.,'*  Bologna  vol.,  p.  294. 

lundenachmit,  <' Alt.  n.  h.  Vorzeit,*'  vol.  i.  Heft  xi.  Taf.  1,  4,  and  5. 

A  A 


|"C 


354  SHIELDS,   BUCKLERS,   AND   HELMETS.  [CHAF.  XT. 

ture.  Professor  Daniel  Wilson*  remarks  that  on  the  gold  coins  of 
Tasciovanus,  Cunobeline,  and  others  of  our  native  rulers  contem- 
porary with  the  first  intercourse  with  Rome,  the  shields  borne  bj 
the  warriors  are  either  long  and  double-pointed,  or,  if  round,  laige 
and  disked,  and  of  very  different  construction  from  the  Luggton- 
rigge  shield.  On  one  coin  of  Cunobeline,  however  (Evans,  pL  xiL 
14),  the  horseman  bears  a  c